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1.
Neurol Genet ; 6(5): e498, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802956

RESUMO

Objective: To determine how single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to molecular diagnosis in familial Parkinson disease (PD), we integrated exome sequencing (ES) and genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and further probed CNV structure to reveal mutational mechanisms. Methods: We performed ES on 110 subjects with PD and a positive family history; 99 subjects were also evaluated using genome-wide aCGH. We interrogated ES and aCGH data for pathogenic SNVs and CNVs at Mendelian PD gene loci. We confirmed SNVs via Sanger sequencing and further characterized CNVs with custom-designed high-density aCGH, droplet digital PCR, and breakpoint sequencing. Results: Using ES, we discovered individuals with known pathogenic SNVs in GBA (p.Glu365Lys, p.Thr408Met, p.Asn409Ser, and p.Leu483Pro) and LRRK2 (p.Arg1441Gly and p.Gly2019Ser). Two subjects were each double heterozygotes for variants in GBA and LRRK2. Based on aCGH, we additionally discovered cases with an SNCA duplication and heterozygous intragenic GBA deletion. Five additional subjects harbored both SNVs (p.Asn52Metfs*29, p.Thr240Met, p.Pro437Leu, and p.Trp453*) and likely disrupting CNVs at the PRKN locus, consistent with compound heterozygosity. In nearly all cases, breakpoint sequencing revealed microhomology, a mutational signature consistent with CNV formation due to DNA replication errors. Conclusions: Integrated ES and aCGH yielded a genetic diagnosis in 19.3% of our familial PD cohort. Our analyses highlight potential mechanisms for SNCA and PRKN CNV formation, uncover multilocus pathogenic variation, and identify novel SNVs and CNVs for further investigation as potential PD risk alleles.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS), defined by an onset age of scoliosis less than 10 years, conveys significant health risk to affected children. Identification of the molecular aetiology underlying patients with EOS could provide valuable information for both clinical management and prenatal screening. METHODS: In this study, we consecutively recruited a cohort of 447 Chinese patients with operative EOS. We performed exome sequencing (ES) screening on these individuals and their available family members (totaling 670 subjects). Another cohort of 13 patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) from the USA who underwent ES was also recruited. RESULTS: After ES data processing and variant interpretation, we detected molecular diagnostic variants in 92 out of 447 (20.6%) Chinese patients with EOS, including 8 patients with molecular confirmation of their clinical diagnosis and 84 patients with molecular diagnoses of previously unrecognised diseases underlying scoliosis. One out of 13 patients with IEOS from the US cohort was molecularly diagnosed. The age at presentation, the number of organ systems involved and the Cobb angle were the three top features predictive of a molecular diagnosis. CONCLUSION: ES enabled the molecular diagnosis/classification of patients with EOS. Specific clinical features/feature pairs are able to indicate the likelihood of gaining a molecular diagnosis through ES.

3.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 1020-1030, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450157

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Human 16p11.2 deletions have been associated with CAKUT, but the responsible molecular mechanism remains to be illuminated. To explore this, we investigated 102 carriers of 16p11.2 deletion from multi-center cohorts, among which we retrospectively ascertained kidney morphologic and functional data from 37 individuals (12 Chinese and 25 Caucasian/Hispanic). Significantly higher CAKUT rates were observed in 16p11.2 deletion carriers (about 25% in Chinese and 16% in Caucasian/Hispanic) than those found in the non-clinically ascertained general populations (about 1/1000 found at autopsy). Furthermore, we identified seven additional individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function variants in TBX6, a gene that maps to the 16p11.2 region. Four of these seven cases showed obvious CAKUT. To further investigate the role of TBX6 in kidney development, we engineered mice with mutated Tbx6 alleles. The Tbx6 heterozygous null (i.e., loss-of-function) mutant (Tbx6+/‒) resulted in 13% solitary kidneys. Remarkably, this incidence increased to 29% in a compound heterozygous model (Tbx6mh/‒) that reduced Tbx6 gene dosage to below haploinsufficiency, by combining the null allele with a novel mild hypomorphic allele (mh). Renal hypoplasia was also frequently observed in these Tbx6-mutated mouse models. Thus, our findings in patients and mice establish TBX6 as a novel gene involved in CAKUT and its gene dosage insufficiency as a potential driver for kidney defects observed in the 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.

4.
J Med Genet ; 57(6): 371-379, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital vertebral malformations (CVMs) manifest with abnormal vertebral morphology. Genetic factors have been implicated in CVM pathogenesis, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear in most subjects. We previously reported that the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion and its associated TBX6 dosage reduction caused CVMs. We aim to investigate the reciprocal 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication and its potential genetic contributions to CVMs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who were found to carry the 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication by chromosomal microarray analysis were retrospectively analysed for their vertebral phenotypes. The spinal assessments in seven duplication carriers showed that four (57%) presented characteristics of CVMs, supporting the contention that increased TBX6 dosage could induce CVMs. For further in vivo functional investigation in a model organism, we conducted genome editing of the upstream regulatory region of mouse Tbx6 using CRISPR-Cas9 and obtained three mouse mutant alleles (Tbx6up1 to Tbx6up3 ) with elevated expression levels of Tbx6. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the Tbx6up3 allele presented with the 160% expression level of that observed in the reference (+) allele. Therefore, the homozygous Tbx6up3/up3 mice could functionally mimic the TBX6 dosage of heterozygous carriers of 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication (approximately 150%, ie, 3/2 gene dosage of the normal level). Remarkably, 60% of the Tbx6up3/up3 mice manifested with CVMs. Consistent with our observations in humans, the CVMs induced by increased Tbx6 dosage in mice mainly affected the cervical vertebrae. CONCLUSION: Our findings in humans and mice consistently support that an increased TBX6 dosage contributes to the risk of developing cervical CVMs.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 182-195, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1548-1558, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize clinically measurable endophenotypes, implicating the TBX6 compound inheritance model. METHODS: Patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) from China(N = 345, cohort 1), Japan (N = 142, cohort 2), and the United States (N = 10, cohort 3) were studied. Clinically measurable endophenotypes were compared according to the TBX6 genotypes. A mouse model for Tbx6 compound inheritance (N = 52) was investigated by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). A clinical diagnostic algorithm (TACScore) was developed to assist in clinical recognition of TBX6-associated CS (TACS). RESULTS: In cohort 1, TACS patients (N = 33) were significantly younger at onset than the remaining CS patients (P = 0.02), presented with one or more hemivertebrae/butterfly vertebrae (P = 4.9 × 10‒8), and exhibited vertebral malformations involving the lower part of the spine (T8-S5, P = 4.4 × 10‒3); observations were confirmed in two replication cohorts. Simple rib anomalies were prevalent in TACS patients (P = 3.1 × 10‒7), while intraspinal anomalies were uncommon (P = 7.0 × 10‒7). A clinically usable TACScore was developed with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9 (P = 1.6 × 10‒15). A Tbx6-/mh (mild-hypomorphic) mouse model supported that a gene dosage effect underlies the TACS phenotype. CONCLUSION: TACS is a clinically distinguishable entity with consistent clinically measurable endophenotypes. The type and distribution of vertebral column abnormalities in TBX6/Tbx6 compound inheritance implicate subtle perturbations in gene dosage as a cause of spine developmental birth defects responsible for about 10% of CS.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Padrões de Herança , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Escoliose/classificação , Escoliose/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14989, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301903

RESUMO

Although recessive mutations in LAMA2 are already known to cause laminin α2-related muscular dystrophy, a rare neuromuscular disorder, large deletions or duplications within this gene are not well-characterized. In this study, we applied next-generation sequencing-based copy number variation profiling in 114 individuals clinically diagnosed with laminin α2-related muscular dystrophy, including 96 who harboured LAMA2 mutations and 34 who harboured intragenic rearrangements. In total, we detected 18 distinct LAMA2 copy number variations that have been reported only among Chinese, 10 of which are novel. The frequency of CNVs in the cohort was 19.3%. Deletion of exon 4 was detected in 10 alleles of eight patients, accounting for 27% of all copy number variations. These patients are Han Chinese and were found to have the same haplotype and sequence at the breakpoint junction, suggesting that exon 4 deletion is a founder mutation in Chinese Han and a mutation hotspot. Moreover, the data highlight our approach, a modified next-generation sequencing assay, as a robust and sensitive tool to detect LAMA2 variants; the assay identifies 85.7% of breakpoint junctions directly alongside sequence information. The method can be applied to clinical samples to determine causal variants underlying various Mendelian disorders.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Laminina/genética , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Distrofias Musculares/epidemiologia , Distrofias Musculares/patologia , Mutação/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Deleção de Sequência
8.
J Hum Genet ; 63(11): 1119-1128, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115950

RESUMO

Intracranial vertebral-basilar artery dissection (IVAD) is an arterial disorder leading to life-threatening consequences. Genetic factors are known to be causative to certain syndromic forms of IVAD. However, systematic study of the molecular basis of sporadic and isolated IVAD is lacking. To identify genetic variants contributing to the etiology of IVAD, we enrolled a cohort of 44 unrelated cases with a clinical diagnosis of isolated IVAD and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) for all the participants; a trio exome sequencing approach was used when samples from both parents were available. Four previously reported disease-causing heterozygous variants (three in COL3A1 and one in FBN1) and seven novel heterozygous variants in IVAD-related genes were identified. In addition, six variants in novel IVAD genes including two de novo heterozygous nonsynonymous variants (each in VPS52 and CDK18), two stop-gain variants (each in MYH9 and LYL1), and two heterozygous biallelic variants in TNXB were considered to be possibly contributing to the phenotype, with unknown significance according to the existing knowledge. A significantly higher mutational rate of IVAD candidate genes was observed in patients versus our in-house controls (P = 0.002) (DISCO study, http://www.discostudy.org/ , n = 2248). Our study provided a mutational landscape for patients with isolated IVAD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética
9.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 675-684, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10-18/100 000. BAVM is the leading aetiology of intracranial haemorrhage in children. Our objective was to identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease and to better define the molecular aetiology underlying non-syndromic sporadic BAVM. METHODS: We performed whole-exome trio sequencing of 100 unrelated families with a clinically uniform BAVM phenotype. Pathogenic variants were then studied in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish model. RESULTS: We identified four pathogenic heterozygous variants in four patients, including one in the established BAVM-related gene, ENG, and three damaging variants in novel candidate genes: PITPNM3, SARS and LEMD3, which we then functionally validated in zebrafish. In addition, eight likely pathogenic heterozygous variants (TIMP3, SCUBE2, MAP4K4, CDH2, IL17RD, PREX2, ZFYVE16 and EGFR) were identified in eight patients, and 16 patients carried one or more variants of uncertain significance. Potential oligogenic inheritance (MAP4K4 with ENG, RASA1 with TIMP3 and SCUBE2 with ENG) was identified in three patients. Regulation of sma- and mad-related proteins (SMADs) (involved in bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signalling) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endotheliual growth factor recepter 2 (VEGFR2) binding and activity (affecting the VEGF signalling pathway) were the most significantly affected biological process involved in the pathogenesis of BAVM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the specific role of BMP/TGF-ß and VEGF/VEGFR signalling in the aetiology of BAVM and the efficiency of intensive parallel sequencing in the challenging context of genetically heterogeneous paradigm.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Variação Genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Hum Genet ; 137(6-7): 553-567, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019117

RESUMO

With the recent advance in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) have been extensively reported. Accordingly, the issue of incorrect identification of recombination events that can induce the distortion of multi-allelic or hemizygous variants has received more attention. However, the potential distorted calculation bias or significance of a detected association in a GWAS due to the coexistence of CNVs and SNPs in the same genomic region may remain under-recognized. Here we performed the association study within a congenital scoliosis (CS) cohort whose genetic etiology was recently elucidated as a compound inheritance model, including mostly one rare variant deletion CNV null allele and one common variant non-coding hypomorphic haplotype of the TBX6 gene. We demonstrated that the existence of a deletion in TBX6 led to an overestimation of the contribution of the SNPs on the hypomorphic allele. Furthermore, we generalized a model to explain the calculation bias, or distorted significance calculation for an association study, that can be 'induced' by CNVs at a locus. Meanwhile, overlapping between the disease-associated SNPs from published GWAS and common CNVs (overlap 10%) and pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (overlap 99.69%) was significantly higher than the random distribution (p < 1 × 10-6 and p = 0.034, respectively), indicating that such co-existence of CNV and SNV alleles might generally influence data interpretation and potential outcomes of a GWAS. We also verified and assessed the influence of colocalizing CNVs to the detection sensitivity of disease-associated SNP variant alleles in another adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) genome-wide association study. We proposed that detecting co-existent CNVs when evaluating the association signals between SNPs and disease traits could improve genetic model analyses and better integrate GWAS with robust Mendelian principles.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Escoliose/genética , Adolescente , Anormalidades Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Escoliose/fisiopatologia
11.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 689-703, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046887

RESUMO

Tooth agenesis (TA), the failure of development of one or more permanent teeth, is a common craniofacial abnormality observed in different world populations. The genetic etiology of TA is heterogeneous; more than a dozen genes have been associated with isolated or nonsyndromic TA, and more than 80 genes with syndromic forms. In this study, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify candidate genes contributing to TA in four Turkish families. Likely pathogenic variants with a low allele frequency in the general population were identified in four disease-associated genes, including two distinct variants in TSPEAR, associated with syndromic and isolated TA in one family each; a variant in LAMB3 associated with syndromic TA in one family; and a variant in BCOR plus a disease-associated WNT10A variant in one family with syndromic TA. With the notable exception of WNT10A (Tooth agenesis, selective, 4, MIM #150400), the genotype-phenotype relationships described in the present cohort represent an expansion of the clinical spectrum associated with these genes: TSPEAR (Deafness, autosomal recessive 98, MIM #614861), LAMB3 (Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IA, MIM #104530; Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional, MIMs #226700 and #226650), and BCOR (Microphthalmia, syndromic 2, MIM #300166). We provide evidence supporting the candidacy of these genes with TA, and propose TSPEAR as a novel nonsyndromic TA gene. Our data also suggest potential multilocus genomic variation, or mutational burden, in a single family, involving the BCOR and WNT10A loci, underscoring the complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationship in the common complex trait of TA.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Anodontia/epidemiologia , Anodontia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Genome Res ; 28(8): 1228-1242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907612

RESUMO

Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering more than 1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMRs) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test data set consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ∼18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR. We further determined the relative risk of AAMR in 12,074 OMIM genes using the count of predicted CNV-Alu pairs and experimentally validated the predictions with 89 samples selected by correlating predicted hotspots with a database of CNVs identified by clinical chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) on the genomes of approximately 54,000 subjects. We fine-mapped 47 duplications, 40 deletions, and two complex rearrangements and examined a total of 52 breakpoint junctions of simple CNVs. Overall, 94% of the candidate breakpoints were at least partially Alu mediated. We successfully predicted all (100%) of Alu pairs that mediated deletions (n = 21) and achieved an 87% positive predictive value overall when including AAMR-generated deletions and duplications. We provided a tool, AluAluCNVpredictor, for assessing AAMR hotspots and their role in human disease. These results demonstrate the utility of our predictive model and provide insights into the genomic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AAMR.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 1015-1022, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436111

RESUMO

Tooth development is regulated by multiple genetic pathways, which ultimately drive the complex interactions between the oral epithelium and mesenchyme. Disruptions at any time point during this process may lead to failure of tooth development, also known as tooth agenesis (TA). TA is a common craniofacial abnormality in humans and represents the failure to develop one or more permanent teeth. Many genes and potentially subtle variants in these genes contribute to the TA phenotype. We report the clinical and genetic impact of a rare homozygous ANTXR1 variant (c.1312C>T), identified by whole exome sequencing (WES), in a consanguineous Turkish family with TA. Mutations in ANTXR1 have been associated with GAPO (growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and optic atrophy) syndrome and infantile hemangioma, however no clinical characteristics associated with these conditions were observed in our study family. We detected the expression of Antxr1 in oral and dental tissues of developing mouse embryos, further supporting a role for this gene in tooth development. Our findings implicate ANTXR1 as a candidate gene for isolated TA, suggest the involvement of specific hypomorphic alleles, and expand the previously known ANTXR1-associated phenotypes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Anodontia/diagnóstico , Anodontia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Consanguinidade , Facies , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Linhagem , Radiografia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
J Hum Genet ; 61(11): 917-922, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383657

RESUMO

The ossicles represent one of the most fundamental morphological features in evolutionary biology of the mammalians. The mobile ossicular morphology abnormalities result in the severe conductive hearing loss. Development and patterning of the middle ear malformation depend on genetic and environmental causes. However, the genetic basis for the risk of congenital ossicle malformation is poorly understood. We show here nine affected individuals in a Chinese pedigree who had bilateral conductive hearing loss with ptosis. We performed whole-genome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on DNA samples from the Chinese pedigree. We confirmed the presence of a novel 60 kb heterozygous deletion in size, encompassing SIX2 in our family. Mutation screening in 169 sporadic cases with external ear and middle ear malformations identified no pathogenic variant or polymorphism. We suggest SIX2 haploinsufficiency as a potential congenital factor could be attributed to developmental malformation of the middle ear ossicles and upper eyelid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to provide a description of copy number variation in the SIX2 gene resulting in syndromic conductive hearing loss.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Haploinsuficiência , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Audiometria , Biópsia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral
16.
Brain Dev ; 38(2): 242-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy (LAMA2 MD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease caused by LAMA2 gene mutation. The spectrum of the phenotype is expanding in recent years partially due to the definitive diagnosis of molecular genetics. We investigated the phenotype and genotype in a LAMA2 MD family manifesting as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). METHODS: The clinical information of the proband and his family was collected. Muscle biopsy and immunohistochemical staining for the muscle specimen were performed. The genomic DNA of the family was extracted from the peripheral blood, and genetic testing was analyzed using the next generation sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The point mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing while exonic deletion was verified by array comparative genomic hybridization. RESULTS: The patient had mild motor retardation when he was young, and no obvious weakness was reported. Muscle biopsy showed mild atrophy in histochemical staining. Immunohistochemical staining using antibody against merosin showed nearly normal expression surrounding the muscle fiber. The proband's sister had similar symptoms. By analyzing the gene test we found that compound heterozygous LAMA2 mutation inherited from the parents respectively. One coming from the father was a gross deletion expanding from exon 36 to exon 65. The other from the mother was a missense mutation c.1358G>C (p.Cys453Ser). Sanger sequencing verified the point mutation. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed a long stretch of deletion about 27.6-34.7 kb. The sister had the same mutations as the proband. We diagnosed the first late onset LAMA2 MD Chinese patients on molecular level and genetic counseling is available. CONCLUSION: We investigated the phenotype and genotype in a family manifesting as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). This LAMA2 MD family manifesting as LGMD was identified in molecular genetic level and their phenotypes was described.


Assuntos
Laminina/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Éxons , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Mutação Puntual , Deleção de Sequência
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(5): 1225-33, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25324539

RESUMO

Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) is one of the key mechanisms of DNA rearrangement. NAHR occurring between direct homologous repeats can generate genomic copy number variation (CNV) and make significant contributions to both genome evolution and human diseases such as cancer. Intriguingly, previous observations on the rare CNVs at certain genomic disorder loci suggested that NAHR frequency could be dependent on homology properties. However, such a correlation remains unclear at the other NAHR-mediated CNV loci, especially the common CNVs in human populations. Different from the rare CNVs associated with genomic disorders, it is challenging to identify de novo NAHR events at common CNV loci. Therefore, our previously proposed statistic M was employed in estimating relative mutation rate for the NAHR-mediated CNVs in human populations. By utilizing generalized regression neural network and principal component analysis in studying 4330 CNVs ascertained in 3 HapMap populations, we identified the CNVs mediated by NAHR between paired segmental duplications (SDs) and further revealed the correlations between SD properties and NAHR probability. SD length and inter-SD distance were shown to make major contributions to the occurrence of NAHR, whereas chromosomal position and sequence similarity of paired SDs are also involved in NAHR. An integrated effect of SD properties on NAHR frequency was revealed for the common CNVs in human populations. These observations can be well explained by ectopic synapsis in NAHR together with our proposed model of chromosomal compression/extension/looping (CCEL) for homology mis-pairing. Our findings showed the important roles of SDs in NAHR and human genomic evolution.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genoma Humano , Recombinação Homóloga , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Rearranjo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Taxa de Mutação , Análise de Componente Principal , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 15: 50, 2014 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are usually inferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) arrays by use of some software packages based on given algorithms. However, there is no clear understanding of the performance of these software packages; it is therefore difficult to select one or several software packages for CNV detection based on the SNP array platform.We selected four publicly available software packages designed for CNV calling from an Affymetrix SNP array, including Birdsuite, dChip, Genotyping Console (GTC) and PennCNV. The publicly available dataset generated by Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), with a resolution of 24 million probes per sample, was considered to be the "gold standard". Compared with the CGH-based dataset, the success rate, average stability rate, sensitivity, consistence and reproducibility of these four software packages were assessed compared with the "gold standard". Specially, we also compared the efficiency of detecting CNVs simultaneously by two, three and all of the software packages with that by a single software package. RESULTS: Simply from the quantity of the detected CNVs, Birdsuite detected the most while GTC detected the least. We found that Birdsuite and dChip had obvious detecting bias. And GTC seemed to be inferior because of the least amount of CNVs it detected. Thereafter we investigated the detection consistency produced by one certain software package and the rest three software suits. We found that the consistency of dChip was the lowest while GTC was the highest. Compared with the CNVs detecting result of CGH, in the matching group, GTC called the most matching CNVs, PennCNV-Affy ranked second. In the non-overlapping group, GTC called the least CNVs. With regards to the reproducibility of CNV calling, larger CNVs were usually replicated better. PennCNV-Affy shows the best consistency while Birdsuite shows the poorest. CONCLUSION: We found that PennCNV outperformed the other three packages in the sensitivity and specificity of CNV calling. Obviously, each calling method had its own limitations and advantages for different data analysis. Therefore, the optimized calling methods might be identified using multiple algorithms to evaluate the concordance and discordance of SNP array-based CNV calling.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Software , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Hum Genet ; 57(8): 545-51, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22673690

RESUMO

Local genomic architecture, such as segmental duplications (SDs), can induce copy number variations (CNVs) hotspots in the human genome, many of which manifest as genomic disorders. Significant technological advances have been achieved for genome-wide CNV investigations, but these costly methods are not suitable for genotyping certain disease-associated CNVs or other loci of interest in populations. Recently, two independent studies showed that the murine meiosis expressed gene 1 (Meig1) was critical to spermatogenesis. We found that the human orthologue MEIG1 is flanked by an SD pair, between which non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) can cause recurrent CNVs. To study this potential CNV hotspot and its role in spermatogenesis, we developed a new CNV genotyping method, AccuCopy, based on multiplex competitive amplification to investigate 320 patients with spermatogenic impairment and 93 healthy controls. Three MEIG1 duplications (two in patients and one in controls) were identified, whereas no deletion was found. As NAHR results in more recurrent deletions than duplications at a locus, the over representation of recurrent MEIG1 duplications suggests a potential purifying selection operating on this hotspot, possibly via fecundity. We also showed that AccuCopy is an efficient and reliable method for multiplex CNV genotyping.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas/genética , Animais , Genoma Humano , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Espermatozoides/patologia
20.
Hum Genet ; 131(7): 1217-24, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22367439

RESUMO

While pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) in 15q11.2 were recently identified in Caucasian patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs), the epilepsy-associated gene(s) in this region is/are still unknown. Our study investigated whether the CNVs in 15q11.2 are associated with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) in Chinese patients and whether the selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 gene affected by 15q11.2 microdeletions is a susceptive gene for CAE. We assessed IGE-related CNVs by Affymetrix SNP 5.0 microarrays in 198 patients with CAE and 198 controls from northern China, and verified the identified CNVs by high-density oligonucleotide-based CGH microarrays. The coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NIPA2 were sequenced in all 380 patients with CAE and 400 controls. 15q11.2 microdeletions were detected in 3 of 198 (1.5%) patients and in no controls. Furthermore, we identified point mutations or indel in a heterozygous state of the NIPA2 gene in 3 out of 380 patients, whereas they were absent in 700 controls (P = 0.043). These mutations included two novel missense mutations (c.532A>T, p.I178F; c.731A>G, p.N244S) and one small novel insertion (c.1002_1003insGAT, p.N334_335EinsD). No NIPA2 mutation was found in 400 normal controls. We first identified that NIPA2, encoding a selective magnesium transporter, is a susceptible gene of CAE, and 15q11.2 microdeletions are important pathogenic CNVs for CAE with higher frequency in Chinese populations than that previously reported in Caucasians. The haploinsufficiency of NIPA2 may be a mechanism underlying the neurological phenotypes of 15q11.2 microdeletions.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Criança , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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