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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 218-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935552

RESUMO

Quantification real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common method in analysis of gene expression, but the stable reference genes for the normalization analysis have not been appreciated before identifying expression pattern of genes in teleost fishes. In this study, we selected eight candidate reference genes (18S, Actin, EF-1α, 40S, B2M, TUBA, UBCE and GAPDH) basing on transcriptome analysis and the traditional housekeeping genes, and analyzed the stability of the reference genes in spleen, head kidney and head kidney leukocytes (HKL) after pathogen challenge in Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Three common programs (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) were used to evaluate the stability of the candidate reference genes. Two reference genes, Actin and EF-1α presented higher stability, while 18S and GAPDH were the lower stable genes, both in in vitro and in vivo. An important immune gene, toll-like receptor 22a (TLR22a), was selected to validate the stability of the proposed reference genes (Actin and EF-1α) across different experiment treatments. The results reveal that Actin and EF-1α are quite suitable reference genes for the normalization analysis. Otherwise, using the most stable gene Actin to validate the reliable of transcriptome data showed the high correlation between the fold change of transcriptome data and qRT-PCR data. In conclusion, our study not only acquired the suitable reference gene for the qRT-PCR assay under specific experiment condition, but also provided a comprehensive method to evaluate and validate the reference gene based on transcriptome analysis in teleost fishes.

2.
Clin Genet ; 97(2): 338-346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674007

RESUMO

The genotype-first approach has been successfully applied and has elucidated several subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it requires very large cohorts because of the extensive genetic heterogeneity. We investigate the alternate possibility of whether phenotype-specific genes can be identified from a small group of patients with specific phenotype(s). To identify novel genes associated with ASD and abnormal head circumference using a phenotype-to-genotype approach, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 67 families with ASD and abnormal head circumference. Clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants account for 23.9% of patients with microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 81.25% of those variants or genes are head-size associated. Significantly, recurrent pathogenic mutations were identified in two macrocephaly genes (PTEN, CHD8) in this small cohort. De novo mutations in several candidate genes (UBN2, BIRC6, SYNE1, and KCNMA1) were detected, as well as one new candidate gene (TNPO3) implicated in ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders. We identify genotype-phenotype correlations for head-size-associated ASD genes and novel candidate genes for further investigation. Our results also suggest a phenotype-to-genotype strategy would accelerate the elucidation of genotype-phenotype relationships for ASD by using phenotype-restricted cohorts.

3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 235-247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863902

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern that can trigger strong inflammatory response mainly by TLR4-mediated signaling pathway in mammals, but the molecular mechanism of anti-LPS immunity is unclear in teleost fishes. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression features based on transcriptome analysis in Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), after stimulation with two sources of LPS from Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli (Ah. LPS and Ecoli. LPS). 921 different expression genes (DEGs) after Ah. LPS stimulation and 975 DEGs after Ecoli.LPS stimulation were acquired, but only 706 and 750 DEGs were successfully annotated into the databases, respectively. Both of two groups of DGEs were significantly enriched into immune-related pathways by KEGG enrichment analysis, such as "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway", "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" and "JAK-STAT signaling pathway". The annotated DEGs from Ah. LPS and Ecoli. LPS stimulation shared 470 DEGs, including 88 immune-related DEGs (IRGs) identified mainly by KEGG enrichment to immune-related signaling pathways. Among the shared IRGs, four pattern-recognition genes (TLR5, TLR25, PTX3 and C1q) were induced with high expression foldchange, and IFN-γ and relative genes also showed higher expression levels than control. Meanwhile, inflammatory signals were highlighted by upregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-10 and IL-8). Moreover, some non-shared IRGs (including TLR2 and TLR4) were identified, suggesting that different sources of LPS own different potentials for the induction of immune gene expression. In conclusion, TLR5, TLR25, PTX3 and C1q may function as the sensing molecules to catch the invasion signal of LPS. The anti-LPS immune response may be involved into TLR25/TLR5-mediated inflammatory signals that regulate subsequently the activation of PTX3/C1q-modulated complement pathway upon the induction of PTX3 expression, and the crosstalk between IFN-γ and TLR signaling pathways in teleost fishes. This study will contribute to further explore the molecular mechanism of LPS-induced immunity in teleost fishes.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 92-101, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oyster polypeptides have various biofunctions, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress, but whether it has the protective effects to primary ovarian failure (POF) remains poorly understand. To address this issue, daily gavage of oyster polypeptides was performed to investigate their protective effect, basing on d-galactose-induced POF model in C57BL/6 female mice. RESULTS: Oyster polypeptides restored the irregular estrous cycles and the abnormal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) levels as well as the decreased mRNA expression level of Amh that were induced by d-galactose. The follicle development of POF mice was improved by increasing the primordial follicle ratio and decreasing the atretic follicle number after oral administration of oyster polypeptides. Moreover, in the oyster polypeptides treated mice, the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity was significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of stress-related genes (SOD2, SIRT1 and FOXO3a) were remarkably up-regulated after d-galactose induction, but the up-regulation was weakened or disappeared by the gavage of oyster polypeptides. In addition, oyster polypeptides treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the ovarian granulosa cells and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bad but not Bcl-2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that oyster polypeptides may protect ovary against d-galactose-induced POF by their anti-oxidative stress activity to rescue d-galactose-induced ovarian oxidative damage and therefore to prevent ovarian cells apoptosis, thereby tipping the abnormality trigged by POF to get close to the normal levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Environ Res ; 180: 108825, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683121

