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New Phytol ; 202(3): 1024-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24571782


The Phalaenopsis orchid produces complex flowers that are commercially valuable, which has promoted the study of its flower development. E-class MADS-box genes, SEPALLATA (SEP), combined with B-, C- and D-class MADS-box genes, are involved in various aspects of plant development, such as floral meristem determination, organ identity, fruit maturation, seed formation and plant architecture. Four SEP-like genes were cloned from Phalaenopsis orchid, and the duplicated PeSEPs were grouped into PeSEP1/3 and PeSEP2/4. All PeSEPs were expressed in all floral organs. PeSEP2 expression was detectable in vegetative tissues. The study of protein-protein interactions suggested that PeSEPs may form higher order complexes with the B-, C-, D-class and AGAMOUS LIKE6-related MADS-box proteins to determine floral organ identity. The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll. Silencing of PeSEP2 had minor effects on the floral phenotype. Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression. These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Forma Celular/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Flores/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Organogênese/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica