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1.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104039, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported to be associated with longer screen time utilization (STU) at the behavioral level. However, whether there are shared neural links between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU is not clear and has not been explored in a single large-scale dataset. METHODS: Leveraging the genetics, neuroimaging and behavioral data of 11,000+ children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort, this study investigates the associations between the polygenic risk and trait for ADHD, STU, and white matter microstructure through cross-sectionally and longitudinal analyses. FINDINGS: Children with higher polygenic risk scores for ADHD tend to have longer STU and more severe ADHD symptoms. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in several white matter tracts are negatively correlated with both the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU, including the inferior frontal-striatal tract, inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum. Most of these tracts are linked to visual-related functions. Longitudinal analyses indicate a directional effect of white matter microstructure on the ADHD scale, and a bi-directional effect between the ADHD scale and STU. Furthermore, reduction of FA in several white matter tracts mediates the association between the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU. INTERPRETATION: These findings shed new light on the shared neural overlaps between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU, and provide evidence that the polygenic risk for ADHD is related, via white matter microstructure and the ADHD trait, to STU. FUNDING: This study was mainly supported by NSFC and National Key R&D Program of China.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(2): 967-975, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between parental age, and behavioral, cognitive and brain differences in the children. METHOD: Data with children aged 9-11 of 8709 mothers with parental age 15-45 years were analyzed from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. A general linear model was used to test the associations of the parental age with brain structure, and behavioral and cognitive problems scores. RESULTS: Behavioral and cognitive problems were greater in the children of the younger mothers, and were associated with lower volumes of cortical regions in the children. There was a linear correlation between the behavioral and cognitive problems scores, and the lower brain volumes (r > 0.6), which was evident when parental age was included as a stratification factor. The regions with lower volume included the anterior cingulate cortex, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, and temporal lobe (FDR corrected p < 0.01). The lower cortical volumes and areas in the children significantly mediated the association between the parental age and the behavioral and cognitive problems in the children (all p < 10-4). The effects were large, such as the 71.4% higher depressive problems score, and 27.5% higher rule-breaking score, in the children of mothers aged 15-19 than the mothers aged 34-35. CONCLUSIONS: Lower parental age is associated with behavioral problems and reduced cognitive performance in the children, and these differences are related to lower volumes and areas of some cortical regions which mediate the effects in the children. The findings are relevant to psychiatric understanding and assessment.

3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(5): 1598-1610, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904766

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily characterized by the loss of dopaminergic cells and atrophy in subcortical regions. However, the impact of these pathological changes on large-scale dynamic integration and segregation of the cortex are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of subcortical dysfunction on cortical dynamics and cognition in PD. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the phase interactions of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals in 159 PD patients and 152 normal control (NC) individuals were estimated. The relationships between subcortical atrophy, subcortical-cortical fiber connectivity impairment, cortical synchronization/metastability, and cognitive performance were then assessed. We found that cortical synchronization and metastability in PD patients were significantly decreased. To examine whether this is an effect of dopamine depletion, we investigated 45 PD patients both ON and OFF dopamine replacement therapy, and found that cortical synchronization and metastability are significantly increased in the ON state. The extent of cortical synchronization and metastability in the OFF state reflected cognitive performance and mediates the difference in cognitive performance between the PD and NC groups. Furthermore, both the thalamic volume and thalamocortical fiber connectivity had positive relationships with cortical synchronization and metastability in the dopaminergic OFF state, and mediate the difference in cortical synchronization between the PD and NC groups. In addition, thalamic volume also reflected cognitive performance, and cortical synchronization/metastability mediated the relationship between thalamic volume and cognitive performance in PD patients. Together, these results highlight that subcortical dysfunction and reduced dopamine levels are responsible for decreased cortical synchronization and metastability, further affecting cognitive performance in PD. This might lead to biomarkers being identified that can predict if a patient is at risk of developing dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Atrofia , Cognição , Sincronização Cortical , Dopamina , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
5.
Curr Opin Behav Sci ; 40: 144-152, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722833

