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1.
Ann Neurol ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human genomics established that pathogenic variation in diverse genes can underlie a single disorder. For example, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is associated with over 80 genes with frequently only few affected individuals described for each gene. Herein, we characterize a large cohort of individuals with biallelic variation in ENTPD1, a gene previously linked to spastic paraplegia 64 (MIM# 615683). METHODS: Individuals with biallelic ENTPD1 variants were recruited worldwide. Deep phenotyping and molecular characterizations were performed. RESULTS: A total of 27 individuals from 17 unrelated families were studied; additional phenotypic information was collected from published cases. Twelve novel pathogenic ENTPD1 variants are described: c.398_399delinsAA; p.(Gly133Glu), c.540del; p.(Thr181Leufs* 18), c.640del; p.(Gly216Glufs* 75), c.185T>G; p.(Leu62*), c.1531T>C; p.(*511Glnext* 100), c.967C>T; p.(Gln323*), c.414-2_414-1del, and c.146 A>G; p.(Tyr49Cys) including four recurrent variants c.1109T>A; p.(Leu370* ), c.574-6_574-3del, c.770_771del; p.(Gly257Glufs*18), and c.1041del; p.(Ile348Phefs*19). Shared disease traits include: childhood-onset, progressive spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability (ID), dysarthria, and white matter abnormalities. In vitro assays demonstrate that ENTPD1 expression and function are impaired and that c.574-6_574-3del causes exon skipping. Global metabolomics demonstrates ENTPD1 deficiency leads to impaired nucleotide, lipid, and energy metabolism. INTERPRETATION: The ENTPD1 locus trait consists of childhood disease-onset, ID, progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, dysmorphisms, and white matter abnormalities with some individuals showing neurocognitive regression. Investigation of an allelic series of ENTPD1: i) expands previously described features of ENTPD1-related neurological disease, ii) highlights the importance of genotype-driven deep phenotyping, iii) documents the need for global collaborative efforts to characterize rare AR disease traits, and iv) provides insights into the disease trait neurobiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344616

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is characterized by a triad of craniofacial dysmorphisms, disproportionate-limb short stature, and genital hypoplasia. A significant degree of phenotypic variability seems to correlate with different genes/loci. Disturbances of the noncanonical WNT-pathway have been identified as the main cause of the syndrome. Biallelic variants in ROR2 cause an autosomal recessive form of the syndrome with distinctive skeletal findings. Twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome were screened for variants in ROR2 using multiple molecular approaches. We identified 25 putatively pathogenic ROR2 variants, 16 novel, including single nucleotide variants and exonic deletions. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed that all subjects presented with a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, short nose, abnormality of the nasal tip, brachydactyly, mesomelic limb shortening, short stature, and genital hypoplasia in male patients. A total of 19 clinical features were present in more than 75% of the subjects, thus pointing to an overall uniformity of the phenotype. Disease-causing variants in ROR2, contribute to a clinically recognizable autosomal recessive​​​​​ trait phenotype with multiple skeletal defects. A comprehensive quantitative clinical evaluation of this cohort delineated the phenotypic spectrum of ROR2-related Robinow syndrome. The identification of exonic deletion variant alleles further supports the contention of a loss-of-function mechanism in the etiology of the syndrome.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332675

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2B (HSAN2B) is a rare autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy caused by biallelic variants in RETREG1 (formerly FAM134B). HSAN2B is characterized by sensory impairment resulting in skin ulcerations, amputations, and osteomyelitis as well as variable weakness, spasticity, and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report four affected individuals with recurrent osteomyelitis, ulceration, and amputation of hands and feet, sensory neuropathy, hyperhidrosis, urinary incontinence, and renal failure from a family without any known shared parental ancestry. Due to the history of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and microcytic anemia, a diagnosis of Majeed syndrome was considered; however, sequencing of LPIN2 was negative. Family-based exome sequencing (ES) revealed a novel homozygous ultrarare RETREG1 variant NM_001034850.2:c.321G>A;p.Trp107Ter. Electrophysiological studies of the proband demonstrated axonal sensorimotor neuropathy predominantly in the lower extremities. Consistent with the lack of shared ancestry, the coefficient of inbreeding calculated from ES data was low (F = 0.002), but absence of heterozygosity (AOH) analysis demonstrated a 7.2 Mb AOH block surrounding the variant consistent with a founder allele. Two of the four affected individuals had unexplained renal failure which has not been reported in HSAN2B cases to date. Therefore, this report describes a novel RETREG1 founder allele and suggests renal failure may be an unrecognized feature of the RETREG1-disease spectrum.

4.
HGG Adv ; 3(1): 100074, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047859

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with six genes that converge on the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway implicated (DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A). RS is characterized by skeletal dysplasia and distinctive facial and physical characteristics. To further explore the genetic heterogeneity, paralog contribution, and phenotypic variability of RS, we investigated a cohort of 22 individuals clinically diagnosed with RS from 18 unrelated families. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes associated with RS or RS phenocopies were identified in all 22 individuals, including the first variant to be reported in DVL2. We retrospectively collected medical records of 16 individuals from this cohort and extracted clinical descriptions from 52 previously published cases. We performed Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) based quantitative phenotypic analyses to dissect allele-specific phenotypic differences. Individuals with FZD2 variants clustered into two groups with demonstrable phenotypic differences between those with missense and truncating alleles. Probands with biallelic NXN variants clustered together with the majority of probands carrying DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3 variants, demonstrating no phenotypic distinction between the NXN-autosomal recessive and dominant forms of RS. While phenotypically similar diseases on the RS differential matched through HPO analysis, clustering using phenotype similarity score placed RS-associated phenotypes in a unique cluster containing WNT5A, FZD2, and ROR2 apart from non-RS-associated paralogs. Through human phenotype analyses of this RS cohort and OMIM clinical synopses of Mendelian disease, this study begins to tease apart specific biologic roles for non-canonical WNT-pathway proteins.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(2): 648-657, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761517

RESUMO

SMG8 (MIM *617315) is a regulatory subunit involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a cellular protective pathway that regulates mRNA transcription, transcript stability, and degrades transcripts containing premature stop codons. SMG8 binds SMG9 and SMG1 to form the SMG1C complex and inhibit the kinase activity of SMG1. Biallelic deleterious variants in SMG9 are known to cause a heart and brain malformation syndrome (HBMS; MIM #616920), whereas biallelic deleterious variants in SMG8 were recently described to cause a novel neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with dysmorphic facies and cataracts, now defined as Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome (ALKUS: MIM #619268). Only eight subjects from four families with ALKUS have been described to date. Through research reanalysis of a nondiagnostic clinical exome, we identified a subject from a fifth unrelated family with a homozygous deleterious variant in SMG8 and features consistent with ALKUS. Interestingly, the subject also had unilateral microphthalmia, a clinical feature that has been described in SMG9-related disorder. Our study expands the phenotypic spectrum of SMG8-related disorder, demonstrates an overlapping phenotype between SMG8- and SMG9-related rare disease traits, provides further evidence for the SMG8 and SMG9 protein interactions, and highlights the importance of revisiting nondiagnostic exome data to identify and affirm emerging novel genes for rare disease traits.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Alelos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(3): 735-750, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816580

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing and clinical genomics have demonstrated that substantial subsets of atypical and/or severe disease presentations result from multilocus pathogenic variation (MPV) causing blended phenotypes. In an infant with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, four distinct molecular diagnoses were found by exome sequencing (ES). The blended phenotype that includes brain malformation, dysmorphism, and hypotonia was dissected using the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). ES revealed variants in CAPN3 (c.259C > G:p.L87V), MUSK (c.1781C > T:p.A594V), NAV2 (c.1996G > A:p.G666R), and ZC4H2 (c.595A > C:p.N199H). CAPN3, MUSK, and ZC4H2 are established disease genes linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (OMIM# 253600), congenital myasthenia (OMIM# 616325), and Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WWS; OMIM# 314580), respectively. NAV2 is a retinoic-acid responsive novel disease gene candidate with biological roles in neurite outgrowth and cerebellar dysgenesis in mouse models. Using semantic similarity, we show that no gene identified by ES individually explains the proband phenotype, but rather the totality of the clinically observed disease is explained by the combination of disease-contributing effects of the identified genes. These data reveal that multilocus pathogenic variation can result in a blended phenotype with each gene affecting a different part of the nervous system and nervous system-muscle connection. We provide evidence from this n = 1 study that in patients with MPV and complex blended phenotypes resulting from multiple molecular diagnoses, quantitative HPO analysis can allow for dissection of phenotypic contribution of both established disease genes and novel disease gene candidates not yet proven to cause human disease.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Animais , Calpaína/genética , Egito , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Brain ; 145(3): 909-924, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605855

