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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated colonic pressures and increased colonic activity have been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of diverticulosis. However, evidence for this has been limited to low-resolution manometry, which is of limited accuracy. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the contraction pressures, counts, and distance of propagation recorded by high-resolution colonic manometry in diverticulosis vs control patients. METHODS: High-resolution colonic manometry was used to record descending and sigmoid colon activity pre- and post-meal in patients with established, asymptomatic diverticulosis and in healthy controls. Antegrade and retrograde propagating contractions, distance of propagation (mm), and mean contraction pressures (mmHg) in the descending and sigmoid colon were compared between patients and controls for all isolated propagating contractions, the cyclic motor pattern, and high-amplitude propagating contractions independently. RESULTS: Mean manometry pressures were not different between controls and diverticulosis patients (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). In the descending colon, diverticulosis patients had lower post-meal mean distance of propagation for all propagating contractions [10.8 (SE1.5) mm vs 20.0 (2.0) mm, p = 0.003] and the cyclic motor pattern [6.0 (2.5) mm vs 17.1 (2.8) mm, p = 0.01]. In the sigmoid colon, diverticulosis patients showed lower post-meal mean distance of propagation for all propagating contractions [10.8 (1.5) mm vs 20.2 (5.9) mm, p = 0.01] and a lower post-meal increase in retrograde propagating contractions (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this first high-resolution colonic manometry study of patients with diverticular disease, we did not find evidence for increased manometric pressures or increased colonic activity in patients with diverticular disease.

2.
Asian J Androl ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415054

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in Western countries. Studies have shown that androgen contributes to the progression of PCa, but how androgen promotes PCa remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that androgen suppressed the expression of miR-760 depending on the interaction between androgen and androgen receptor (AR). miR-760 was downregulated in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. Functional experiments showed that miR-760 downregulation promoted the proliferation and growth of LNCaP and 22rv1 cells. In contrast, miR-760 ectopic expression inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP and 22rv1 cells. DNA synthesis was suppressed by miR-760. Mechanistically, miR-760 bound to the 3'UTR of interleukin 6 (IL6 ). A mutation in the binding site disrupted their interaction. In addition, silencing ofIL 6 suppressed the proliferation of LNCaP and 22rv1 cells. IL6 was upregulated in PCa tissues. Our study reveals that androgen downregulates miR-760 to promote the growth of PCa cells by regulating IL6.

3.
Chem Rev ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347715

RESUMO

Ion transport in crystalline fast ionic conductors is a complex physical phenomenon. Certain ionic species (e.g., Ag+, Cu+, Li+, F-, O2-, H+) in a solid crystalline framework can move as fast as in liquids. This property, although only observed in a limited number of materials, is a key enabler for a broad range of technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. However, the mechanisms of ion transport in the crystal lattice of fast ionic conductors are still not fully understood despite the substantial progress achieved in the last 40 years, partly because of the wide range of length and time scales involved in the complex migration processes of ions in solids. Without a comprehensive understanding of these ion transport mechanisms, the rational design of new fast ionic conductors is not possible. In this review, we cover classical and emerging characterization techniques (both experimental and computational) that can be used to investigate ion transport processes in bulk crystalline inorganic materials which exhibit predominant ion conduction (i.e., negligible electronic conductivity) with a primary focus on literature published after 2000 and critically assess their strengths and limitations. Together with an overview of recent understanding, we highlight the need for a combined experimental and computational approach to study ion transport in solids of desired time and length scales and for precise measurements of physical parameters related to ion transport.

4.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13852, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281229