RESUMO

Chemical contamination in the environment is known to cause abnormal circular RNA (circRNA) expression through multiple exposure routes; yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially circRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic regulation and disease pathogenesis; however, few studies have examined the function of circRNAs in chemical contamination-induced diseases. CircRNAs are covalently closed continuous loops that do not possess 5' and 3' ends, increasing their structural stability and limiting degradation by exoribonucleases. In addition, environmental chemical exposure-related diseases are often accompanied by aberrant expression of specific circRNAs and those circRNAs are often detected in tissues and body fluids. Based on these characteristics, circRNAs may serve as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases related to environmental chemical exposure. Here, we review the generation and function of circRNAs, and the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of environmental chemical exposure-related disorders by circRNAs. This is the first comprehensive review of the relationship between environmental chemical exposure and circRNAs in chemical exposure-induced diseases.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 81-92, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610291

RESUMO

Mammal Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) can directly recognize bacterial flagellin, initiate the inflammatory signaling cascades and trigger body immune system to clear the "non-self" substances. In teleosts, TLR5 has presented more complexes not only in increasing the molecular types, but also in elevating the functional diversity. In this study, we identified two TLR5 family members in Schizothorax prenanti, named as spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2. The complete coding sequence (CDS) of spTLR5-1 is 2622 bp, encoding 873 amino acids, while the complete CDS of spTLR5-2 is 2640 bp, encoding 879 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 were clustered to the TLR5 of schizothorax richardsonii and Cyprinus carpio respectively. The 3D structure analysis exhibited that the α-helix, ß-sheet, and the ligand binding site of spTLR5-1, spTLR5-2 and human TLR5 have large differences. The spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 had extensively expressed in various tissues, including the higher expression in liver, spleen and head kidney. Both the expression levels of spTLR5-1 and spTLR5-2 were significantly up-regulated after Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) challenge. And, the downstream genes, such as AP-1, IKK-α, NF-kB, IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α, were also significantly up-regulated after A. hydrophila challenge. Apart from that, the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the co-transfection of spTLR5-1 or spTLR5-2 into HEK293T cells showed the significantly increased NF-kB luciferase activity after flagellin stimulation. In conclusion, our results reveal that both two molecular types of fish TLR5 may commonly mediate the recognition of flagellin and the activation of the downstream inflammatory signaling molecules.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555213

RESUMO

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), together with its structurally and functionally related neuropeptides, constitute the CRH family and play critical roles in multiple physiological processes. Recently, a novel member of this family, namely CRH2, was identified in vertebrates, however, its functionality and physiological roles remain an open question. In this study, using chicken (c-) as the animal model, we characterized the expression and functionality of CRH2 and investigated its roles in anterior pituitary. Our results showed that (1) cCRH2 cDNA is predicted to encode a 40-aa mature peptide, which shares a higher amino acid sequence identity to cCRH (63%) than to other CRH family peptides (23-38%); (2) Using pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that cCRH2 is ~15 fold more potent in activating cCRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) than cCRHR1 when expressed in CHO cells, indicating that cCRH2 is bioactive and its action is mainly mediated by CRHR2; (3) Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cCRH2 is widely expressed in chicken tissues including the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, and its transcription is likely controlled by promoters near exon 1, which display strong promoter activity in cultured DF-1 and HEK293 cells; (4) In cultured chick pituitary cells, cCRH2 potently stimulates TSHß expression and shows a lower potency in inducing ACTH secretion, indicating that pituitary/hypothalamic CRH2 can regulate pituitary functions. Collectively, our data provides the first piece of evidence to suggest that CRH2 play roles similar, but non-identical, to those of CRH, such as its differential actions on pituitary, and this helps to elucidate the roles of CRH2 in vertebrates.