RESUMO

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily encompasses >400 transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, nutrients, ions, metals, neurotransmitters and metabolites across biological membranes. SLCs are highly expressed in the mammalian brain; defects in nearly 100 unique SLC-encoding genes (OMIM: https://www.omim.org) are associated with rare Mendelian disorders including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Exome sequencing and family-based rare variant analyses on a cohort with neurodevelopmental disorders identified two siblings with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and a shared deleterious homozygous splicing variant in SLC38A3. The gene encodes SNAT3, a sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter and a principal transporter of the amino acids asparagine, histidine, and glutamine, the latter being the precursor for the neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Additional subjects with a similar developmental and epileptic encephalopathy phenotype and biallelic predicted-damaging SLC38A3 variants were ascertained through GeneMatcher and collaborations with research and clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories. Untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed to identify novel metabolic biomarkers. Ten individuals from seven unrelated families from six different countries with deleterious biallelic variants in SLC38A3 were identified. Global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and absent speech were common features while microcephaly, epilepsy, and visual impairment were present in the majority. Epilepsy was drug-resistant in half. Metabolomic analysis revealed perturbations of glutamate, histidine, and nitrogen metabolism in plasma, urine, and CSF of selected subjects, potentially representing biomarkers of disease. Our data support the contention that SLC38A3 is a novel disease gene for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and illuminate the likely pathophysiology of the disease as perturbations in glutamine homeostasis.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Epilepsia , Aminoácidos , Animais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Ácido Glutâmico , Glutamina/genética , Histidina , Humanos , Mamíferos
8.
Genet Med ; 24(2): 364-373, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRG1/BRM-associated factor (BAF) complex is a chromatin remodeling complex that plays a critical role in gene regulation. Defects in the genes encoding BAF subunits lead to BAFopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with extensive locus and phenotypic heterogeneity. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 16,243 patients referred for clinical exome sequencing (ES) with a focus on the BAF complex. We applied a genotype-first approach, combining predicted genic constraints to propose candidate BAFopathy genes. RESULTS: We identified 127 patients carrying pathogenic variants, likely pathogenic variants, or de novo variants of unknown clinical significance in 11 known BAFopathy genes. Those include 34 patients molecularly diagnosed using ES reanalysis with new gene-disease evidence (n = 21) or variant reclassifications in known BAFopathy genes (n = 13). We also identified de novo or predicted loss-of-function variants in 4 candidate BAFopathy genes, including ACTL6A, BICRA (implicated in Coffin-Siris syndrome during this study), PBRM1, and SMARCC1. CONCLUSION: We report the mutational spectrum of BAFopathies in an ES cohort. A genotype-driven and pathway-based reanalysis of ES data identified new evidence for candidate genes involved in BAFopathies. Further mechanistic and phenotypic characterization of additional patients are warranted to confirm their roles in human disease and to delineate their associated phenotypic spectrums.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão , Micrognatismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Actinas/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Micrognatismo/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 104, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876591

RESUMO

The histone H3 variant H3.3, encoded by two genes H3-3A and H3-3B, can replace canonical isoforms H3.1 and H3.2. H3.3 is important in chromatin compaction, early embryonic development, and lineage commitment. The role of H3.3 in somatic cancers has been studied extensively, but its association with a congenital disorder has emerged just recently. Here we report eleven de novo missense variants and one de novo stop-loss variant in H3-3A (n = 6) and H3-3B (n = 6) from Baylor Genetics exome cohort (n = 11) and Matchmaker Exchange (n = 1), of which detailed phenotyping was conducted for 10 individuals (H3-3A = 4 and H3-3B = 6) that showed major phenotypes including global developmental delay, short stature, failure to thrive, dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, hypotonia, and visual impairment. Three variant constructs (p.R129H, p.M121I, and p.I52N) showed significant decrease in protein expression, while one variant (p.R41C) accumulated at greater levels than wild-type control. One H3.3 variant construct (p.R129H) was found to have stronger interaction with the chaperone death domain-associated protein 6.

