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1.
Langmuir ; 37(45): 13501-13511, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739232

RESUMO

Gels are soft functional materials with solid networks and open pores filled with solvents (for wet gels) or air (for aerogels), displaying broad applications in tissue engineering, catalysis, environmental remediation, energy storage, etc. However, currently known gels feature only a single (either solid-liquid or solid-vapor) interface, largely limiting their application territories. Therefore, it is both fundamentally intriguing and practically significant to develop conceptually new gel materials that possess solid-liquid-vapor multiple interfaces. Herein, we demonstrate a unique solid-liquid-vapor triphase gel, named as aerohydrogel, by gelling of a poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solution with glutaraldehyde in the presence of superhydrophobic silica aerogel microparticles. Owing to its continuous solid, liquid, and vapor phases, the resultant aerohydrogel simultaneously displays solid-liquid, solid-vapor, and liquid-vapor interfaces, leading to excellent properties including tunable density (down to 0.43 g·cm-3), considerable hydrophobicity, and excellent elasticity (compressive ratio of up to 80%). As a proof-of-concept application, the aerohydrogel exhibits a higher evaporative cooling efficiency than its hydrogel counterpart and a better cooling capability than the commercial phase change cooling film, respectively, showing promising performance in cooling various devices. Moreover, the resulting aerohydrogel could be facilely tailored with specific (e.g., magnetic) properties for emerging applications such as solar steam generation. This work extends biphase gel (hydrogel or aerogel) to solid-liquid-vapor triphase gel, as well as provides a promising strategy for designing more aerohydrogels serving as soft functional materials for applications in various emerging fields.

2.
J Gene Med ; : e3390, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease manifested by a thickened ventricular wall. Cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), the gene encoding muscle LIM protein, is important for initiating hypertrophic gene expression. The mutation of CSRP3 causes dilated cardiomyopathy or HCM. METHODS: In the present study, we enrolled a Chinese family with HCM across three generations. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the proband to detect the candidate genes of the family. Sanger sequencing was performed for mutational analysis and confirmation of cosegregation. RESULTS: Through histopathological and imaging examinations, an obvious left ventricular hypertrophy was found in the proband. After WES data filtering, bioinformatic prediction and co-segregation analysis, a nonsense mutation (NM_003476.5:c.364C>T; NP_003467.1:p.Arg122*) of CSRP3 was identified in this family. This variant was predicted to be disease-causing and resulted in a truncated protein. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first HCM family case of CSRP3 (p.Arg122*) variation in Asia. The finding here not only contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counseling of the family, but also provides a new case with detailed phenotypes that may be caused by the CSRP3 variant.

3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 628328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489985

RESUMO

Amino acids are the building blocks of biomacromolecules in organisms, among which isoleucine (Ile) is the precursor of JA-Ile, an active molecule of phytohormone jasmonate (JA). JA is essential for diverse plant defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic nutritional fungal pathogen that causes the second most severe plant fungal disease worldwide and infects more than 200 kinds of monocot and dicot plant species. In this study, we demonstrated that Ile application enhances plant resistance against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis, which is dependent on the JA receptor COI1 and the jasmonic acid-amido synthetase JAR1. The mutant lib with higher Ile content in leaves exhibits enhanced resistance to B. cinerea infection. Furthermore, we found that the exogenous Ile application moderately enhanced plant resistance to B. cinerea in various horticultural plant species, including lettuce, rose, and strawberry, suggesting a practical and effective strategy to control B. cinerea disease in agriculture. These results together showed that the increase of Ile could positively regulate the resistance of various plants to B. cinerea by enhancing JA signaling, which would offer potential applications for crop protection.

4.
Small ; 17(47): e2103433, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558176

RESUMO

Great efforts have been devoted to searching for efficient catalytic systems to produce ultra-high density single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays, which lay the foundation for future electronic devices. However, one major obstacle for realizing high-density surface-aligned SWNT arrays is the poor stability of metal nanoparticles in chemical vapor deposition catalytic processes. Recently, Trojan catalyst has been reported to yield unprecedented high-density SWNT arrays with 130 SWNTs per µm on the a-plane (11-20) of the sapphire substrate. Herein, a concept of catalyst confinement effect is put forward to revealing the secret of remarkable growth efficiency of SWNT arrays by Trojan catalyst. Combined experimental and theoretical studies indicate that confinement of catalyst nanoparticles on discrete a-plane strips plays a key role in stabilizing the small nanoparticles. The highly dispersive and active states of catalysts are maintained, which promote the growth of super-dense SWNT arrays. By rationally designing the substrate reconstruction process, large areas of dense SWNT arrays (130 SWNTs per µm) covering the entire substrate are obtained. This approach may provide novel ideas for the synthesis of various high-density 1D nanomaterials.