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Gastric motility is regulated by an electrophysiological activity called slow-wave and neuronal innervations by the vagus nerve. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) has been demonstrated to have therapeutic potential for a wide range of medical conditions, including the management of gastric dysfunctions. The main objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of how non-invasive neuromodulation influences gastric slow wave under in vivo conditions. METHODS: TaVNS protocols were applied in conjunction with 192-channel gastric bioelectrical mapping in porcine subjects under general anesthesia. The spatiotemporal profiles of gastric slow wave were assessed under two different taVNS protocols at 10 and 80 Hz. KEY RESULTS: The taVNS protocols effectively altered the interval and amplitude of gastric slow waves, but not the velocity or the percentage of spatial dysrhythmias. In the subjects that responded to the protocols, the 10 Hz protocol was shown to normalize slow-wave propagation pattern in 90% of the subjects, whereas the 80 Hz protocol was shown to inhibit slow waves in 60% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Chronic responses of gastric motility and slow waves in response to taVNS should be investigated using non-invasive means in conscious subjects in future.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a multisequence MRI-based radiomics signature for the preoperative prediction of the muscle-invasive status of bladder cancer (BCa). METHODS: This retrospective study involved 106 eligible patients from two independent clinical centers. All patients underwent a preoperative 3.0 T MRI scan with T2-weighted image (T2WI) and multi-b-value diffusion-weighted image (DWI) sequences. In total, 1404 radiomics features were extracted from the largest region of the reported tumor locations on the T2WI, DWI, and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient map (ADC) of each patient. A radiomics signature, namely the Radscore, was then generated using the recursive feature elimination approach and a logistic regression algorithm in a training cohort (n = 64). Its performance was then validated in an independent validation cohort (n = 42). The primary imaging and clinical factors in conjunction with the Radscore were used to determine whether the performance could be further improved. RESULTS: The Radscore, generated by 36 selected radiomics features, demonstrated a favorable ability to predict muscle-invasive BCa status in both the training (AUC 0.880) and validation (AUC 0.813) cohorts. Subsequently, integrating the two independent predictors (including the Radscore and MRI-determined tumor stalk) into a nomogram exhibited more favorable discriminatory performance, with the AUC improved to 0.924 and 0.877 in both cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed multisequence MRI-based radiomics signature alone could be an effective tool for quantitative prediction of muscle-invasive status of BCa. Integrating the Radscore with MRI-determined tumor stalk could further improve the discriminatory power, realizing more accurate prediction of nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive BCa. KEY POINTS: • DWI is superior to T2WI sequence in reflecting the heterogeneous differences between NMIBC and MIBC, and multisequence MRI helps in the preoperative prediction of muscle-invasive status of BCa. • Co-occurrence (CM), run-length matrix (RLM), and gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM) features were the favorable feature categories for the prediction of muscle-invasive status of BCa. • The Radscore (proposed multisequence MRI-based radiomics signature) helps predict preoperatively muscle invasion. Combination with the MRI-determined tumor stalk further improves prediction.

6.
Environ Technol ; : 1-10, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345190

RESUMO

Coagulation process is highly influenced by solution pH, floc breakage, and coagulant aid. In this work, two-stage addition of alum-based coagulants, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), was compared to their one-stage addition with the same total dosage. The dose ratio of primary and secondary addition was optimised. The effects of solution pH, floc breakage and dosing timing of coagulant aid of non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on coagulation efficiency and floc property were investigated. The results showed that two-stage addition of PACl showed less sensitivity with the variation of pH. Compared to PACl, two-stage addition of Al2(SO4)3 was more sensitive to the solution pH, especially when the pH ranged from 7 to 10. For all cases, the presence of floc breakage improved the removal of colloidal particles. The coagulation mechanism of primary coagulant was charge neutralisation, while other mechanism was involved with the secondary addition of coagulant. Compared to one-stage addition, the settling performance of aggregates and particulates removal in two-stage addition was more effective with the variation of dosage or dosing timing of NPAM. The present work provides detailed operating parameters for this coagulation strategy.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19420, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243362