10.
F1000Res ; 10: 246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621504

RESUMO

In October 2020, 62 scientists from nine nations worked together remotely in the Second Baylor College of Medicine & DNAnexus hackathon, focusing on different related topics on Structural Variation, Pan-genomes, and SARS-CoV-2 related research.   The overarching focus was to assess the current status of the field and identify the remaining challenges. Furthermore, how to combine the strengths of the different interests to drive research and method development forward. Over the four days, eight groups each designed and developed new open-source methods to improve the identification and analysis of variations among species, including humans and SARS-CoV-2. These included improvements in SV calling, genotyping, annotations and filtering. Together with advancements in benchmarking existing methods. Furthermore, groups focused on the diversity of SARS-CoV-2. Daily discussion summary and methods are available publicly at  https://github.com/collaborativebioinformatics provides valuable insights for both participants and the research community.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vertebrados
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1981-2005, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582790

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogenous; many such disorders are secondary to perturbation in brain development and/or function. The prevalence of NDDs is > 3%, resulting in significant sociocultural and economic challenges to society. With recent advances in family-based genomics, rare-variant analyses, and further exploration of the Clan Genomics hypothesis, there has been a logarithmic explosion in neurogenetic "disease-associated genes" molecular etiology and biology of NDDs; however, the majority of NDDs remain molecularly undiagnosed. We applied genome-wide screening technologies, including exome sequencing (ES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to identify the molecular etiology of 234 newly enrolled subjects and 20 previously unsolved Turkish NDD families. In 176 of the 234 studied families (75.2%), a plausible and genetically parsimonious molecular etiology was identified. Out of 176 solved families, deleterious variants were identified in 218 distinct genes, further documenting the enormous genetic heterogeneity and diverse perturbations in human biology underlying NDDs. We propose 86 candidate disease-trait-associated genes for an NDD phenotype. Importantly, on the basis of objective and internally established variant prioritization criteria, we identified 51 families (51/176 = 28.9%) with multilocus pathogenic variation (MPV), mostly driven by runs of homozygosity (ROHs) - reflecting genomic segments/haplotypes that are identical-by-descent. Furthermore, with the use of additional bioinformatic tools and expansion of ES to additional family members, we established a molecular diagnosis in 5 out of 20 families (25%) who remained undiagnosed in our previously studied NDD cohort emanating from Turkey.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Genet ; 12: 708348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512724

RESUMO

Chromoanagenesis is a descriptive term that encompasses classes of catastrophic mutagenic processes that generate localized and complex chromosome rearrangements in both somatic and germline genomes. Herein, we describe a 5-year-old female presenting with a constellation of clinical features consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome 1 (CSS1). Initial G-banded karyotyping detected a 90-Mb pericentric and a 47-Mb paracentric inversion on a single chromosome. Subsequent analysis of short-read whole-genome sequencing data and genomic optical mapping revealed additional inversions, all clustered on chromosome 6, one of them disrupting ARID1B for which haploinsufficiency leads to the CSS1 disease trait (MIM:135900). The aggregate structural variant data show that the resolved, the resolved derivative chromosome architecture presents four de novo inversions, one pericentric and three paracentric, involving six breakpoint junctions in what appears to be a shuffling of genomic material on this chromosome. Each junction was resolved to nucleotide-level resolution with mutational signatures suggestive of non-homologous end joining. The disruption of the gene ARID1B is shown to occur between the fourth and fifth exon of the canonical transcript with subsequent qPCR studies confirming a decrease in ARID1B expression in the patient versus healthy controls. Deciphering the underlying genomic architecture of chromosomal rearrangements and complex structural variants may require multiple technologies and can be critical to elucidating the molecular etiology of a patient's clinical phenotype or resolving unsolved Mendelian disease cases.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(10): 2052-2058, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524739

