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1.
Talanta ; 237: 122925, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736662

RESUMO

Herein, a facile and fast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method with ratiometric strategy was developed for detection of 4-methylimidazole (4-MI). Via a chemical derivatization reaction with 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMTA) diazonium salts, 4-MI could be converted to SERS-sensitive species. The SERS intensity ratio between the peaks at 1243 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1 (I1243/I1110) was used for the quantification of 4-MI. In addition, the method sensitivity was further improved by the aggregation of beta-cyclodextrin-modified Ag nanoparticles (beta-CD-AgNPs). Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for 4-MI were 1.7 nM (S/N = 3) and 5.7 nM (S/N = 10), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 0.5 µM 4-MI was 8.2% (n = 20). This method was successfully used for the determination of 4-MI in cola samples with recoveries ranging from 92% to 106%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and may have a promising application in determination of the compounds with an imidazole ring containing active hydrogen atoms.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Análise Espectral Raman , Imidazóis , Limite de Detecção , Prata
2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 750741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745976

RESUMO

The prognosis of advanced malignant tumors is very poor, and effective treatment is limited. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a novel treatment method. However, its anti-tumor effect is relatively low in solid tumors, which is mainly due to the blood-tumor barrier preventing RIT from penetrating the tumor, resulting in an insufficient dose. Low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles (USMB) has proven capable of opening the blood-tumor barrier. The combination of the two technologies may overcome the poor anti-tumor effect of RIT and promote the clinical application of RIT in solid tumors. In this article, we reviewed the current research status of RIT in the treatment of solid tumors and the opportunities and challenges of USMB combined with RIT.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661840

RESUMO

Pr-modified MnOx catalyst was synthesized through a facile co-precipitation process, and the results showed that MnPrOx catalyst exhibited much better selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity and SO2 resistance performance than pristine MnOx catalyst. The addition of Pr in MnOx catalyst led to a complete NO conversion efficiency in 120-220 °C. Moreover, Pr-modified MnOx catalyst exhibited a superior resistance to H2O and SO2 compared with MnOx catalyst. After exposing to SO2 and H2O for 4 h, the NO conversion efficiency of MnPrOx catalyst could remain to 87.6%. The characterization techniques of XRD, BET, hydrogen-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), XPS, TG and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) were adopted to further explore the promoting effect of Pr doping in MnOx catalyst on SO2 resistance performance. The results showed that MnPrOx catalyst had larger specific surface area, stronger reducibility, and more L acid sites compared with MnOx catalyst. The relative percentage of Mn4+/Mnn+ on the MnPrOx-S catalyst surface was also much higher than those of MnOx catalyst. Importantly, when SO2 exists in feed gas, PrOx species in MnPrOx catalyst would preferentially react with SO2, thus protecting the Mn active sites. In addition, the introduction of Pr might promote the reaction between SO2 and NH3 rather than between SO2 and Mn active sites, which was also conductive to protect the Mn active sites to a great extent. Since the presence of SO2 in feed gas had little effect on NH3 adsorption on the MnPrOx catalyst surface, and the inhibiting effect of SO2 on NO adsorption was alleviated, SCR reactions could still proceed in a near-normal way through the Eley-Rideal (E-R) mechanism on Pr-modified MnOx catalyst, while SCR reactions through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism were suppressed slightly.

4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 2139-2159, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628990

RESUMO

Inflammation and disease are closely related. Inflammation can induce various diseases, and diseases can promote inflammatory response, and two possibly induces each other in a bidirectional loop. Inflammation is usually treated using synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs which are associated with several adverse effects hence are not safe for long-term use. Therefore, there is need for anti-inflammatory drugs which are not only effective but also safe. Several researchers have devoted to the research and development of effective anti-inflammatory drugs with little or no side effects. In this review, we studied some small molecules with reported anti-inflammatory activities and hence potential sources of anti-inflammatory agents. The information was retrieved from relevant studies published between January 2019 and May, 2021 for review. This review study was aimed to provide relevant information towards the design and development of effective and safe anti-inflammation agents.