5.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1096-1103, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436537

RESUMO

Importance: Pathologic myopia due to an excessive increase of axial length is associated with severe visual impairments. Systematic analyses to determine the rate of and the risk factors associated with the axial elongation in adults with high myopia based on long-term follow-up of a large population are needed. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with axial elongation in adults with high myopia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the medical records of 43 201 patient visits in a single-hospital database that were collected from January 3, 2011, to December 28, 2018. A total of 15 745 medical records with the patients' sex, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length, type of myopic maculopathy, and the presence or absence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were reviewed. Data were analyzed from April 3, 2019, to August 5, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in the axial length at each examination were calculated. The significance of the associations between the annual increase of the axial length and age, sex, baseline axial length, types of myopic maculopathy, and a history of CNV was determined. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the strength of the risk factors associated with an increase of the axial length in high myopia. Results: Among 1877 patients with 9161 visits included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 62.10 (12.92) years, and 1357 (72.30%) were women. The mean (SD) axial length was 29.66 (2.20) mm with a mean (SD) growth rate of 0.05 (0.24) mm/y. Among the 9161 visits, 7096 eyes (77.46%) had myopic maculopathy and 2477 eyes (27.04%) had CNV. The odds ratio for inducing a severe elongation of the axial length was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.38-1.55) for female sex, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.35-0.56) to 0.63 (95% CI, 13 0.50-0.78) for older than 40 years, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.15-1.54) for BCVA of less than 20/400, 1.67 (95% CI, 1.54-1.81) to 2.67 (95% CI, 2.46-2.88) for baseline axial length of 28.15 mm or greater, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.96-1.17) to 1.39 (95% CI, 1.24-1.55) for the presence of maculopathy, and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.29-1.47) for prior CNV. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found continuing axial elongation in adults with high myopia. The risk factors for elongation do not appear to be modifiable, so prevention of myopia may be the best approach to reduce the incidence of pathologic myopia and its complications in the future.

6.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(6): 7425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306518

RESUMO

[This corrects the article on p. 4576 in vol. 12, PMID: 32913531.].

7.
Nat Plants ; 7(8): 1026-1036, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267359

RESUMO

The ancient gymnosperm genus Taxus is the exclusive source of the anticancer drug paclitaxel, yet no reference genome sequences are available for comprehensively elucidating the paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway. We have completed a chromosome-level genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei with a total length of 10.23 gigabases. Taxus shared an ancestral whole-genome duplication with the coniferophyte lineage and underwent distinct transposon evolution. We discovered a unique physical and functional grouping of CYP725As (cytochrome P450) in the Taxus genome for paclitaxel biosynthesis. We also identified a gene cluster for taxadiene biosynthesis, which was formed mainly by gene duplications. This study will facilitate the elucidation of paclitaxel biosynthesis and unleash the biotechnological potential of Taxus.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Paclitaxel/biossíntese , Análise de Sequência , Taxus/genética , Taxus/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9247541, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959666

RESUMO

Atrioventricular block (AVB) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, and most of AVB cases are presented as autosomal dominant. The electrocardiogram of AVB patients presents an abnormal progressive cardiac conduction disorder between atria and ventricles. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a nonselective Ca2+-activated cation channel gene defined as a novel disease-causing gene of AVB. So far, 47 mutations of TRPM4 have been recorded in Human Gene Mutation Database. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between TRPM4 mutation and pathogenesis of AVB. We investigated a Chinese family with AVB by whole-exome sequencing. An arrhythmia-related gene filtering strategy was used to analyze the disease-causing mutations. Three different bioinformatics programs were used to predict the effects of the mutation result. A novel mutation of TRPM4 was identified (c.2455C>T/p.R819C) and cosegregated in the affected family members. The three bioinformatics programs predicted that the novel mutation may lead to damage. Our study will contribute to expand the spectrum of TRPM4 mutations and supply accurate genetic testing information for further research and the clinical therapy of AVB.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/genética , Mutação/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(14): 3449-3457, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the endometrium is an uncommon and highly aggressive tumor that has not been comprehensively characterized. We report a case of pure endometrial LCNEC and review the current literature of similar cases to raise awareness of the histological features, treatment, and prognosis of this tumor. CASE SUMMARY: We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with irregular postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed an enlarged uterus and a 5.1 cm × 3.3 cm area of medium and low echogenicity in the uterine cavity. Biopsy by dilatation and curettage suggested poorly differentiated carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced uterine tumor with diffuse infiltration of the posterior wall of the uterine myometrium and enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The patient underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral adnexal resection. Gross observation revealed an ill-defined white solid mass of the posterior wall of the uterus infiltrating into the serosa with multiple solid nodules on the serous surface. Microscopically, the tumor cells showed neuroendocrine morphology (organoid nesting). Immunohistochemistry revealed the tumor cells were diffusely positive for the neuroendocrine markers CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. Thus, the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIC endometrial LCNEC. CONCLUSION: Pathologic findings and immunohistochemistry are essential in making a diagnosis of endometrial LCNEC.

10.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910886

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of macular dilated choroidal vein (DCV) and the recurrence of myopic macular neovascularisation (MNV) after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. METHODS: Medical records of 168 eyes of 163 patients with myopic MNV were reviewed for the presence of macular DCV and episodes of recurrences. A macular DCV was defined as a choroidal vein whose diameter was 2× larger than the adjacent veins coursing in the macular area of 5.5 mm diameter. RESULTS: Macular DCV existed in 47 (28%) of the eyes with myopic MNV. 70 eyes (41.7%) had recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 52.5±23.0 months. Recurrence was found in 28 of the 47 eyes (59.6%) with DCV, which was significantly more frequent than the 42 of the 121 eyes (34.7%) without DCV (p=0.003). Cox model analysis showed that macular DCV was an independent risk factor (HR: 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) for recurrence. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in eyes with DCV within the first 2 years after the onset than in eyes without DCV. CONCLUSIONS: Macular DCVs may be indicators of a more aggressive phenotype of eyes with myopic MNV. These eyes need careful monitoring after anti-VEGF therapies.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124909, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684842

RESUMO

A consortium (HPP) with improved ability in biomass conversion was achieved by adjusting the proportion of Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis in a natural consortium (HP), but the mechanism behind was unknown. Herein, the diversities of microbial community structure and gene functions of the consortia were analyzed first, and found that HPP had a more balanced microbial structure with enriched gene pathways related to cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism. Then, key genes responsible for biomass conversion were further analyzed, finding that their abundance and distribution contributed to HPP's efficient biomass conversion. Finally, consolidated bioprocessing of agricultural wastes by HPP was carried out to verify its enhanced ability, and ethanol with the highest yield that was ever reported was achieved at 0.28 g/g. This is the first study which reported the underlying mechanisms for synergistic effects of microbial consortia, and will guide the artificial construction of complex microbial consortium for specific purpose.


Assuntos
Lignina , Xanthomonadaceae , Biomassa , Consórcios Microbianos
12.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 2058738420966087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583218

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactive specific transcript (XIST) is reported to play an oncogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of XIST in regulating the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells remains unclear. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expressions of XIST and miR-16-5p in NSCLC in tissues and cells, and Western blot was used to assess the expression of WEE1 G2 checkpoint kinase (WEE1). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation and flow cytometry assays were used to determine cell viability and apoptosis after NSCLC cells were exposed to different doses of X-rays. The interaction between XIST and miR-16-5p was confirmed by StarBase database, qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. TargetScan database was used to predict WEE1 as a target of miR-16-5p, and their targeting relationship was further validated by Western blot, qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. XIST was highly expressed in both NSCLC tissue and cell lines, and knockdown of XIST repressed NSCLC cell viability and cell survival, and facilitated apoptosis under the irradiation. MiR-16-5p was a target of XIST, and rescue experiments demonstrated that miR-16-5p inhibitors could reverse the role of XIST knockdown on radiosensitivity in NSCLC cells. WEE1 was validated as a target gene of miR-16-5p, and WEE1 could be negatively regulated by XIST. XIST promotes the radioresistance of NSCLC cells by regulating the expressions of miR-16-5p and WEE1, which can be a novel target for NSCLC therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante
13.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS08201819RE, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560882

RESUMO

Blackleg of oilseed rape is a damaging invasive disease caused by the species complex Leptosphaeria maculans (Lm)/L. biglobosa (Lb), which is composed of at least two and seven phylogenetic subclades, respectively. Generally, Lm is more virulent than Lb, but under certain conditions, Lb can cause a significant yield loss in oilseed rape. Lb 'brassicae' (Lbb) has been found to be the causal agent for blackleg of oilseed rape in China, whereas Lm and Lb 'canadensis' (Lbc) were frequently detected in imported seeds of oilseed rape, posing a risk of spread into China. To monitor the blackleg-pathogen populations, a diagnostic tool based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed using a 615-bp-long DNA sequence from Lbb that was derived from a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay. The LAMP was optimized for temperature and time, and tested for specificity and sensitivity using the DNA extracted from Lbb, Lbc, Lm, and 10 other fungi. The results showed that the optimal temperature and time were 65°C and 40 min, respectively. The LAMP primer set was specific to Lbb and highly sensitive as it detected the Lbb DNA as low as 132 fg per reaction. The LAMP assay was validated using the DNA extracted from mycelia and conidia of a well-characterized Lbb isolate, and its utility was evaluated using the DNA extracted from leaves, stems, pods, and seeds of oilseed rape. The LAMP assay developed herein will help for monitoring populations of the blackleg pathogens in China and in developing strategies for management of the blackleg disease.

14.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether eyes with pathologic myopia can be identified and whether each type of myopic maculopathy lesion on fundus photographs can be diagnosed by deep learning (DL) algorithms. DESIGN: A DL algorithm was developed to recognize myopic maculopathy features and to categorize the myopic maculopathy automatically. PARTICIPANTS: We examined 7020 fundus images from 4432 highly myopic eyes obtained from the Advanced Clinical Center for Myopia. METHODS: Deep learning (DL) algorithms were developed to recognize the key features of myopic maculopathy with 5176 fundus images. These algorithms were also used to develop a Meta-analysis for Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) study categorizing system (CS) by adding a specific processing layer. Models and the system were evaluated by 1844 fundus image. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to determine the performance of each DL algorithm. The rate of correct predictions was used to determine the performance of the META-PM study CS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four trained DL models were able to recognize the lesions of myopic maculopathy accurately with high sensitivity and specificity. The META-PM study CS also showed a high accuracy and was qualified to be used in a semiautomated way during screening for myopic maculopathy in highly myopic eyes. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the DL models was 84.44% for diffuse atrophy, 87.22% for patchy atrophy, 85.10% for macular atrophy, and 37.07% for choroidal neovascularization, and the AUC values were 0.970, 0.978, 0.982, and 0.881, respectively. The rate of total correct predictions from the META-PM study CS was 87.53%, with rates of 90.18%, 95.28%, 97.50%, and 91.14%, respectively, for each type of lesion. The META-PM study CS showed an overall rate of 92.08% in detecting pathologic myopia correctly, which was defined as having myopic maculopathy equal to or more serious than diffuse atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The novel DL models and system can achieve high sensitivity and specificity in identifying the different types of lesions of myopic maculopathy. These results will assist in the screening for pathologic myopia and subsequent protection of patients against low vision and blindness caused by myopic maculopathy.

16.
Retina ; 41(5): 1063-1070, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the dilated choroidal veins (DCVs) at or around myopic macular neovascularizations (MNVs) and to determine whether there is a hemodynamic relationship between them. METHODS: Fifty-eight eyes of 57 patients with myopic MNVs were examined. Dilated choroidal veins were defined as choroidal veins whose diameter was 2X larger than adjacent veins. Indocyanine green angiography and swept-source optical coherence tomography images were reviewed to detect DCVs that crossed the subfoveal area. The filling sequence of the DCVs and MNVs was determined. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 71.4 ± 10.6 years. The mean axial length was 29.3 ± 1.8 mm. Dilated choroidal veins below or around the MNV were found in 17 eyes (29.3%). Emissaries of the short posterior ciliary arteries were seen at or around MNVs in 8 of the 17 eyes. In these eyes, the short posterior ciliary artery was filled first or almost simultaneously with the filling of the MNV, followed by a laminar filling of the DCVs. In one eye, afferent arterioles from the short posterior ciliary arteries and efferent venules connected to DCVs were seen. CONCLUSION: Dilated choroidal veins are present below or around MNVs in about 30% of eyes with myopic MNVs. Our findings suggest that an MNV might be a vascular unit consisting of short posterior ciliary arteries, afferent arterioles, efferent venules, and DCVs.

17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(12): e1545, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), as the frequent primary glomerular diseases in adults, accounts for symptomless proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome with or without renal insufficiency. As the crucial lesion of chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulating evidence from recent studies show that mutations in Collagen-related genes may be responsible for FSGS. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic lesion of a Chinese family with FSGS and CKD. METHODS: In this study, we recruited a Han-Chinese family with unexplained high serum creatinine, hematuria, and proteinuria. Further renal biopsy and renal pathology indicated the diagnosis of FSGS in the proband. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to explore the pathogenic mutation of this family. RESULTS: A novel heterozygous mutation (NM_000092 c.2030G>A, p.G677D) of the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4) was detected. Co-segregation analysis revealed that the novel mutation was carried by all the five affected individuals and absent in other healthy members as well as in our 200 local control cohorts. Bioinformatics predication indicated that this novel mutation was pathogenic and may disrupt the structure and function of type IV collagen. Simultaneously, this variant is located in an evolutionarily conserved site of COL4A4 protein. CONCLUSION: Here, we identified a novel mutation of COL4A4 in a family with FSGS and CKD. Our study expanded the variants spectrum of the COL4A4 gene and contributed to the genetic counseling and prenatal genetic diagnosis of the family. In addition, we also recommended the new classification of collagen IV nephropathies, which may be a benefit to the diagnosis, target drug treatment, and management of patients with COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/genética , Hematúria/genética , Proteinúria/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colágeno Tipo IV/química , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/patologia , Hematúria/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Proteinúria/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
18.
Plant J ; 104(5): 1399-1409, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015884

RESUMO

Sex differences and evolutionary differences are critical biological issues. Ginkgo is an ancient lineage of dioecious gymnosperms with special value for studying the mechanism of sex determination in plants. However, the major genetic basic underlying sex chromosomes remains to be uncovered. In this study, we identify the sex-determining region of Ginkgo and locate it to the area from megabases 48 to 75 on chromosome 2. We find that the male sex-determining region of Ginkgo contains more than 200 genes, including four MADS-box genes, demonstrating that the Ginkgo sex determination system is of the XY type. We also find that genetic sex differences result in specialized flavonoid metabolism and regulation in each sex. These findings establish a foundation for revealing the molecular mechanism of sexual dimorphism and promoting the development of the Ginkgo industry.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Processos de Determinação Sexual
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(91): 14259-14262, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119006

RESUMO

Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays are the key to making integrated circuits smaller than 10 nanometers. Herein, a brand-new approach is proposed to efficiently prepare semiconducting (s-) SWNT arrays by implementing a simple phenylation to modulate the metallic SWNT bandgap through the radical reaction between SWNTs and benzoyl peroxide molecules. Electrical measurement indicates that the percentage of s-SWNTs in the functionalized arrays could be higher than 97.8% after phenylation, promoting its exceptional performance as a field-effect transistor with an on-off ratio of 11 300. Our work paves a new avenue for the design and synthesis of high-purity s-SWNT arrays, which are highly important for future applications in carbon-based nano-electronic devices.

20.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(8): 4576-4581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913531

RESUMO

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent condition with high morbidity, and the incidence and prevalence of nephrolithiasis have been increasing worldwide. Although dozens of monogenic reason of nephrolithiasis have been identified, the fraction of the disease caused by single genes has not been determined. In this study, employing total exon sequencing technology, we investigated two patients in south-central China with primary nephrolithiasis and identified a novel ADCY10 mutation c.2186G > A (p.G729E) and a known ADCY10 mutation c.2182G > A (p.E728K). The results of our study suggest that ADCY10 plays an important role in nephrolithiasis.

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