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized rare disease management, yet only ~25%-30% of patients receive a molecular diagnosis. A limiting factor is the quality of available phenotypic data. Here, we describe how deep clinicopathological phenotyping yielded a molecular diagnosis for a 19-year-old proband with muscular dystrophy and negative clinical ES. Deep phenotypic analysis identified two critical data points: (1) the absence of emerin protein in muscle biopsy and (2) clinical features consistent with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Sequencing data analysis uncovered an ultra-rare, intronic variant in EMD, the gene encoding emerin. The variant, NM_000117.3: c.188-6A > G, is predicted to impact splicing by in silico tools. This case thus illustrates how better integration of clinicopathologic data into ES analysis can enhance diagnostic yield with implications for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Emery-Dreifuss/diagnóstico , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Emery-Dreifuss/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Emery-Dreifuss/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genet Med ; 23(12): 2455-2460, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Alternative splicing plays a critical role in mouse neurodevelopment, regulating neurogenesis, cortical lamination, and synaptogenesis, yet few human neurodevelopmental disorders are known to result from pathogenic variation in splicing regulator genes. Nuclear Speckle Splicing Regulator Protein 1 (NSRP1) is a ubiquitously expressed splicing regulator not known to underlie a Mendelian disorder. METHODS: Exome sequencing and rare variant family-based genomics was performed as a part of the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics Initiative. Additional families were identified via GeneMatcher. RESULTS: We identified six patients from three unrelated families with homozygous loss-of-function variants in NSRP1. Clinical features include developmental delay, epilepsy, variable microcephaly (Z-scores -0.95 to -5.60), hypotonia, and spastic cerebral palsy. Brain abnormalities included simplified gyral pattern, underopercularization, and/or vermian hypoplasia. Molecular analysis identified three pathogenic NSRP1 predicted loss-of-function variant alleles: c.1359_1362delAAAG (p.Glu455AlafsTer20), c.1272dupG (p.Lys425GlufsTer5), and c.52C>T (p.Gln18Ter). The two frameshift variants result in a premature termination codon in the last exon, and the mutant transcripts are predicted to escape nonsense mediated decay and cause loss of a C-terminal nuclear localization signal required for NSRP1 function. CONCLUSION: We establish NSRP1 as a gene for a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disease trait characterized by developmental delay, epilepsy, microcephaly, and spastic cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Epilepsia , Microcefalia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Paralisia Cerebral/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Humanos , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Linhagem , Splicing de RNA
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(8): 2532-2540, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089229

RESUMO

The RNA exosome is a multi-subunit complex involved in the processing, degradation, and regulated turnover of RNA. Several subunits are linked to Mendelian disorders, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3, MIM #614678; EXOSC8, MIM #616081: and EXOSC9, MIM #618065) and short stature, hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and distinctive facies (EXOSC2, MIM #617763). More recently, EXOSC5 (MIM *606492) was found to underlie an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, cerebellar abnormalities, and dysmorphic facies. An unusual feature of EXOSC5-related disease is the occurrence of complete heart block requiring a pacemaker in a subset of affected individuals. Here, we provide a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of two siblings with microcephaly, developmental delay, cerebellar volume loss, hypomyelination, with cardiac conduction and rhythm abnormalities including sinus node dysfunction, intraventricular conduction delay, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to compound heterozygous variants in EXOSC5: (1) NM_020158.4:c.341C > T (p.Thr114Ile; pathogenic, previously reported) and (2) NM_020158.4:c.302C > A (p.Thr101Lys; novel variant). A review of the literature revealed an additional family with biallelic EXOSC5 variants and cardiac conduction abnormalities. These clinical and molecular data provide compelling evidence that cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias are part of the EXOSC5-related disease spectrum and argue for proactive screening due to potential risk of sudden cardiac death.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/genética , Criança , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurol Genet ; 7(3): e589, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in TNNT3, the gene encoding fast skeletal muscle troponin T, were first described in autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 2B2. Recently, a homozygous splice site variant, c.681+1G>A, was identified in a patient with nemaline myopathy and distal arthrogryposis. Here, we describe the second individual with congenital myopathy associated with biallelic TNNT3 variants. METHODS: Clinical exome sequencing data from a patient with molecularly undiagnosed congenital myopathy underwent research reanalysis. Clinical and histopathologic data were collected and compared with the single reported patient with TNNT3-related congenital myopathy. RESULTS: A homozygous TNNT3 variant, c.481-1G>A, was identified. This variant alters a consensus splice acceptor and is predicted to affect splicing by multiple in silico prediction tools. Both the patient reported here and the previously published patient exhibited limb, bulbar, and respiratory muscle weakness from birth, which improved over time. Other shared features include history of polyhydramnios, hypotonia, scoliosis, and high-arched palate. Distal arthrogryposis and nemaline rods, findings reported in the first patient with TNNT3-related congenital myopathy, were not observed in the patient reported here. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides further evidence for the association of biallelic TNNT3 variants with severe recessive congenital myopathy with or without nemaline rods and distal arthrogryposis. TNNT3 sequencing and copy number analysis should be incorporated into the workup of congenital myopathies.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(7): 1972-1980, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797191

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function (LoF) of SLC13A5 (solute carrier family 13, member 5) induced deficiency in sodium/citrate transporter (NaCT) causes autosomal recessive developmental epileptic encephalopathy 25 with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (DEE25; MIM #615905). Many pathogenic SLC13A5 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels have been described; however, no cases with copy number variants (CNVs) have been sufficiently investigated. We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family harboring an 88.5 kb homozygous deletion including SLC13A5 in Chr17p13.1. The three affected male siblings exhibit neonatal-onset epilepsy with fever-sensitivity, recurrent status epilepticus, global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/ID), and other variable neurological findings as shared phenotypical features of DEE25. Two of the three affected subjects exhibit hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), while the proband shows no evidence of dental abnormalities or AI at 2 years of age with apparently unaffected primary dentition. Characterization of the genomic architecture at this locus revealed evidence for genomic instability generated by an Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangement; confirmed by break-point junction Sanger sequencing. This multiplex family from a distinct population elucidates the phenotypic consequence of complete LoF of SLC13A5 and illustrates the importance of read-depth-based CNV detection in comprehensive exome sequencing analysis to solve cases that otherwise remain molecularly unsolved.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Simportadores/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/patologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Nature ; 592(7853): 302-308, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762732

RESUMO

Our knowledge of copy number evolution during the expansion of primary breast tumours is limited1,2. Here, to investigate this process, we developed a single-cell, single-molecule DNA-sequencing method and performed copy number analysis of 16,178 single cells from 8 human triple-negative breast cancers and 4 cell lines. The results show that breast tumours and cell lines comprise a large milieu of subclones (7-22) that are organized into a few (3-5) major superclones. Evolutionary analysis suggests that after clonal TP53 mutations, multiple loss-of-heterozygosity events and genome doubling, there was a period of transient genomic instability followed by ongoing copy number evolution during the primary tumour expansion. By subcloning single daughter cells in culture, we show that tumour cells rediversify their genomes and do not retain isogenic properties. These data show that triple-negative breast cancers continue to evolve chromosome aberrations and maintain a reservoir of subclonal diversity during primary tumour growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Evolução Molecular , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Taxa de Mutação , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Análise de Célula Única , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(4): 1288-1293, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544954

RESUMO

Alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB homolog 8 (ALKBH8) is a member of the AlkB family of dioxygenases. ALKBH8 is a methyltransferase of the highly variable wobble nucleoside position in the anticodon loop of tRNA and thus plays a critical role in tRNA modification by preserving codon recognition and preventing errors in amino acid incorporation during translation. Moreover, its activity catalyzes uridine modifications that are proposed to be critical for accurate protein translation. Previously, two distinct homozygous truncating variants in the final exon of ALKBH8 were described in two unrelated large Saudi Arabian kindreds with intellectual developmental disorder and autosomal recessive 71 (MRT71) syndrome (MIM# 618504). Here, we report a third family-of Egyptian descent-harboring a novel homozygous frame-shift variant in the last exon of ALKBH8. Two affected siblings in this family exhibit global developmental delay and intellectual disability as shared characteristic features of MRT71 syndrome, and we further characterize their observed dysmorphic features and brain MRI findings. This description of a third family with a truncating ALKBH8 variant from a distinct population broadens the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of MRT71 syndrome, affirms that perturbations in tRNA biogenesis can contribute to neurogenetic disease traits, and firmly establishes ALKBH8 as a novel neurodevelopmental disease gene.


Assuntos
Homólogo AlkB 8 da RNAt Metiltransferase/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem
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