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1.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111552, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415760

RESUMO

Elevated plasma free fatty acids level has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain to be defined. Herein, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the human body, on small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (KCa2.3)-mediated relaxation in rodent resistance arteries and the underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of PA on KCa2.3 in endothelium was evaluated using real-time PCR, Western blotting, whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, wire and pressure myograph system, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by using dihydroethidium and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. KCa2.3-mediated vasodilatation responses to acetylcholine and NS309 (agonist of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1) were impaired by incubation of normal mesenteric arteries with 100 µM PA for 24 h. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), PA decreased KCa2.3 current and expression at mRNA and protein levels. Incubation with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor dibenziodolium (DPI) partly inhibited the PA-induced ROS production and restored KCa2.3 expression. Inhibition of either p38-MAPK or NF-κB using specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB202190 or Bay11-7082, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) attenuated PA-induced downregulation of KCa2.3 and inhibition of p38-MAPK also attenuated PA-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. Furthermore, DPI reversed the increment of phospho-p38-MAPK by PA. These results demonstrated that PA downregulated KCa2.3 expressions via Nox/ROS/p38-MAPK/NF-κB signaling leading to endothelial vasodilatory dysfunction.

2.
iScience ; 17: 288-301, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323475

RESUMO

In the heart, primary microRNA-208b (pri-miR-208b) and Myheart (Mhrt) are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) encoded by the cardiac myosin heavy chain genes. Although preclinical studies have shown that lncRNAs regulate gene expression and are protective for pathological hypertrophy, the mechanism underlying sex-based differences remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined DNA- and RNA-methylation-dependent regulation of pri-miR-208b and Mhrt. Expression of pri-miR-208b is elevated in the left ventricle of the female heart. Despite indistinguishable DNA methylation between sexes, the interaction of MeCP2 on chromatin is subject to RNase digestion, highlighting that affinity of the methyl-CG reader is broader than previously thought. A specialized procedure to isolate RNA from soluble cardiac chromatin emphasizes sex-based affinity of an MeCP2 co-repressor complex with Rest and Hdac2. Sex-specific Mhrt methylation chromatinizes MeCP2 at the pri-miR-208b promoter and extends the functional relevance of default transcriptional suppression in the heart.

3.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(4): 30, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218471

RESUMO

Microvascular obstruction (MVO) and leakage (MVL) forms a pivotal part of microvascular damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We tested the effect of relaxin therapy on MVO and MVL in mice following cardiac IR injury including severity of MVO and MVL, opening capillaries, infarct size, regional inflammation, cardiac function and remodelling, and permeability of cultured endothelial monolayer. Compared to vehicle group, relaxin treatment (50 µg/kg) reduced no-reflow area by 38% and the content of Evans blue as a permeability tracer by 56% in jeopardized myocardium (both P < 0.05), effects associated with increased opening capillaries. Relaxin also decreased leukocyte density, gene expression of cytokines, and mitigated IR-induced decrease in protein content of VE-cadherin and relaxin receptor. Infarct size was comparable between the two groups. At 2 weeks post-IR, relaxin treatment partially preserved cardiac contractile function and limited chamber dilatation versus untreated controls by echocardiography. Endothelial cell permeability assay demonstrated that relaxin attenuated leakage induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation, H2O2, or cytokines, action that was independent of nitric oxide but associated with the preservation of VE-cadherin. In conclusion, relaxin therapy attenuates IR-induced MVO and MVL and endothelial leakage. This protection was associated with reduced regional inflammatory responses and consequently led to alleviated adverse cardiac remodeling.