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of carbohydrate antigen125 (CA125) and carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) expression and its guiding role of choosing chemotherapy regimen in post-operation patients with colorectal carcinoma.The clinical data of all patients, including laboratory data and pathological data, were collected from the electronic medical records. Kaplan-Meier Log rank test, COX regression model and subgroup analyses were employed to assess the correlation between the expression of CA125 and CEA in patients with colorectal carcinoma and the survival, and the effect on chemotherapy efficacy.Kaplan-Meier showed that CA125 expression is negatively related to the progression-free survival (PFS) of the post-operative patients, Median PFS was 1140 days in the patients with high expression, and Median PFS was 1387 days in the patients with low expression (χ = 4.715, P = .030); CEA expression is also negatively associated with the PFS of the post-operative patients, Median PFS was 1197 days in the patients with high expression, and Median PFS was 1424 days in the patients with low expression (χ = 4.992, P = .025). Subgroup analysis also showed that the patients with normal CA125 and CEA had better prognosis, median PFS was 1505 days, and the patients with CA125 and (or) CEA high expression had poor prognosis and median PFS was 1162 days (χ = 13.346, P = .001), and found that there was no statistical difference in patients with oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX) and oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and Calcium folinate (FOLFOX) chemotherapy in patients with CA125 and CEA low expression. However, in these patients with CA125 or (and) CEA high expression, the median PFS of patients treated with XELOX was 1082 days, and the median PFS of patients treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy was 1335 (χ = 4.547, P = .033).Expression of CA125 and CEA associated with the survival of patients, and have some guiding significance for chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer after operation; Compared with XELOX, FOLFOX chemotherapy is more effective for CA125 or (and) CEA high expression patients with colorectal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Capecitabina , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos , Oxaloacetatos , Prognóstico
8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162975

RESUMO

Three new cyathane diterpenoids named stercorins A-C (1-3), including one with unusual 4,9-seco-carbon skeleton, together with two new drimane sesquiterpenoids named stercorins D (4) and E (5) were isolated from the liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Cyathus stercoreus. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR data in conjunction with HR-ESI-MS. All three cyathane diterpenoids showed neurotrophic activity in PC-12 cells at concentrations of 10 µM. Compounds 1-3 significantly suppressed LPS-induced NO production in culture medium in BV2 cells with the IC50 values of 1.64 µM, 9.25 µM and 8.71 µM, respectively. Notably, Compound 1, possessing an uncommon medium-sized 9/7 ring system showed the most promising role in the prevention of two activities-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Environ Int ; 138: 105645, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203805

RESUMO

The rate of drug excretion (excretion factor) is a critical parameter for monitoring drug consumption in the population by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). Previous studies have refined excretion factors for common illicit drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, heroin, to improve the accuracy and reduce uncertainty in back-calculating consumption. Nevertheless, for ketamine, one of the most prevalent psychoactive substances, a careful review of its excretion factors has not been performed due to limited pharmacokinetic data. Here we review WBE studies and seizure data to refine and validate the excretion factors for ketamine and norketamine. The average ketamine/norketamine ratio in wastewater (5.36) was much higher than that found in urine (0.64), which means that the excretion factors derived only from pharmacokinetics data are not appropriate. Based on the comparison of the ratio between estimated consumptions of ketamine and methamphetamine by WBE with their corresponding ratio in official seizure data, a revised WBE excretion factor of 20% was proposed for ketamine following this review and applied to estimate the ketamine consumption in China. The revised estimates of ketamine consumption corresponded well with drug statistics. This suggests that the revised ketamine excretion factor is appropriate for estimating ketamine consumption by WBE. Systematic review of WBE studies is a suitable approach to refine the excretion factors for substances with inadequate pharmacokinetic data.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2859-2868, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022552

RESUMO

Both ozone exposure and extreme temperatures are found to be significantly associated with mortality; however, inconsistent results have been obtained on the modification effects of temperature on the ozone-mortality association. In the present study, we conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 128 counties from 2013-2018 to examine whether temperature modifies the association between short-term ozone exposure with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in China. First, we analyzed the effects of ozone exposure on mortality at different temperature levels. Then, we calculated the pooled effects through a meta-analysis across China. We found that high-temperature conditions (>75th percentile in each county) significantly enhanced the effects of ozone on nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 and 0.51%), 0.42% (95% CI: 0.32 and 0.51%) and 0.50% (95% CI: 0.31 and 0.68%), respectively, for a 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone at high temperatures. Stronger effects on nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed at high temperatures among elderly individuals aged 65 years and older compared with the younger people. Our findings provide evidence that health damage because of ozone may be influenced by the impacts of increasing temperatures, which point to the importance of mitigating ozone exposure in China under the context of climate change to further reduce the public health burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ozônio , Idoso , China , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Temperatura
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023897