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 339, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, and renal involvement is frequently present in MPA. MPA patients with renal involvement may have a worse prognosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with all-cause death and renal survival in MPA patients with renal involvement. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed. One hundred twenty-four patients newly diagnosed with MPA with renal involvement excluding end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were hospitalized at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2012 to July 2017 were included. All the survivors were followed up with until July 2018. The clinical and laboratory data at the time of the initial MPA diagnosis were collected, and the predictive values of the variables for mortality and renal outcome were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 124 patients, 52 were men (41.9%) and 72 were women (58.1%), and the age range was from 25 to 85 years (63.9±10.6 years). Seventy-six patients (61.3%) had pulmonary involvement. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that age≥65 years (HR: 2.437; P=0.021), serum creatinine≥500 µmol/L (HR=2.207; P=0.009) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) (HR=2.366; P=0.013) were associated with mortality. Cox multivariate analysis identified that serum creatinine≥500 µmol/L (HR=8.236; P<0.001) and ILD (HR=2.649; P=0.001) were independent detrimental factors for renal survival, and immunosuppressive treatment was a protective factor for renal survival (HR=0.349; P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the serum creatinine level at diagnosis was 0.705 for mortality and 0.870 for progression to ESRD or the doubling of serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: Age, serum creatinine level at diagnosis and ILD were independent predictors of mortality in MPA patients with renal involvement. Serum creatinine level at diagnosis, ILD and immunosuppressive treatment were independently related to renal survival.

9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 986-996, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422176

RESUMO

Evolutionary development has increased the diversity of genotypes and the complexity of gene functions in fish. TLR22 has been identified as a teleost-specific gene, but its functions are tremendously different among different fish species. Whether the functional diversity relates to the difference of genotypes remains poorly understand. In this study, we cloned and identified three TLR22 molecules from Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), named as spTLR22-1, spTLR22-2 and spTLR22-3. The full-length coding regions of spTLR22s are 2841 bp, 2805 bp and 2868 bp and coding 946 aa, 934 aa and 955 aa, respectively. All spTLR22s are composed of multiple leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane structure and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that three spTLR22s were close to Cyprinus carpio TLR22-1, TLR22-2 and TLR22-3, respectively. Among the spTLR22s, they presented not close relationship but remained to belong to TLR22 subfamily. All spTLR22s were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, but the expression levels of spTLR22s were dominant in immune-related tissues, such as gill and spleen. The expression levels of spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 were significantly increased after treatment with bacteria, LPS and Poly(I:C). However, spTLR22-2 seems like no response to these treatments. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that all spTLR22s could activate NF-κB signaling pathway, but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-2 could activate IFN-ß signaling pathway. Interestingly, in the ligand recognition analysis, spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 had the recognized potential to Poly(I:C), and all spTLR22s could not recognize LPS. Both spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 significantly up-regulated the expression of anti-viral-related genes (Mx, IFN and ISG15) and down-regulated the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 after the overexpression in carp EPC cell line, but spTLR22-2 failed to impact the expression of these genes. Moreover, we found that all spTLR22s localized to the intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 may be involved into the anti-viral immune response via IFN-ß signaling pathway, and all spTLR22s can activate NF-κB signaling pathway but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 response to the stimulation of bacteria and LPS.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Linhagem Celular , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Luciferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/veterinária , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 525-541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399983

RESUMO

Since the lipid nephrotoxicity hypothesis was proposed in 1982, increasing evidence has supported the hypothesis that lipid abnormalities contributed to the progression of glomerulosclerosis. In this chapter, we will discuss the general promises of the original hypothesis, focusing especially on the role of lipids and metabolic inflammation accompanying CKD in renal fibrosis and potential new strategies of prevention.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipídeos
11.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 5(2): 118-125, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019925

RESUMO

Background: Renal osteodystrophy has caused increased risk of fragility fracture in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, risk factors and outcome of ESRD patients with fragility fracture remain uncharacterized. We aimed to assess these parameters in ESRD patients. Summary: This retrospective case-control study analyzed 354 ESRD patients (initial fragility fracture [FF] group, n = 59; control group, n = 295). Pre-dialysis blood hemoglobin, serum albumin, lipid, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were collected. All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (IRB approval number 216-82), and informed consent was obtained from all participants. There were higher prevalence rates of primary hypertension and diabetes, higher serum ALP, corrected calcium, and lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein-α, and iPTH in the FF group. Fractures were more likely to occur in the higher level of corrected calcium as well as in the lower iPTH group. High corrected calcium (p = 0.010, OR = 11.308, 95% CI: 1.770-72.242) and serum ALP (p = 0.000, OR = 1.007, 95% CI: 1.004-1.011) were independent risk factors of fragility fracture. The incidence of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in ESRD patients with fragility fracture was higher than in those without fracture. Key Messages: Patients with hypertension, diabetes, excessive suppression of PTH, and poor nutritional status are more prone to fractures. Serum corrected calcium and ALP were independent risk factors of fragility fracture. Patients with initial fragility fracture had more CV events and higher mortality.

12.
Theriogenology ; 131: 32-40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939354

RESUMO

The accumulation of skatole in fat tissue is one of the predominant factors, causing boar taint. The present study was aimed to understand the mechanism whereby active immunization against GnRH (immunocastration) eliminates skatole in boars. Thirty-six boars were assigned within litter into three groups (n = 12): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (with a booster 8 wk later). Faecal and blood samples (for skatole and skatole-regulatory hormone profiles) were collected at 4-wk intervals until boars were slaughtered (26 weeks). Immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of androstenone, 17ß-estradiol and IGF1 especially after the booster immunization, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expressions of both IGF1 and IGF1receptor (IGF1R) in mucosa of ileum as well as colon at slaughter. Compared to intact controls, immunocastration substantially decreased (P < 0.05) faecal skatole contents subsequent to the decrease of serum IGF1 levels, which persisted in boars after surgical castration. In parallel with the decreased formation of skatole in the intestine, levels of skatole in serum and then in fat tissue were also decreased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, deprivation of testicular steroids, especially androstenone and 17ß-estradiol accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver by increasing (P < 0.05) hepatic CYP2E1, CYP2A, CYP2C49 and CYB5A expressions. Collectively, our results suggested that immunocastration decreased skatole formation in the intestine and meanwhile accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver, resultantly eliminating skatole accumulation in male pigs. Decreased intestinal skatole formation by immunocastration appeared to be associated with the attenuated actions of IGF1 on the turnover of both ileal and colon mucosa.


Assuntos
Escatol/metabolismo , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Suínos , Animais , Fezes/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Escatol/sangue , Esterilização Reprodutiva/métodos
13.
Virology ; 530: 32-38, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776508

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological illness in humans. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the causative agent, can be grouped into Far Eastern, Siberian, and (Western) European subtypes. These subtypes are characterized by diverse vector specificity, host range and clinical manifestations. To provide hints for the decisive genetic factors underlying their epidemic and pathogenic diversities, we performed a genome-wide evolutionary study to evaluate the genetic diversity accompanied with the segregations of TBEV subtypes. The results show that adaptive selection has driven the diversification among these subtypes. Furthermore, the adaptive divergence-related changes have taken place on the proteins C, NS1, and/or NS2A. These results highlight candidate genes for the epidemic and pathogenic diversities, and will be useful in understanding the epidemic and pathogenic features of TBE.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/classificação , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(3): 4366-4374, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387162

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are essential components of the innate immune response, play an important role in acute kidney injury (AKI). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is constitutively expressed in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney and participates in cisplatin-induced AKI. The autophagy is a dynamic catabolic process that maintains intracellular homeostasis, which is involved in the pathogenesis of AKI. Recent studies demonstrate that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway regulates autophagy in response to various stimuli. Therefore, we propose that cisplatin might activate TLR2, which subsequently phosphorylates PI3K/Akt, leading to enhanced autophagy of renal tubular epithelial cells and protecting cisplatin-induced AKI. We found that TLR2 expression was significantly increased in the kidney after the cisplatin treatment. TLR2-deficient mice exacerbated renal injury in cisplatin-induced AKI, with higher serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, more severe morphological injury compared with that of wild-type mice. In vitro, we found that inhibition of TLR2 reduced tubular epithelial cell autophagy after the cisplatin treatment. Mechanistically, TLR2 inhibited autophagy via activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells after the cisplatin treatment. Take together, these results suggest that TLR2 may protect cisplatin-induced AKI by activating autophagy via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 816-824, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393178

RESUMO

Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), an important species of economical fish in Southwest China, is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah). To understand the immune response to Ah, the transcriptome profiling of spleen of S. prenanti was analyzed after Ah infection. A total of 6, 213 different expression genes (DEGs) were obtained, including 3, 066 up-regulated DEGs and 3, 147 down-regulated DEGs. These DEGs were annotated by KEGG and GO databases, so that the immune-related DEGs (IRDs) can be identified and classified. Then, the interesting IRDs were screened to build heat map, and the reliability of the transcriptome data was validated by qPCR. In order to clarify the mechanism of signal transduction in the anti-bacterial immunity, the signaling pathway initiated by TLRs was predicted. In this pathway, TLR25 and TLR5 mediate the NF-κB and AP-1 signals via MyD88-dependent pathway. Meanwhile, the type I IFN (IFNα/ß) induced by IRF1 and IRF3/7 may play an important role in the anti-bacterial immunity. In conclusion, this study preliminarily provides insights into the mechanism of signal transduction after Ah infection in S. prenanti, which contributes to exploring the complex anti-bacterial immunity.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Baço/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética
16.
Mol Autism ; 9: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564305

RESUMO

Background: We previously performed targeted sequencing of autism risk genes in probands from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) (phase I). Here, we expand this analysis to a larger cohort of patients (ACGC phase II) to better understand the prevalence, inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlations of likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations for autism candidate genes originally identified in cohorts of European descent. Methods: We sequenced 187 autism candidate genes in an additional 784 probands and 85 genes in 599 probands using single-molecule molecular inversion probes. We tested the inheritance of potentially pathogenic mutations, performed a meta-analysis of phase I and phase II data and combined our results with existing exome sequence data to investigate the phenotypes of carrier parents and patients with multiple hits in different autism risk genes. Results: We validated recurrent, LGD, de novo mutations (DNMs) in 13 genes. We identified a potential novel risk gene (ZNF292), one novel gene with recurrent LGD DNMs (RALGAPB), as well as genes associated with macrocephaly (GIGYF2 and WDFY3). We identified the transmission of private LGD mutations in genes predominantly associated with DNMs and showed that parental carriers tended to share milder autism-related phenotypes. Patients that carried DNMs in two or more candidate genes show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions: We identify new risk genes and transmission of deleterious mutations in genes primarily associated with DNMs. The fact that parental carriers show milder phenotypes and patients with multiple hits are more severe supports a multifactorial model of risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(18): 2216-2225, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203797

RESUMO

Objective: A comprehensive review of the network regulation of exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurodegenerative diseases was done, centering on the mechanism of the formation of exosomes and miRNAs and the sorting mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis in the search of biomarkers and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Data Sources: The comprehensive search used online literature databases including NCBI PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar. Study Selection: The study selection was based on the following keywords: exosomes, miRNAs, central nervous system (CNS), and neurodegenerative diseases. The time limit for literature retrieval was from the year 2000 to 2018, with language restriction in English. Relevant articles were carefully reviewed, with no exclusions applied to study design and publication type. Results: Exosomes are the smallest nanoscale membranous microvesicles secreted by cells and contain important miRNAs, among other rich contents. In the CNS, exosomes can transport amyloid ß-protein, α-synuclein, Huntington-associated protein 1, and superoxide dismutase I to other cells. These events relieve the abnormal accumulation of proteins and aggravating neurological diseases. In some neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, miRNAs are pathologically altered as an inexorable course, suggesting that miRNAs may contribute neurodegeneration. Exosomes and miRNAs form a network to regulate the homeostasis of the CNS, both synergistically and individually. Conclusion: The network of exosomes and miRNAs that regulates CNS homeostasis is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 82: 361-370, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081181