5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(14): 2465-2481, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Expression of the pro-fibrotic galectin-3 and the pro-apoptotic BIM is elevated in diseased heart or after ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This question was addressed in the present study. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wild-type mice and mice with cardiac transgenic expression of ß2 -adrenoceptors, mammalian sterile-20 like kinase 1 (Mst1) or dominant-negative Mst1, and non-specific galectin-3 knockout mice were used. Effects of the ß-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline or ß-adrenoceptor antagonists were studied. Rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) were used for mechanistic exploration. Biochemical assays were performed. KEY RESULTS: Isoprenaline treatment up-regulated expression of galectin-3 and BIM, and this was inhibited by non-selective or selective ß-adrenoceptor antagonists (by 60-70%). Cardiac expression of galectin-3 and BIM was increased in ß2 -adrenoceptor transgenic mice. Isoprenaline-induced up-regulation of galectin-3 and BIM was attenuated by Mst1 inactivation, but isoprenaline-induced galectin-3 expression was exaggerated by transgenic Mst1 activation. Pharmacological or genetic activation of ß-adrenoceptors induced Mst1 expression and yes-associated protein (YAP) phosphorylation. YAP hyper-phosphorylation was also evident in Mst1 transgenic hearts with up-regulated expression of galectin-3 (40-fold) and BIM as well as up-regulation of many YAP-target genes by RNA sequencing. In H9c2 cells, isoprenaline induced YAP phosphorylation and expression of galectin-3 and BIM, effects simulated by forskolin but abolished by PKA inhibitors, and YAP knockdown induced expression of galectin-3 and BIM. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Stimulation of cardiac ß-adrenoceptors activated the Mst1/Hippo pathway leading to YAP hyper-phosphorylation with enhanced expression of galectin-3 and BIM. This signalling pathway would have therapeutic potential. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Adrenoceptors-New Roles for Old Players. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.14/issuetoc.

6.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(5): 665-680, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804219

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an endogenous protection strategy against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) released from the myocardium subjected to brief periods of ischemia confers cardioprotection. We hypothesized that MIF plays an essential role in IPC-induced cardioprotection. I/R was induced either ex vivo or in vivo in male wild-type (WT) and MIF knockout (MIFKO) mice with or without proceeding IPC (three cycles of 5-min ischemia and 5-min reperfusion). Indices of myocardial injury, regional inflammation and cardiac function were determined to evaluate the extent of I/R injury. Activations of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and their downstream components were investigated to explore the underlying mechanisms. IPC conferred prominent protection in WT hearts evidenced by reduced infarct size (by 33-35%), myocyte apoptosis and enzymatic markers of tissue injury, ROS production, inflammatory cell infiltration and MCP1/CCR2 expression (all P<0.05). IPC also ameliorated cardiac dysfunction both ex vivo and in vivo These protective effects were abolished in MIFKO hearts. Notably, IPC mediated further activations of RISK pathway, AMPK and the membrane translocation of GLUT4 in WT hearts. Deletion of MIF blunted these changes in response to IPC, which is the likely basis for the absence of protective effects of IPC against I/R injury. In conclusion, MIF plays a critical role in IPC-mediated cardioprotection under ischemic stress by activating RISK signaling pathway and AMPK. These results provide an insight for developing a novel therapeutic strategy that target MIF to protect ischemic hearts.

7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(14): 2449-2464, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756388

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis is a key histopathological component that drives the progression of heart disease leading to heart failure and constitutes a therapeutic target. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated galectin-3 (Gal-3) as a pro-fibrotic molecule and a biomarker of heart disease and fibrosis. However, our knowledge is poor on the mechanism(s) that determine the blood level or regulate cardiac expression of Gal-3. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhanced ß-adrenoceptor activity is a determinant of both circulating concentration and cardiac expression of Gal-3. Pharmacological or transgenic activation of ß-adrenoceptors leads to increased blood levels of Gal-3 and up-regulated cardiac Gal-3 expression, effect that can be reversed with the use of ß-adrenoceptor antagonists. Conversely, Gal-3 gene deletion confers protection against isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxicity and fibrogenesis. At the transcription level, ß-adrenoceptor stimulation activates cardiac mammalian sterile-20-like kinase 1, a pivotal kinase of the Hippo signalling pathway, which is associated with Gal-3 up-regulation. Recent studies have suggested a role for the ß-adrenoceptor-Hippo signalling pathway in the regulation of cardiac Gal-3 expression thereby contributing to the onset and progression of heart disease. This implies a therapeutic potential of the suppression of Gal-3 expression. In this review, we discuss the effects of ß-adrenoceptor activity on Gal-3 as a biomarker and causative mediator in the setting of heart disease and point out pivotal knowledge gaps. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Adrenoceptors-New Roles for Old Players. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.14/issuetoc.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(1): e010418, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563389

RESUMO

Background Cardiac fibrosis is a core pathological process associated with heart failure. The recruitment and differentiation of primitive fibroblast precursor cells of bone marrow origin play a critical role in pathological interstitial cardiac fibrosis. The KC a3.1 channels are expressed in both ventricular fibroblasts and circulating mononuclear cells in rats and are upregulated by angiotensin II . We hypothesized that KC a3.1 channels mediate the inflammatory microenvironment in the heart, promoting the infiltrated bone marrow-derived circulating mononuclear cells to differentiate into myofibroblasts, leading to myocardial fibrosis. Methods and Results We established a cardiac fibrosis model in rats by infusing angiotensin II to evaluate the impact of the specific KC a3.1 channel blocker TRAM -34 on cardiac fibrosis. At the same time, mouse CD 4+ T cells and rat circulating mononuclear cells were separated to investigate the underlying mechanism of the TRAM -34 anti-cardiac fibrosis effect. TRAM -34 significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis and the inflammatory reaction and reduced the number of fibroblast precursor cells and myofibroblasts. Inhibition of KC a3.1 channels suppressed angiotensin II -stimulated expression and secretion of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 in CD 4+ T cells and interleukin-4- or interleukin-13-induced differentiation of monocytes into fibrocytes. Conclusions KC a3.1 channels facilitate myocardial inflammation and the differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes into myofibroblasts in cardiac fibrosis caused by angiotensin II infusion.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387702

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cause of heart failure without effective therapy. Fibrogenesis plays a key role in DCM development but little is known on the expression of a pro-fibrotic factor galectin-3 (Gal-3) and its role in DCM pathophysiology. In a mouse DCM model by transgenic (TG) overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), we studied Gal-3 expression and effects of the Gal-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP) or Gal-3 gene knockout (KO). Gal-3 deletion in TG mice (TG/KO) was achieved by cross-breeding Mst1-TG with Gal-3 KO mice. DCM phenotype was assessed by echocardiography and micromanometry. Cardiac expression of Gal-3 and fibrosis were determined. Cardiac transcriptome was profiled by RNA sequencing. Mst1-TG mice of 3-8 months of age exhibited upregulated expression of Gal-3 by approximately 40-fold. TG mice had dilatation of cardiac chambers, suppressed left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, poor LV contractility and relaxation, 3-fold increase in LV collagen content and upregulated fibrotic genes. Four-month treatment with MCP showed no beneficial effect. Gal-3 deletion in Mst1-TG mice attenuated chamber dilatation, organ congestion and fibrogenesis. RNA sequencing identified profound disturbances by Mst1 overexpression in cardiac transcriptome, which largely remained in TG/KO hearts. Gal-3 deletion in Mst1-TG mice, however, partially reversed the dysregulated transcriptional signaling involving extracellular matrix remodeling and collagen formation. In conclusion, cardiac Mst1 activation leads to marked Gal-3 upregulation and transcriptome disturbances in the heart. Gal-3 deficiency attenuated cardiac remodeling and fibrotic signaling.

11.
Exp Physiol ; 103(12): 1593-1602, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311699

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine the renoprotective effects of serelaxin in the setting of chronic heart failure. What are the main findings and its importance? Our data indicate that serelaxin can reduce renal fibrosis and inflammation in experimental heart failure. Currently, there are no effective treatments to rescue renal function in heart failure patients, and our data suggest that serelaxin might have the potential to reduce renal fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. ABSTRACT: Serelaxin has been demonstrated to attenuate renal fibrosis and inflammation in cardiorenal disease. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that serelaxin can prevent the decline in renal function in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by targeting renal fibrosis and inflammation. Male transgenic mice with DCM (n = 16) and their wild-type littermates (WT; n = 20) were administered either vehicle or serelaxin (500 µg kg-1  day-1 ; subcutaneous minipumps; 8 weeks). Cardiac function was assessed via echocardiography before and during the eighth week of serelaxin treatment. Renal function and inflammation as well as cardiac and renal fibrosis were assessed at the end of the study. Serelaxin had minimal effect on cardiac function (P ≥ 0.99). Tubulointerstitial and glomerular fibrosis were ∼3-fold greater in vehicle-treated DCM mice compared with vehicle-treated WT mice (P ≤ 0.001). Renal mRNA expression of Tnfα and Il1α were ∼4- and ∼3-fold greater, respectively, in vehicle-treated DCM mice compared with vehicle-treated WT mice (P ≤ 0.05). Tubulointerstitial and glomerular fibrosis were 46 and 45% less, respectively, in serelaxin-treated DCM mice than in vehicle-treated DCM mice (P ≤ 0.01). Renal cortical mRNA expression of Tnfα and Il1α were 56 and 58% less, respectively, in the former group compared with the latter (P ≤ 0.05). The urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was ∼3-fold greater in vehicle-treated DCM mice compared with vehicle-treated WT mice (P = 0.02). The urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was not significantly different between vehicle-treated DCM mice and serelaxin-treated DCM mice (P = 0.38). These data suggest that serelaxin can attenuate renal fibrosis and inflammation and has the potential to exert renoprotective effects in DCM.

12.
Front Physiol ; 9: 817, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038575

RESUMO

While aging is a critical risk factor for heart failure, it remains uncertain whether the aging heart responds differentially to a hypertensive stimuli. Here we investigated phenotypic and transcriptomic differences between the young and aging heart using a mineralocorticoid-excess model of hypertension. Ten-week ("young") and 36-week ("aging") mice underwent a unilateral uninephrectomy with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet implantation (n = 6-8/group) and were followed for 6 weeks. Cardiac structure and function, blood pressure (BP) and the cardiac transcriptome were subsequently examined. Young and aging DOCA mice had high BP, increased cardiac mass, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased in aging DOCA-treated mice in contrast to young DOCA mice. Interstitial and perivascular fibrosis occurred in response to DOCA, but perivascular fibrosis was greater in aging mice. Transcriptomic analysis showed that young mice had features of higher oxidative stress, likely due to activation of the respiratory electron transport chain. In contrast, aging mice showed up-regulation of collagen formation in association with activation of innate immunity together with markers of inflammation including cytokine and platelet signaling. In comparison to younger mice, aging mice demonstrated different phenotypic and molecular responses to hypertensive stress. These findings have potential implications for the pathogenesis of age-related forms of cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure.

14.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 4(3): 208-219, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726987

RESUMO

Aims: We previously showed in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) that admission levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) predict infarct size. We studied whether admission MIF alone or in combination with other biomarkers is useful for risk assessment of acute and chronic clinical outcomes in STEMI patients. Methods and results: A total of 658 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were consecutively recruited. MIF level was determined at admission and echocardiography performed on day-3 and then 12 months post-MI. Patients were followed for a median period of 64 months. Major endpoints included ST-segment resolution, all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). High MIF level was associated with larger enzymatic infarct size, incomplete resolution of ST-segment elevation post-PCI, impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and poorer improvement of LVEF (all P < 0.001). After adjustment for classical risk factors standard biomarkers and day-3 LVEF, admission MIF remained independently prognostic for all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.22], and MACE (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.71, both P < 0.05). MIF was a significant additive predictor of all-cause mortality with a net reclassification improvement of 0.34 (P = 0.02). Furthermore, patients in high tertile of both admission MIF and day-3 Nt-proBNP had the highest mortality risk relative to other tertile groups (HR 11.28, 95% CI 4.82-26.94; P < 0.001). Conclusion: STEMI patients with high admission MIF level experienced a poorer recovery of cardiac function and worse long-term adverse outcomes. Combination of Nt-proBNP with MIF further improves prognostic capability.

15.
Exp Cell Res ; 369(2): 208-217, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792849

RESUMO

Monocyte migration into diseased tissues contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases. Intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channels play an important role in cell migration. However, the role of KCa3.1 channels in mediating monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid (PA) is still unclear. Using cultured THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects, we investigated the role and signaling mechanisms of KCa3.1 channels in mediating the migration induced by PA. Using methods of Western blotting analysis, RNA interference, cell migration assay and ELISA, we found that PA-treated monocytes exhibited increment of the protein levels of KCa3.1 channel and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the effects were reversed by co-incubation of PA with anti-TLR2/4 antibodies or by specific inhibitors of p38-MAPK, or NF-κB. In addition, PA increased monocyte migration, which was abolished by a specific KCa3.1 channel blocker, TRAM-34, or KCa3.1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression and secretion of MCP-1 induced by PA was also similarly prevented by TRAM-34 and KCa3.1 siRNA. These results demonstrate for the first time that PA upregulates KCa3.1 channels through TLR2/4, p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathway to promote the expression of MCP-1, and then induce the trans-endothelial migration of monocytes.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8213, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844319

RESUMO

Galectin-3 is a biomarker of heart disease. However, it remains unknown whether increase in galectin-3 levels is dependent on aetiology or disease-associated conditions and whether diseased heart releases galectin-3 into the circulation. We explored these questions in mouse models of heart disease and in patients with cardiomyopathy. All mouse models (dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM; fibrotic cardiomyopathy, ischemia-reperfusion, I/R; treatment with ß-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol) showed multi-fold increases in cardiac galectin-3 expression and preserved renal function. In mice with fibrotic cardiomyopathy, I/R or isoproterenol treatment, plasma galectin-3 levels and density of cardiac inflammatory cells were elevated. These models also exhibited parallel changes in cardiac and plasma galectin-3 levels and presence of trans-cardiac galectin-3 gradient, indicating cardiac release of galectin-3. DCM mice showed no change in circulating galectin-3 levels nor trans-cardiac galectin-3 gradient or myocardial inflammatory infiltration despite a 50-fold increase in cardiac galectin-3 content. In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or DCM, plasma galectin-3 increased only in those with renal dysfunction and a trans-cardiac galectin-3 gradient was not present. Collectively, this study documents the aetiology-dependency and diverse mechanisms of increment in circulating galectin-3 levels. Our findings highlight cardiac inflammation and enhanced ß-adrenoceptor activation in mediating elevated galectin-3 levels via cardiac release in the mechanism.

17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 315(1): H58-H70, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677464

RESUMO

Informal training in preclinical research may be a contributor to the poor reproducibility of preclinical cardiology research and low rates of translation into clinical research and practice. Mouse echocardiography is a widely used technique to assess cardiac structure and function in drug intervention studies using disease models. The interobserver variability of clinical echocardiographic measurements has been shown to improve with formalized training, but preclinical echocardiography lacks similarly critical standardization of training. The aims of this investigation were to assess the interobserver variability of echocardiographic measurements from studies in mice and address any technical impediments to reproducibility by implementing standardized guidelines through formalized training. In this prospective, single-site, observational cohort study, 13 scientists performing preclinical echocardiographic image analysis were assessed for measurement of short-axis M-mode-derived dimensions and calculated left ventricular (LV) mass. Ten M-mode images of mouse hearts acquired and analyzed by an expert researcher with a spectrum of LV mass were selected for assessment and validated by autopsy weight. After the initial observation, a structured formal training program was introduced, and accuracy and reproducibility were reevaluated. Mean absolute percentage error for expert-calculated LV mass was 6 ± 4% compared with autopsy LV mass and 25 ± 21% for participants before training. Standardized formal training improved participant mean absolute percentage error by ~30% relative to expert-calculated LV mass ( P < 0.001). Participants initially categorized with high-range error (25-45%) improved to low-moderate error ranges (<15-25%). This report reveals an example of technical skill training insufficiency likely endemic to preclinical research and provides validated guidelines for echocardiographic measurement for adaptation to formalized in-training programs. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The informal training common to academic/research institutions may be a contributor to the relatively poor reproducibility observed for preclinical cardiac research. In our observation of echocardiography analysis in murine models, we present evidence of moderate interobserver variability in standard preclinical research practice at an Australian heart research institute. These observations give rise to our recommendations for practical guidelines for echocardiography analysis in an adaptable approach to general preclinical research skill training. Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at https://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/preclinical-echocardiography-training-and-guidelines/ .

18.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 314(6): H1169-H1178, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424570

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have demonstrated that anti-galectin-3 (Gal-3) interventions are effective in attenuating cardiac remodeling, fibrosis, and dysfunction. We determined, in a transgenic (TG) mouse model of fibrotic cardiomyopathy, whether Gal-3 expression was elevated and whether Gal-3 played a critical role in disease development. We studied mice with fibrotic cardiomyopathy attributable to cardiac overexpression of human ß2-adrenoceptors (ß2-TG). Cardiac expression levels of Gal-3 and fibrotic or inflammatory genes were determined. The effect of Gal-3 inhibition in ß2-TG mice was studied by treatment with Gal-3 inhibitors ( N-acetyllactosamine and modified citrus pectin) or by deletion of Gal-3 through crossing ß2-TG and Gal-3 knockout mice. Changes in cardiomyopathy phenotypes were assessed by echocardiography and biochemical assays. In ß2-TG mice at 3, 6, and 9 mo of age, upregulation of Gal-3 expression was observed at mRNA (~6- to 15-fold) and protein (~4- to 8-fold) levels. Treatment of ß2-TG mice with N-acetyllactosamine (3 wk) or modified citrus pectin (3 mo) did not reverse cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and cardiomyopathy. Similarly, Gal-3 gene deletion in ß2-TG mice aged 3 and 9 mo did not rescue the cardiomyopathy phenotype. In conclusion, the ß2-TG model of cardiomyopathy showed a robust upregulation of Gal-3 that correlated with disease severity, but Gal-3 inhibitors or Gal-3 gene deletion had no effect in halting myocardial fibrosis, remodeling, and dysfunction. Gal-3 may not be critical for cardiac fibrogenesis and remodeling in this cardiomyopathy model. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We showed a robust upregulation of cardiac galectin-3 (Gal-3) expression in a mouse model of cardiomyopathy attributable to cardiomyocyte-restricted transgenic activation of ß2-adrenoceptors. However, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Gal-3 did not confer benefit in this model, implying that Gal-3 may not be a critical disease mediator of cardiac remodeling in this model.

19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 132(3): 381-397, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358507

RESUMO

We previously showed that medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD, key regulator of fatty acid oxidation) is positively modulated in the heart by the cardioprotective kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K(p110α)). Disturbances in cardiac metabolism are a feature of heart failure (HF) patients and targeting metabolic defects is considered a potential therapeutic approach. The specific role of MCAD in the adult heart is unknown. To examine the role of MCAD in the heart and to assess the therapeutic potential of increasing MCAD in the failing heart, we developed a gene therapy tool using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) encoding MCAD. We hypothesised that increasing MCAD expression may recapitulate the cardioprotective properties of PI3K(p110α). rAAV6:MCAD or rAAV6:control was delivered to healthy adult mice and to mice with pre-existing pathological hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction due to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In healthy mice, rAAV6:MCAD induced physiological hypertrophy (increase in heart size, normal systolic function and increased capillary density). In response to TAC (~15 weeks), heart weight/tibia length increased by ~60% in control mice and ~45% in rAAV6:MCAD mice compared with sham. This was associated with an increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in both TAC groups which was similar. However, hypertrophy in TAC rAAV6:MCAD mice was associated with less fibrosis, a trend for increased capillary density and a more favourable molecular profile compared with TAC rAAV6:control mice. In summary, MCAD induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy in healthy adult mice and attenuated features of pathological remodelling in a cardiac disease model.

20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 314(4): H812-H838, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351451

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction is a prevalent major cardiovascular event that arises from myocardial ischemia with or without reperfusion, and basic and translational research is needed to better understand its underlying mechanisms and consequences for cardiac structure and function. Ischemia underlies a broad range of clinical scenarios ranging from angina to hibernation to permanent occlusion, and while reperfusion is mandatory for salvage from ischemic injury, reperfusion also inflicts injury on its own. In this consensus statement, we present recommendations for animal models of myocardial ischemia and infarction. With increasing awareness of the need for rigor and reproducibility in designing and performing scientific research to ensure validation of results, the goal of this review is to provide best practice information regarding myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and infarction models. Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at ajpheart.podbean.com/e/guidelines-for-experimental-models-of-myocardial-ischemia-and-infarction/.

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