RESUMO

Precision estimates of network organization from functional connectivity MRI in the human and tract-tracing data in the marmoset monkey converge to reveal an orderly macroscale gradient of sequential networks across the cerebral cortex. Parallel networks begin with a sequence of multiple nested sensory-motor networks in both species progressing to more distributed association networks in rostral prefrontal and temporal association zones, which are expanded and differentiated in the human. From this perspective, the spatially-distributed motif encountered in association networks appears to be on a continuum with primary sensory-motor networks. Network motifs supporting sophisticated forms of human cognition may arise from specializations of distributed anatomical networks formed in an ancestor at least 45 million years ago.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3769, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145259

RESUMO

Children's behavioral problems have been associated with their family environments. Here, we investigate whether specific features of brain structures could relate to this link. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 8756 children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Developmental study, we show that high family conflict and low parental monitoring scores are associated with children's behavioral problems, as well as with smaller cortical areas of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus. A longitudinal analysis indicates that psychiatric problems scores are associated with increased family conflict and decreased parental monitoring 1 year later, and mediate associations between the reduced cortical areas and family conflict, and parental monitoring scores. These results emphasize the relationships between the brain structure of children, their family environments, and their behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
7.
NPJ Schizophr ; 7(1): 18, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658499

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a neurocognitive illness of synaptic and brain network-level dysconnectivity that often reaches a persistent chronic stage in many patients. Subtle language deficits are a core feature even in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, the primacy of language network dysconnectivity and language-related genetic variants in the observed phenotype in early stages of illness remains unclear. This study used two independent schizophrenia dataset consisting of 138 and 53 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, and 112 and 56 healthy controls, respectively. A brain-wide voxel-level functional connectivity analysis was conducted to investigate functional dysconnectivity and its relationship with illness duration. We also explored the association between critical language-related genetic (such as FOXP2) mutations and the altered functional connectivity in patients. We found elevated functional connectivity involving Broca's area, thalamus and temporal cortex that were replicated in two FES datasets. In particular, Broca's area - anterior cingulate cortex dysconnectivity was more pronounced for patients with shorter illness duration, while thalamic dysconnectivity was predominant in those with longer illness duration. Polygenic risk scores obtained from FOXP2-related genes were strongly associated with functional dysconnectivity identified in patients with shorter illness duration. Our results highlight the criticality of language network dysconnectivity, involving the Broca's area in early stages of schizophrenia, and the role of language-related genes in this aberration, providing both imaging and genetic evidence for the association between schizophrenia and the determinants of language.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(8): 3992-4003, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015467