5.
Planta Med ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521131

RESUMO

The dried stem bark of Berberis kansuensis is a commonly used Tibetan herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Its main chemical components are alkaloids, such as berberine, magnoflorine and jatrorrhizine. However, the role of gut microbiota in the in vivo metabolism of these chemical components has not been fully elucidated. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) technology was applied to detect and identify prototype components and metabolites in rat intestinal contents and serum samples after oral administration of a B. kansuensis extract. A total of 16 prototype components and 40 metabolites were identified. The primary metabolic pathways of the chemical components from B. kansuensis extract were demethylation, desaturation, deglycosylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and other conjugation reactions including sulfation, glucuronidation, glycosidation, and methylation. By comparing the differences of metabolites between diabetic and pseudo-germ-free diabetic rats, we found that the metabolic transformation of some chemical components in B. kansuensis extract such as bufotenin, ferulic acid 4-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, magnoflorine, and 8-oxyberberine, was affected by the gut microbiota. The results revealed that the gut microbiota can affect the metabolic transformation of chemical constituents in B. kansuensis extract. These findings can enhance our understanding of the active ingredients of B. kansuensis extract and the key role of the gut microbiota on them.

6.
ACS Omega ; 6(29): 19058-19066, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337244

RESUMO

The relationship model between the droplet lifetime and interface properties is established to characterize the stability of oil droplets, and then, the influence of the alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) concentration on the lifetime is analyzed by theoretical calculations. The stability dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions from ASP flooding were evaluated using the emulsion stability model (Civan model) based on two-phase separation. The effect of ASP on dynamic characteristics of the emulsion was explored by analyzing film strength qualitatively and measuring interfacial tension and ζ potential. The results showed that the Civan model was suitable to evaluate the stability of the O/W emulsion and to obtain the corresponding dynamic characteristics. The O/W emulsions became more stable with the increasing alkali concentration first at a low alkali concentration (c NaOH < 200 mg/L) and then became less stable with the increasing alkali concentration at a high alkali concentration (c NaOH > 200 mg/L). The stabilities of O/W emulsions were improved with the increasing concentrations of the surfactant and polymer. The mechanism of stabilization of the O/W emulsion by ASP is as follows. The surface-active substances formed by the reaction of alkali and acidic substances in the oil phase, together with surfactants, adsorb at the oil-water interface, reducing the interfacial tension and increasing the strength of the oil-water interface film. The polymer only increases the strength of the interface film by increasing the viscoelasticity of the oil-water interface film.

7.
Oncologist ; 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423518

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: The combination of anlotinib and S-1 exhibited good antitumor activity in third- or later-line treatment for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Combination therapy of anlotinib with S-1 has manageable toxicities in patients with NSCLC. BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anlotinib combined with S-1 as a third- or later-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Anlotinib was approved in 2018 by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a third-line treatment for patients with refractory advanced NSCLC and is under study in the U.S. and Europe. METHODS: Simon's phase II clinical trial design with an α error of 5% and a power ß of 80% was used, anticipating a 10% objective response rate (ORR) of anlotinib and a 30% ORR of anlotinib combined with S-1; the required sample size was 29. A total of 29 patients were enrolled in the clinical trial. Patients were treated with anlotinib plus S-1 over a 21-day treatment course until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. If the efficacy was assessed as stable disease, partial response, or complete response after six cycles, anlotinib was maintained until disease progression or death. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Somatic mutations were not required for study enrollment. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 11.1 months. Objective responses were observed in 11 of 29 (37.9%) patients making up the intention-to-treat population, which reached the target primary endpoint of 30% ORR. The median overall and progression-free survival were 16.7 and 5.8 months, respectively. The most common grade 3 adverse events (AEs) were gastrointestinal, including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, fatigue, and hypertension. No grade 4 treatment-related AEs or treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: The combination of anlotinib with S-1 in the third- or later-line treatment of stage IV NSCLC shows promising antitumor activity and manageable toxicity in patients with NSCLC; phase III trials will be planned in the future.

8.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Traditional dosage forms of granisetron (GRN) decrease patient compliance associated with repeated drug administration because of the short half-life of the drug. METHODS: In this study, novel GRN-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) sustained release microspheres were prepared for the first time via a dropping-in-liquid emulsification technique. The effect of various factors, such as pH of the outer phase, Tween80, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations, and hardening process, on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), and particle size of microspheres were extensively studied. The physicochemical properties, including drug release, surface morphology, crystallinity, thermal changes, and molecular interactions, were also studied. RESULTS: GRN has a pH-dependent solubility and showed a remarkably high solubility under an acidic condition. The EE of the alkaline medium (pH 8) was higher than that of the acidic medium (pH 4.0). EE and DL decreased in the presence of Tween80 in the outer phase, whereas EE significantly increased during hardening. The particle size of microspheres was not affected by PVA and Tween80 concentrations, but it was influenced by PVA volume and hardening. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results showed that the physical state of the drug changed from a crystalline form to an amorphous form, thereby confirming that the drug was encapsulated into the PLGA matrix. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy confirmed that some molecular interactions occurred between the drug and the polymer. GRN-loaded PLGA microspheres showed sustained release profiles of over 90% on week 3. CONCLUSION: GRN-loaded PLGA microspheres with sustained release were successfully prepared, and they exhibited a relatively high EE without Tween 80 as an emulsifier and with hardening process.

9.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296304

RESUMO

Tight junctions (TJs) are an important component of cell connectivity; they maintain cell polarity, permeability and adhesion, and participate in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The claudin (CLDN) family is integral to TJs, and CLDN6 is an important member of this family. Abnormal expression of CLDN6 can destroy the integrity of TJs through various mechanisms and can serve multiple roles in the occurrence and development of tumours. CLDN6 is widely expressed in various tumours but rarely expressed in healthy adult tissues. The aim of this review is to critically examine the recent literature on CLDN6, including its structure, expression in different tumours, regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic prospects. Although some conclusions are controversial, in certain tumours, such as liver, ovarian, endometrial and oesophageal cancer, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours, research consistently shows that CLDN6 is expressed in tumour tissues but is not expressed or is expressed at low levels in surrounding tissues. In these tumours, CLDN6 has potential as a carcinoembryonic antigen and a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Claudinas/genética , Claudinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Claudinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Claudinas/química , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia
10.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103390

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of progranulin (PGRN) is a leading cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). PGRN polymorphisms are associated with Alzheimer's disease. PGRN is highly expressed in the microglia near Aß plaques and influences plaque dynamics and microglial activation. However, the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report that PGRN deficiency reduces human APP and Aß levels in the young male but not female mice. PGRN-deficient microglia exhibit increased expression of markers associated with microglial activation, including CD68, galectin-3, TREM2, and GPNMB, specifically near Aß plaques. In addition, PGRN loss leads to up-regulation of lysosome proteins and an increase in the nuclear localization of TFE3, a transcription factor involved in lysosome biogenesis. Cultured PGRN-deficient microglia show enhanced nuclear translocation of TFE3 and inflammation in response to Aß fibril treatment. Taken together, our data revealed a sex- and age-dependent effect of PGRN on APP metabolism and a role of PGRN in regulating lysosomal activities and inflammation in plaque-associated microglia.