RESUMO

Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia play a major role in global drug trade and abuse. Use of amphetamine-type stimulants has increased in the past decade in Malaysia. This study aimed to apply wastewater-based epidemiology for the first time in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to estimate the consumption of common illicit drugs in urban population. Influent wastewater samples were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Kuala Lumpur in the summer of 2017. Concentrations of twenty-four drug biomarkers were analyzed for estimating drug consumption. Fourteen drug residues were detected with concentrations of up to 1640 ng/L. Among the monitored illicit drugs, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy had the highest estimated per capita consumptions. Consumption and dose of amphetamine-type stimulants (methamphetamine and MDMA) were both an order of magnitude higher than those of opioids (heroin and codeine, methadone and tramadol). Amphetamine-type stimulants were the most prevalent drugs, replacing opioids in the drug market. The prevalence trend measured by wastewater-based epidemiology data reflected the shift to amphetamine-type stimulants as reported by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Narcotics Cooperation Center. Most of the undetected drug residues were new psychoactive substances (NPSs), suggesting a low prevalence of NPSs in the drug market.

12.
Water Res ; 174: 115585, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105996

RESUMO

Ketamine (KET) and methamphetamine (METH) have been recognized as emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. This paper aimed to investigate the environmental behaviour, including the degradation, distribution, and bioaccumulation, of METH, KET, and their main metabolites (amphetamine (AMP) and norketamine (NorKET)). The changes in acute toxicity in the aqueous phase and in the bacterial community in sediment were determined to assess the associated eco-risk of the drug exposure. Five types of lab-scale aquatic ecosystems were established and exposed to KET or METH for 40 days: a water- sediment- organisms- KET system (K), a water- sediment- organisms- METH system (M), a water- sediment- organism- METH- KET system (M + K), a water-sediment- KET- METH system (control), and a water- sediment- organisms system (biocontrol). The results demonstrated that much faster degradation occurred for both METH (t1/2 = 3.89 and 2.37 days in the M and M + K group, respectively) and KET(t1/2 = 5.69 days 5.39 days in the K group and M + K group, respectively) than in the control group (t1/2 = 7.83 and 86.71days for METH and KET, respectively). Rapid adsorption of KET, METH, and their metabolites was observed in the sediment, which had clay and silt as the main particle sizes. KET was observed to be absorbed by shallow-water fish (Chinese medaka, rosy bitterling and mosquito fish), while METH was dominantly ingested by bottom-dwellers (loach). Duckweed might play a crucial role in the dissipation process of METH and KET, which were mainly adsorbed by duckweed roots. During incubation, the acute toxic levels in the K and M + K groups changed from non-toxic to medium toxicity levels, and the toxicity in the M and control groups changed from non-toxic to low toxicity levels. Moreover, marked changes in the bacterial community in the sediment induced by METH or KET exposure were observed, and the most significant change in the bacterial community was observed in the group spiked with both METH and KET. This work for the first time elucidated the environmental behaviors of METH and KET in aquatic ecosystem and associated the impact on ecological system equilibrium.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Metanfetamina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos
13.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034111

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and diagnostic efficacy of 68Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with PET-ultrasound image-guided biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 31 patients with previously negative prostate biopsy, but persistent elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), were imaged with a 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT ligand prior to undergoing repeat prostate biopsy. Based on the proposed PROMISE criteria, PSMA PET/CT results were interpreted as negative (miPSMA-ES 0-1) or positive (miPSMA-ES 2-3). All patients underwent standard template systematic biopsy with up to four additional PSMA PET-ultrasound fusion image-guided biopsy cores. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of PSMA PET/CT were determined. In addition, the correlation between miPSMA-ES and detection rate of prostate cancer was also analyzed. Univariate logistic regression models were established using PSMA PET/CT semi-quantitative analysis parameters to predict the outcome of repeat prostate biopsy. Results: The median age of patients was 65 years (range 53-81), and the median PSA level was 18.0 ng/ml (range 5.48-49.77 ng/ml). Prostate cancer was detected in 15/31 patients (48.4%) and 12/31 patients (38.7%) had clinically significant disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer were 100.0%, 68.4%, 66.7%, 100.0% and 80.6%, respectively. The detection rate of prostate cancer increased with the increase of miPSMA-ES score. The detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer in miPSMA-ES 0-1, 2 and 3 groups were 0%, 54.5% and 85.7% respectively. Semi-quantitative analysis of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images showed that predictive models based on maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tumor-to-background normal prostate SUV (SUVT/BGp) and tumor-to-background normal liver SUV (SUVratio) could effectively predict clinically significant prostate cancer; area under the curves were 0.930, 0.877, and 0.956, respectively. Conclusion: This study preliminarily confirmed that 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging combined with PET-ultrasound fusion image-guided prostate biopsy can effectively detect clinically significant prostate cancer. Prebiopsy 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has predictive value for clinically significant cancer in the studied patient population.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098079