RESUMO

Low sleep duration in adults is correlated with psychiatric and cognitive problems. We performed for the first time a large-scale analysis of sleep duration in children, and how this relates to psychiatric problems including depression, to cognition, and to brain structure. Structural MRI was analyzed in relation to sleep duration, and psychiatric and cognitive measures in 11,067 9-11-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, using a linear mixed model, mediation analysis, and structural equation methods in a longitudinal analysis. Dimensional psychopathology (including depression, anxiety, impulsive behavior) in the children was negatively correlated with sleep duration. Dimensional psychopathology in the parents was also correlated with short sleep duration in their children. The brain areas in which higher volume was correlated with longer sleep duration included the orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal and temporal cortex, precuneus, and supramarginal gyrus. Longitudinal data analysis showed that the psychiatric problems, especially the depressive problems, were significantly associated with short sleep duration 1 year later. Further, mediation analysis showed that depressive problems significantly mediate the effect of these brain regions on sleep. Higher cognitive scores were associated with higher volume of the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Public health implications are that psychopathology in the parents should be considered in relation to sleep problems in children. Moreover, we show that brain structure is associated with sleep problems in children, and that this is related to whether or not the child has depressive problems.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Sono
9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 228, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two studies have suggested that severe prolonged nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral problems in offspring, with smaller sample size and short-term follow-up. Moreover, little information is available on the role of the brain structure in the associations. METHODS: In a US-based cohort, the association was investigated between severe prolonged nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (extending after the second trimester and termed SNVP), psychiatric and cognitive problems, and brain morphology, from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, from 10,710 children aged 9-11 years. We validated the emotional including psychiatric findings using the Danish National Cohort Study with 2,092,897 participants. RESULTS: SNVP was significantly associated with emotional and psychiatric problems (t = 8.89, Cohen's d = 0.172, p = 6.9 × 10-19) and reduced global cognitive performance (t = - 4.34, d = - 0.085, p = 1.4 × 10-5) in children. SNVP was associated with low cortical area and volume, especially in the cingulate cortex, precuneus, and superior medial prefrontal cortex. These lower cortical areas and volumes significantly mediated the relation between SNVP and the psychiatric and cognitive problems in children. In the Danish National Cohort, severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy were significantly associated with increased risks of behavioral and emotional disorders in children (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.33). CONCLUSIONS: SNVP is strongly associated with psychiatric and cognitive problems in children, with mediation by brain structure. These associations highlight the clinical importance and potential benefits of the treatment of SNVP, which could reduce the risk of psychiatric disorder in the next generation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Gravidez
10.
Neurology ; 95(11): e1445-e1460, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify biotypes in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease (PD) and to test whether these biotypes could explain interindividual differences in longitudinal progression. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we use a data-driven approach clustering PD patients from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (n = 314, age 61.0 ± 9.5, years 34.1% female, 5 years of follow-up). Voxel-level neuroanatomic features were estimated with deformation-based morphometry (DBM) of T1-weighted MRI. Voxels with deformation values that were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with clinical scores (Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts I-III and total score, tremor score, and postural instability and gait difficulty score) at baseline were selected. Then, these neuroanatomic features were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis. Changes in the longitudinal progression and neuroanatomic pattern were compared between different biotypes. RESULTS: Two neuroanatomic biotypes were identified: biotype 1 (n = 114) with subcortical brain volumes smaller than heathy controls and biotype 2 (n = 200) with subcortical brain volumes larger than heathy controls. Biotype 1 had more severe motor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and much worse REM sleep behavior disorder than biotype 2 at baseline. Although disease durations at the initial visit and follow-up were similar between biotypes, patients with PD with smaller subcortical brain volume had poorer prognosis, with more rapid decline in several clinical domains and in dopamine functional neuroimaging over an average of 5 years. CONCLUSION: Robust neuroanatomic biotypes exist in PD with distinct clinical and neuroanatomic patterns. These biotypes can be detected at diagnosis and predict the course of longitudinal progression, which should benefit trial design and evaluation.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências
11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 88(6): 459-469, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with sleep disturbances can produce profound disruption in daily life and negatively impact quality of life of both the child and the family. However, the temporal relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment is unclear, as are underlying common brain mechanisms. METHODS: This study used data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (n = 1601, 52% female) and the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (n = 3515, 48% female). Longitudinal relationships between symptoms were examined using cross-lagged panel models. Gray matter volume neural correlates were identified using linear regression. The transcriptomic signature of the identified brain-ADHD-sleep relationship was characterized by gene enrichment analysis. Confounding factors, such as stimulant drugs for ADHD and socioeconomic status, were controlled for. RESULTS: ADHD symptoms contributed to sleep disturbances at one or more subsequent time points in both cohorts. Lower gray matter volumes in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, striatum, and insula were associated with both ADHD symptoms and sleep disturbances. ADHD symptoms significantly mediated the link between these structural brain abnormalities and sleep dysregulation, and genes were differentially expressed in the implicated brain regions, including those involved in neurotransmission and circadian entrainment. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that ADHD symptoms and sleep disturbances have common neural correlates, including structural changes of the ventral attention system and frontostriatal circuitry. Leveraging data from large datasets, these results offer new mechanistic insights into this clinically important relationship between ADHD and sleep impairment, with potential implications for neurobiological models and future therapeutic directions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Sono
12.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(1): 75-86, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993660

RESUMO

The orbitofrontal cortex extends into the laterally adjacent inferior frontal gyrus. We analyzed how voxel-level functional connectivity of the inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex is related to depression in 282 people with major depressive disorder (125 were unmedicated) and 254 controls, using FDR correction P < 0.05 for pairs of voxels. In the unmedicated group, higher functional connectivity was found of the right inferior frontal gyrus with voxels in the lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, temporal lobe, angular gyrus, precuneus, hippocampus and frontal gyri. In medicated patients, these functional connectivities were lower and toward those in controls. Functional connectivities between the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the angular and middle frontal gyri were higher in unmedicated patients, and closer to controls in medicated patients. Medial orbitofrontal cortex voxels had lower functional connectivity with temporal cortex areas, the parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and medication did not result in these being closer to controls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in depression, and can influence mood and behavior via the right inferior frontal gyrus, which projects to premotor cortical areas.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Depressão , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Giro Para-Hipocampal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
13.
Cortex ; 123: 185-199, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869573

RESUMO

Parcellation of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus based on their functional connectivity with the whole brain in resting state fMRI with 654 participants was performed to investigate how these regions with different functions in reward, emotion and their disorders are functionally connected to each other and to the whole brain. The human medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the right and left inferior frontal gyrus have different functional connectivity with other brain areas and with each other; and each of these regions has several parcels with different functional connectivity with other brain areas. In terms of functional connectivity, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex extends especially on the right into the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus and provides connectivity with premotor cortical areas. The orbitofrontal cortex, especially the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, has connectivity not only with language-related areas in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), but also with the angular and supramarginal gyri. In this context, whereas the connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is symmetrical, the connectivity of the inferior frontal gyrus triangular and opercular parts is asymmetrical for the right and the left hemispheres. These findings have implications for understanding the neural bases of human emotion and decision-making, and for their disorders including depression.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Bioinformatics ; 35(19): 3771-3778, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854545

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Advances in neuroimaging and sequencing techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity to map the function of brain regions and identify the roots of psychiatric diseases. However, the results from most neuroimaging studies, i.e. activated clusters/regions or functional connectivities between brain regions, frequently cannot be conveniently and systematically interpreted, rendering the biological meaning unclear. RESULTS: We describe a brain annotation toolbox that generates functional and genetic annotations for neuroimaging results. The voxel-level functional description from the Neurosynth database and gene expression profile from the Allen Human Brain Atlas are used to generate functional/genetic information for region-level neuroimaging results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by showing that the functional and genetic annotations for specific brain regions are consistent with each other; and further the region by region functional similarity network and genetic similarity network are highly correlated for major brain atlases. One application of brain annotation toolbox is to help provide functional/genetic annotations for newly discovered regions with unknown functions, e.g. the 97 new regions identified in the Human Connectome Project. Importantly, this toolbox can help understand differences between psychiatric patients and controls, and this is demonstrated using schizophrenia and autism data, for which the functional and genetic annotations for the neuroimaging changes in patients are consistent with each other and help interpret the results. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: BAT is implemented as a free and open-source MATLAB toolbox and is publicly available at http://123.56.224.61:1313/post/bat. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem , Software , Encéfalo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
15.
Elife ; 82019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616717

RESUMO

In a group of 831 participants from the general population in the Human Connectome Project, smokers exhibited low overall functional connectivity, and more specifically of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex which is associated with non-reward mechanisms, the adjacent inferior frontal gyrus, and the precuneus. Participants who drank a high amount had overall increases in resting state functional connectivity, and specific increases in reward-related systems including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Increased impulsivity was found in smokers, associated with decreased functional connectivity of the non-reward-related lateral orbitofrontal cortex; and increased impulsivity was found in high amount drinkers, associated with increased functional connectivity of the reward-related medial orbitofrontal cortex. The main findings were cross-validated in an independent longitudinal dataset with 1176 participants, IMAGEN. Further, the functional connectivities in 14-year-old non-smokers (and also in female low-drinkers) were related to who would smoke or drink at age 19. An implication is that these differences in brain functional connectivities play a role in smoking and drinking, together with other factors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Conectoma , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7574, 2017 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790377

RESUMO

The analgesic studies on Stauntonia brachyanthera, a traditional Chinese folk medicine used to treat headache, pains and inflammatory diseases in local areas, showed that the EtOH extracts (EESB) and the characteristic ingredient YM11 could significantly inhibit the acetic acid-induced writhing responses by 43.1% and 78.95%, and decrease the xylene-induced ear edemas by 48.9% and 21.4%, respectively. EESB could significantly increase pain threshold of mice in hot-plate test, but the effect of YM11 was not obviously. Further study in formalin test showed the inhibitory effect of YM11 in 2nd phase was more significant than that in 1st phase, revealed the peripheral analgesic activity of YM11. The ELISA and Western Blot analysis suggested that the analgesic mechanisms of YM11 were related to the inhibitions of the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, and down-regulations of Nav1.8 protein in the left side of L4-6 DRG regulated by MAPKs, in which the levels of p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38 were all decreased. In addition, the electrophysiological experiments indicated YM11 could reduce the Nav1.8 currents by 46.01% in small-diameter DRG neurons. Therefore, the analgesic activity of S. brachyanthera might be based on the regulation of inflammatory mediators and the directly control of the sodium channel prompt.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/efeitos dos fármacos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ranunculales/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
17.
Microsc Res Tech ; 79(11): 1123-1130, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27582182