Assuntos
Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Progranulinas/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/fisiologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/fisiopatologia , Progranulinas/fisiologia , Proteínas , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Plant Methods ; 17(1): 62, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fast neutron bombardment (FNB) is a very effective approach for mutagenesis and has been widely used in generating mutant libraries in many plant species. The main type of mutations of FNB mutants are deletions of DNA fragments ranging from few base pairs to several hundred kilobases, thus usually leading to the null mutation of genes. Despite its efficiency in mutagenesis, identification of the mutation sites is still challenging in many species. The traditional strategy of positional cloning is very effective in identifying the mutation but time-consuming. With the availability of genome sequences, the array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) method has been developed to detect the mutation sites by comparing the signal intensities of probes between wild-type and mutant plants. Though CGH method is effective in detecting copy number variations (CNVs), the resolution and coverage of CGH probes are not adequate to identify mutations other than CNVs. RESULTS: We report a new strategy and pipeline to sensitively identify the mutation sites of FNB mutants by combining deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS), polymorphism calling, and customized filtering in Medicago truncatula. Initially, we performed a bulked sequencing for a FNB white nodule (wn) mutant and its wild-type like plants derived from a backcross population. Following polymorphism calling and filtering, validation by manual check and Sanger sequencing, we identified that SymCRK is the causative gene of white nodule mutant. We also sequenced an individual FNB mutant yellow leaves 1 (yl1) and wild-type plant. We identified that ETHYLENE-DEPENDENT GRAVITROPISM-DEFICIENT AND YELLOW-GREEN 1 (EGY1) is the candidate gene for M. truncatula yl1 mutant. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the method reported here is rather robust in identifying the mutation sites for FNB mutants.

12.
Protoplasma ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950303

RESUMO

♀Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × â™‚Epinephelus lanceolatus, a hybrid grouper created from artificial breeding, has been widely developed over the past decades. However, the study focusing on lukewarm high-protein-content fish species using advanced techniques has rarely been reported. In this work, the TMT (tandem mass tag)-assisted technique was employed to explore its differentially expressed proteins and response mechanisms under low-temperature dormant and waterless stresses. Our findings suggest that 162 and 258 differentially expressed proteins were identified under low-temperature dormant and waterless stresses, respectively. The waterless preservation treatment further identifies 93 differentially expressed proteins. The identified proteins are categorized and found to participate in lipid metabolism, glycometabolism, oxidative stress, immune response, protein and amino acid metabolism, signal transduction, and other functions. Accordingly, the factors that affect the response mechanisms are highlighted to provide new evidences at protein level.

13.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 5515941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055114

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension, as the most common comorbidity for patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has resulted in cases with more severe symptoms and higher mortality. The risk factors associated with COVID-19 in patients with hypertension are unknown. Methods: All the available and confirmed patients with COVID-19 from February 3 to March 10, 2020, were enrolled from Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, China. The demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, radiological assessments, and treatments on admission were extracted and compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to explore risk factors associated with COVID-19 in patients with hypertension and the severity of the cohort. Results: A total of 430 available patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study, including 151 eligible patients with COVID-19 and hypertension. After PSM analysis, 141 patients without hypertension and 141 cases with hypertension were well matched. Compared with cases without hypertension, patients with hypertension were more severe (28.4% vs. 12.1%, p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, we found that neutrophil count (OR: 1.471; p=0.001), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.281; p=0.011), and the level of K+ (OR: 0.273; p < 0.001) were associated with patients with hypertension. In addition, the percentage of pulmonary infection volume was larger in cases with hypertension (4.55 vs. 5.8, p=0.017) and was a high risk factor for severe COVID-19 in patients with hypertension (OR: 1.084; p < 0.001). Conclusion: On admission, coronary heart disease, neutrophil count, and the level of K+ were associated with COVID-19 patients with hypertension. The percentage of the pulmonary infection volume was significantly larger in COVID-19 patients with hypertension and was a risk factor for COVID-19 severity of the cohort.

14.
Luminescence ; 36(6): 1498-1506, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014584

RESUMO

The sensitive assays for protein, especially for the DNA-based assay, are often dependent on the amplification procedure with assistance of enzyme. Compared with a protein enzyme, deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) exhibits similar catalytic activity and specificity and better flexibility. In this work, we streamlined the binding induced DNA displacement (BINDD) strategy for the activation of DNAzyme cleavage. Since the intrinsic element of DNAzyme is the nucleic acids, it is easy to join the BINDD by hybridization with an affinity probe. The activity of DNAzyme was initiated by the BINDD reaction mediated by the recognition affinity probe with target proteins. Upon DNAzyme release, it was able to catalyze and cleave the predesigned substrates, generating the enhanced fluorescence signal indicating the protein concentration. Such a constructed homogeneous assay is available and effective in human serum when it was used for detection of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with detection limits of 100 pM and 200 pM, respectively.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA Catalítico , DNA , DNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 631422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747953

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatments for brain metastasis (BM). This study aimed to assess whether whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) provided any therapeutic benefit compared to WBRT followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Seventy-two consecutive cases of lung cancer with BM treated from January 2014 to June 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-seven patients were treated with WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions) and SIB (45 Gy in 10 fractions), and 35 patients were treated with WBRT (30 Gy in ten fractions) followed by SRS (16-24 Gy according to the maximum tumor diameter). The primary endpoint was intracranial progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were intracranial objective response (partial and complete responses), pattern of intracranial progression, overall survival (OS), and toxicity. The WBRT + SIB group had a significantly longer median intracranial PFS (9.1 vs. 5.9 months, P = 0.001) than the WBRT + SRS group. The intracranial objective response rate was 67.6% and 62.9% in the WBRT + SIB and in WBRT + SRS groups, respectively (P = 0.675). The incidence of progression outside the P-GTV in the WBRT + SIB group was significantly lower than that in the WBRT + SRS group (39.4% vs. 75.0%, P = 0.004). The median OS was 24.3 and 20.3 months in the WBRT + SIB and WBRT + SRS groups, respectively (P = 0.205). There was no significant difference in the incidence of grade 3 or worse adverse reactions between the two groups. Compared to treatment with WBRT + SRS, that with WBRT + SIB for BM appeared to contribute to local control.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125604, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725555

RESUMO

The ongoing use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-associated commercial products results in large release of ZnO NPs into soils and has prompted systematic investigation regarding their fractionation and fate in soils. To date, little information is available about the long-term dissolution and transformation of ZnO NPs in different soils. The distribution and speciation of Zn in two different soils (i.e., Red soil (RS) and Wushantu soil (WS)) treated with either ZnO NPs or bulk ZnO were elucidated by combining soil incubation study with synchrotron-based techniques. Results revealed that ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO were almost dissolved after 1 day, indicating their rapid dissolution upon entering RS (pH-acidic). Rapid dissolution of ZnO NPs was also observed even in WS (pH- circumneutral). The solubilized Zn2+ released from ZnO particles was completely transformed into stable forms (e.g., Zn-Al LDH, Zn-OM, and Zn(OH)2) and Zn-Al LDH was the dominant species in WS after incubation for 360 days. A majority of solubilized Zn2+ released from ZnO particles was also transformed into Zn-Al LDH precipitate in RS. The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of the fate of ZnO in soils, which could be leveraged for remediation of ZnO-polluted soils.

17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113995, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stem bark of Berberis kansuensis Schneid (BK) is a commonly used Tibetan medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, its therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to clarify the role of gut microbiota in the anti-diabetic activity of BK extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) was used to establish a T2D rat model, and the body weight of rats was measured every five days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and three inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1 ß and IL-6) were measured to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of BK. Moreover, pseudo-germ-free animals were prepared by oral administration of an antibiotic mixture (100 mg/kg neomycin, 100 mg/kg ampicillin and 50 mg/kg metronidazole) twice per day for 6 days to assess the role of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota analysis was performed through 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing method. RESULTS: After 30 days of administration, BK extract could significantly decrease the levels of body weight, FBG, GSP, HOMA-IR, LPS, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, and increase ISI levels in T2D rats. However, when the gut microbiota of T2D rats was disturbed by antibiotics, BK could not improve HOMA-IR and ISI levels in T2D rats. The results indicated that the anti-diabetic effect of BK might depend on the gut microbiota. Moreover, sequencing of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that BK could significantly improve the gut microbiota disorder of T2D rats. Specifically, BK increased the abundance of phyla Bacteroidetes and genera Akkermansia and the ratio of Bacteroides/Firmicutes, while reducing the abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and genera Collinella, [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii_Group, Escherichia Shigella, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, Holdemanella, and Prevotella_9 in T2D rats. Additionally, correlation analysis revealed that Akkermansia was positively correlated with ISI, while [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii_Group, Collinella, Escherichia Shigella, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, Holdemanella and Prevotella_9 were positively correlated with FBG, GSP, LPS, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. CONCLUSION: BK extract has a good anti-diabetic effect on T2D rats. The mechanism by which this extract exerts its action is, at least partly, related to its regulation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Berberis/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Wistar
18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(6): 1935-1945, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629760