RESUMO

To further improve the precision and efficiency of structural health monitoring technology and the theory of large-scale structures, full-field non-contact structural geometry morphology monitoring is expected to be a breakthrough technology in structural safety state monitoring and digital twins, owing to its economic, credible, high frequency, and holographic advantages. This study validates a proposed holographic visual sensor and algorithms in a computer-vision-based full-field non-contact displacement and vibration measurement. Using an automatic camera patrol experimental device, original segmental dynamic and static video monitoring data of a model bridge under various damage/activities were collected. According to the temporal and spatial characteristics of the series data, the holographic geometric morphology tracking algorithm was introduced. Additionally, the feature points set of the structural holography geometry and the holography feature contours were established. Experimental results show that the holographic visual sensor and the proposed algorithms can extract an accurate holographic full-field displacement signal, and factually and sensitively accomplish vibration measurement, while accurately reflecting the real change in structural properties under various damage/action conditions. The proposed method can serve as a foundation for further research on digital twins for large-scale structures, structural condition assessment, and intelligent damage identification.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor genomic features have been of particular interest because of their potential impact on the tumor immune microenvironment and response to immunotherapy. Due to the substantial heterogeneity, an integrative approach incorporating diverse molecular features is needed to characterize immunologic features underlying primary resistance to immunotherapy and for the establishment of novel predictive biomarkers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a pan-cancer deep machine learning model integrating tumor mutation burden, microsatellite instability, and somatic copy-number alterations to classify tumors of different types into different genomic clusters, and assessed the immune microenvironment in each genomic cluster and the association of each genomic cluster with response to immunotherapy. RESULTS: Our model grouped 8,646 tumors of 29 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into four genomic clusters. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data revealed distinct immune microenvironment in tumors of each genomic class. Furthermore, applying this model to tumors from two melanoma immunotherapy clinical cohorts demonstrated that patients with melanoma of different genomic classes achieved different benefit from immunotherapy. Interestingly, tumors in cluster 4 demonstrated a cold immune microenvironment and lack of benefit from immunotherapy despite high microsatellite instability burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a proof for principle that deep learning modeling may have the potential to discover intrinsic statistical cross-modality correlations of multifactorial input data to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying primary resistance to immunotherapy, which likely involves multiple factors from both the tumor and host at different molecular levels.

16.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 5, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive discrimination between lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could be very beneficial to the patients unfit for the invasive diagnostic procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics and clinical features in classifying NSCLC. This retrospective study involved 148 eligible patients with postoperative pathologically confirmed NSCLC. The study was conducted in three steps: (1) feature extraction was performed using the online freely available package with the multimodal MRI data; (2) feature selection was performed using the Student's t test and support vector machine (SVM)-based recursive feature elimination method with the training cohort (n = 100), and the performance of these selected features was evaluated using both the training and the validation cohorts (n = 48) with a non-linear SVM classifier; (3) a Radscore model was then generated using logistic regression algorithm; (4) Integrating the Radscore with the semantic clinical features, a radiomics-clinical nomogram was developed, and its overall performance was evaluated with both cohorts. RESULTS: Thirteen optimal features achieved favorable discrimination performance with both cohorts, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.819 and 0.824, respectively. The radiomics-clinical nomogram integrating the Radscore with the independent clinical predictors exhibited more favorable discriminative power, with AUC improved to 0.901 and 0.872 in both cohorts, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test and decision curve analysis results furtherly showed good predictive precision and clinical usefulness of the nomogram. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive histological subtype stratification of NSCLC can be done favorably using multimodal MRI radiomics features. Integrating the radiomics features with the clinical features could further improve the performance of the histological subtype stratification in patients with NSCLC.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 152(3): 034102, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968964