RESUMO

"Sumali," as an imported cobalt ore from overseas, was a sort of precious and valuable pigment used for imperial kilns only, which produces characteristic "iron spot" to blue-and-white porcelain in early Ming Dynasty (A.D. 14th-15th century). Although there were some old studies on it, the morphology and formation of iron spot has not been fully investigated and understood. Therefore, five selected samples with typical spot from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in Ming Yongle periods (A.D. 1403-1424) were analyzed by various microscopic analysis including 3D digital microscope, SEM-EDS and EPMA. According to SEM images, samples can be divided into three groups: un-reflected "iron spot" without crystals, un-reflected "iron spot" with crystals and reflected "iron spot" with crystals. Furthermore, 3D micro-images revealed that "iron spots" separate out dendritic or snow-shaped crystals of iron only on and parallel to the surface of glaze for which "iron spot" show strong metallic luster. Combining with microscopic observation and microanalysis on crystallization and non-crystallization areas, it indicates that firing oxygen concentration is the ultimate causation of forming reflective iron spot which has a shallower distribution below the surface and limits crystals growing down. More details about characters of "iron spot" used "Sumali" were found and provided new clues to coloration, formation mechanism and porcelain producing technology of imperial kiln from 14th to 15th centuries of China.

18.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 35(6): 1746-50, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601402

RESUMO

The "Kraak Porcelain" was a kind of Blue and White Porcelain which exported from China to Europe in Ming and Qing period. The study of Kraak Porcelain is a focus issue in international field of porcelain research. In 2007, the discovery of "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck of Ming Dynasty and the porcelains loaded in it, provided precious materials for the research on Kraak Porcelain. In this paper, we explored the provenance of 10 Kraak Porcelain samples from Nan'ao I, using both traditional visual method and WDXRF.

19.
Mol Med Rep ; 12(3): 3583-3590, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005195

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is a global medical concern, characterized by spontaneous pain, heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The condition has been associated with alterations in the voltage­gated sodium channels, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, in nociceptive neurons termed nociceptors. However, an explanation for the contribution of these channels to the phenotype observed in neuropathic pain remains to be elucidated. The changes induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels, as well as electrical currents in injured and contralateral non­injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are described in the present study. A marked downregulation was observed for each Nav isoform transcript and protein expressed in injured neurons with the exception of the Nav1.9 protein, which exhibited no change, while in contralateral non­injured neurons, the levels of protein and mRNA remained unchanged. Nav isoform functional analysis was then performed in L(4­6) DRG neurons 14 days after CCI. The Nav1.8 current density was markedly decreased in injured DRG neurons following CCI. The voltage­dependent activation of the Nav1.8 channel in these neurons was shifted to depolarized potentials by 5.3 mV, while it was shifted to hyperpolarized potentials by 10 mV for inactivation. The electrophysiological function of Nav1.9 was not affected by CCI. The present study demonstrated that ectopic discharge following CCI, which was likely induced by a positive shift in the Nav1.8 current inactivation curve in injured neurons, enhanced the excitability of the neurons by facilitating tetrodotoxin­resistant sodium channels into the fast inactivation state and did not occur as a result of a compensatory redistribution in the contralateral uninjured neurons.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Constrição , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.9/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.9/metabolismo , Neuralgia/complicações , Neuralgia/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 452(1): 60-5, 2014 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148943

RESUMO

A previous study showed that antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP), a novel recombinant polypeptide, which had been expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits analgesic and antitumor effects in mice. In the present study, we investigated the underlying analgesic mechanism of AGAP. The effect of AGAP on voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) was assessed in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that AGAP potently inhibited VGCCs, especially high-voltage activated (HVA) calcium channels. AGAP inhibited HVA and T-type calcium currents in a dose-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on their dynamic functions in rat small-diameter DRG neurons. AGAP inhibited N- and L-type calcium currents at 78.2% and 57.3%, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that AGAP affects calcium currents through the inhibition of N-, L- and T-type channels in DRG neurons, explaining the potential mechanisms of antinociception.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Escorpião/toxicidade , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Ratos
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