RESUMO

Soil drying enhances root ABA accumulation and rhizosheath formation, but whether ABA mediates rhizosheath formation is unclear. Here, we used the ABA-deficient mutant Az34 to investigate molecular and morphological changes by which ABA could affect rhizosheath formation. Mild soil drying with intermittent watering increased rhizosheath formation by promoting root and root hair elongation. Attenuated root ABA accumulation in Az34 barley constrained the promotion of root length and root hair length by drying soil, such that Az34 had a smaller rhizosheath. Pharmacological experiments of adding fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) and ABA to drying soil restricted and enhanced rhizosheath formation respectively in Az34 and wild-type Steptoe barley. RNA sequencing suggested that ABA accumulation mediates auxin synthesis and responses and root and root hair elongation in drying soil. In addition, adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to drying soil increased rhizosheath formation by promoting root and root hair elongation in Steptoe and Az34 barley. Together, these results show that ABA accumulation induced by mild soil drying enhance barley rhizosheath formation, which may be achieved through promoting auxin response.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Hordeum/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Mutação , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24328, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546064

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To date, no effective biological markers have been identified for predicting the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients. Recent studies have shown that eosinophils are independent prognostic factors in some cancers. This study aimed to identify the prognostic impact of eosinophils in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).This study enrolled 136 patients who received CCRT for locally advanced unresectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We evaluated the survival time and clinical pathological characteristics of eosinophils. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival data. The log-rank test was used for univariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to conduct a multivariate analysis.Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high eosinophil infiltration correlated with better overall survival (OS) (P = .008) and better progression-free survival (PFS) (P = .015). The increase in absolute eosinophil count after CCRT also enhanced OS (P = .005) and PFS (P = .007). The PFS and OS in patients with high blood eosinophil count before CCRT (>2%) was better than those with low blood eosinophil count(<2%) (P = .006 and P = .001, respectively). Additionally, the multivariate analysis revealed that disease stage and high eosinophil infiltration, increased peripheral blood absolute eosinophil count after CCRT, and high peripheral blood eosinophil count before CCRT were independent prognostic indicators.High eosinophil count of tumor site, increased peripheral blood absolute eosinophil count after CCRT, and high peripheral blood eosinophil count before CCRT are favorable prognostic factors for patients with ESCC treated with CCRT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Water Res ; 191: 116798, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444853

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) may play an important role in nitrogen removal by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, our knowledge of the mechanisms employed by AOA for growth and survival in full-scale WWTPs is still limited. Here, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with a laboratory cultivation experiment revealed that three active AOAs (WS9, WS192, and WS208) belonging to family Nitrososphaeraceae were active in the deep oxidation ditch (DOD) of a full-scale WWTP treating landfill leachate, which is configured with three continuous aerobic-anoxic (OA) modules with low-intensity aeration (≤ 1.5 mg/L). AOA coexisted with AOB and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox), while the ammonia-oxidizing microbial (AOM) community was unexpectedly dominated by the novel AOA strain WS9. The low aeration, long retention time, and relatively high inputs of ammonium and copper might be responsible for the survival of AOA over AOB and Comammox, while the dominance of WS9, specifically may be enhanced by substrate preference and uniquely encoded retention strategies. The urease-negative WS9 is specifically adapted for ammonia acquisition as evidenced by the high expression of an ammonium transporter, whereas two metabolically versatile urease-positive AOA strains (WS192 and WS208) can likely supplement ammonia needs with urea. This study provides important information for the survival and application of the eutrophic Nitrososphaeraceae AOA and advances our understanding of archaea-dominated ammonia oxidation in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.


Assuntos
Archaea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Amônia , Archaea/genética , Bactérias , Cobre , Íons , Nitrificação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
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