RESUMO

TLR25 is a new member of TLR1 family that is only identified in teleosts, but its function in immune response is still unclear. In current study, the coding sequence (CDS) of TLR25 was cloned from Schizothorax prenanti (named spTLR25), and spTLR25 is 2454 bp in length and coding a protein of 817 aa. The spTLR25 contains a signal peptide, twenty leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a LRR C-terminal (LRRCT) motif, a transmembrane region and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that spTLR25 has the closest relationship with Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) TLR25-2. The 3D structure of spTLR25 exhibits 5 α-helices and 3 ß-sheets in the TIR domain, and 8 α-helices and 6 ß-sheets in the LRR domains. The spTLR25 is mainly expressed in immune-related tissues and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Furthermore, the expression levels of spTLR25 were upregulated in spleen, head kidney and liver while S. prenanti was challenged with LPS or Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah), and the upregulation was also detected in head kidney leukocytes (HKL) after LPS and Poly (I:C) stimulation. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways can be activated by spTLR25, and this process may involve in the cascade amplification of TLR25-MyD88 signaling. In addition, the co-localization analysis showed that spTLR25 localizes to intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that teleost-specific TLR25 may be a multifunctional receptor for recognizing both LPS and Poly (I:C) and may activate NF-κB and type I IFNs signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interferon Tipo I , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/química
19.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 43(1): 206-219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often accompanied by hyperlipidemia, which accelerates progression of the disease. Podocyte injury can lead to dysfunction of the glomerular filtration barrier, which is associated with proteinuria, a risk marker for the progression of CKD. Our previous studies demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) can induce podocyte apoptosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the specific molecular mechanisms of PA-induced apoptosis in cultured podocytes. METHODS: We cultured mouse podocytes and treated them with PA. Then, cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 colorimetric assay, lipid uptake was assessed by Oil Red O staining and boron-dipyrromethene staining, apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, mitochondrial injury was assessed by JC-1 staining and transmission electron microscopy, and mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy using the MitoSOX Red reagent. The effects of PA on the mitochondria-mediated caspase activation pathway were investigated by examining the expression of caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, Bid, cytochrome c, and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) using western blotting. The translocation of Bax and cytochrome c were detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: PA treatment significantly increased lipid accumulation and induced podocyte apoptosis. We investigated whether the two primary apoptosis signaling pathways (death receptor-mediated pathway and mitochondria-mediated pathway) were involved in the execution of PA-induced podocyte apoptosis, and found that the levels of FADD, caspase-8, and Bid did not significantly change during this process. Meanwhile, PA treatment induced an increase in Bax protein expression and a decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression, with Bax translocation to the mitochondria. Furthermore, PA treatment induced mitochondrial impairment, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol, with a concomitant dose-dependent increase in the levels of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP. Meanwhile, PA treatment increased mitochondrial production of ROS, and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO significantly ameliorated PA-induced podocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that PA induced caspase-dependent podocyte apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, and mitochondrial ROS production participated in this process, thus potentially contributing to podocyte injury.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Podócitos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 1484-1492, 2018 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Increased lipid accumulation in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) contributes to their injury and dysfunction and progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, is effective in lowing serum lipid, and has a protective effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) with dyslipidemia, including diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on palmitate (PA)-induced lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2) cells were treated with PA, BBR, and/or palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) inhibitor Etomoxir. Intracellular lipid content was assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red staining. Cell apoptosis rate was evaluated by flow cytometry assay. The expression of apoptosis-related protein cleaved-caspase3 and fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-regulating proteins, including CPT1A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and PPARγ co-activator-1α (PGC1α), was measured by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. RESULTS In the present study, PA treatment increased intracellular lipid deposition accompanied by elevated apoptosis in TECs compared with control group, whereas the protein expression of CPT1A, PPARα, and PGC1α, did not correspondingly increase in TECs. BBR significantly up-regulated the protein expression of CPT1A, PPARα, and PGC1α in TECs treated with or without PA, and reversed PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Moreover, the CPT1A inhibitor Etomoxir counteracted the protective effect of BBR in TECs. CONCLUSIONS These in vitro findings suggest that PA can induce intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs, and the mechanism may be associated with inducing defective FAO, whereas BBR can protect TECs against PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis by promoting FAO.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Palmitatos/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
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