RESUMO

In this work, we establish a so-called "system-bath entanglement theorem," for arbitrary systems coupled with Gaussian environments. This theorem connects the entangled system-bath response functions in the total composite space to those of local systems, as long as the interacting bath spectral densities are given. We validate the theorem with direct evaluation via the exact dissipaton-equation-of-motion approach. Therefore, this work enables various quantum dissipation theories, which originally describe only the reduced system dynamics, for their evaluations on the system-bath entanglement properties. Numerical demonstrations are carried out on the Fano interference spectroscopies of spin-boson systems.

18.
Sci Adv ; 6(1): eaax5576, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911942

RESUMO

Cetuximab improves the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The main limitation is primary and secondary resistance, the underlying mechanism of which requires extensive investigation. We proved that PRSS expression levels are significantly negatively associated with the sensitivity of cancer cells to cetuximab. Detailed mechanistic analysis indicated that PRSS can cleave cetuximab, leading to resistance. Cetuximab or bevacizumab combined with SPINK1, a PRSS inhibitor, inhibited cell growth more efficiently than cetuximab or bevacizumab alone in xenograft models. PRSS levels in the serum of 156 patients with mCRC were analyzed, and poor efficacy of cetuximab therapy was observed in patients with aberrant PRSS expression. PRSS expression in monoclonal antibody (mAb)-treated patients with cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was also evaluated to determine whether patients with higher PRSS expression have significantly reduced progression-free survival. Our work provides a strong scientific rationale for targeting PRSS in combination with cetuximab therapy.

19.
Environ Int ; 136: 105492, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999969

RESUMO

Monitoring the use of alcohol and tobacco in the population is important for public health planning and evaluating the efficacy of intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to use wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to estimate alcohol and tobacco consumption in a number of major cities across China and compare WBE estimates with other data sources. Daily composite influent wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across China in 2014 (n = 53) and 2016 (n = 45). The population-normalized daily consumption estimated by WBE were compared with other data sources where available. The average consumption of alcohol was 8.1 ± 7.0 mL ethanol/person aged 15+/day (EPD) in the investigated cities of 2016 while those involved in 2014 had an average consumption of 4.7 ± 3.0 EPD. The average tobacco consumption was estimated to be 3.7 ± 2.2 cigarettes/person aged 15+/day (CPD) in 2016 and 3.1 ± 1.9 CPD in 2014. The changes in the average consumption in those cities from 2014 to 2016 were supported by the results from a limited number of WWTPs where samples were collected in both years. Consumption of alcohol and tobacco in urban China is at a medium level compared with other countries on a per capita basis. WBE estimates of tobacco consumption were relatively comparable with results of traditional surveys and sales statistics. WBE estimates of alcohol consumption were lower than WHO survey results, probably due to EtS degradation and uncertainty in the EtS excretion factor.

20.
Environ Technol ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990636

RESUMO

In a coagulation-flocculation process, optimal separation of the resultant aggregates plays a decisive role on coagulation performance and provides a lower burden for subsequent treatment units. This separation highly depends on the stability of the micro-flocs formed during the initial, rapid stage of coagulation. In this work, a two-stage addition of aluminium sulphate (alum, Al2(SO4)3) was employed by adding 0.04 and 0.08 mM Al2(SO4)3 at the beginning and the end of rapid mixing, respectively. The coagulation performance and floc characteristics were compared to conventional single addition with the same total coagulant dosage, and the effects of variable rapid-mixing speeds (160-850 rpm) and duration time (10-120 s) were investigated. The results showed that the residual turbidity of two-stage coagulant addition was 85.1% lower than single addition when applied at a mixing speed of 580 rpm and a duration time of 120 s. The underlying coagulation mechanism revealed that the two-step addition more effectively neutralized colloids and formed larger aggregates that settled better and could more easily be removed. Moreover, the aggregates were less firm, which was attributed to different interactions among the micro-flocs, the second addition of Al2(SO4)3 and destabilized colloids. The present work provides data to broaden the window of rapid-mixing environments for more effective coagulation.

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