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1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cucumber downy mildew (CDM) is a severe plant disease and affects the yield of cucumber production worldwide. As the resistance toward conventional fungicides is emerging as a ubiquitous issue, it is urgent to discover efficient fungicides with unique structures. RESULTS: In this study, a series of novel phenylpyridine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Bioassays revealed that most of these compounds possessed excellent fungicidal activities against CDM. Among the phenylpyridine compounds, 2-(4-(4-(tert-butyl) benzyl) piperazin-1-yl)-6-phenylnicotinonitrile (C8) (EC50  = 4.40 mg/L) displayed the highest activity, which was better than those of the commercial fungicides, such as azoxystrobin (EC50  = 42.77 mg/L) and flumorph (EC50  = 41.94 mg/L). Furthermore, the molecular electrostatic potential of high-activity compound C8 indicated that nitrogen atom of the cyano group on the pyridine ring was in the negative region and may easily form hydrogen bonds and allow for electrostatic interactions with potential receptors. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the novel N-substituted piperazine-containing phenylpyridine derivatives could be further developed as a candidate compound to control CDM.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919581

RESUMO

An air-fluid level within a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is unusual and indicates the presence of a fistula within the lumen of the GI tract. Until recently, the optimal management of such patients was not clear-cut. This retrospective study investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, surgical procedures, pre-and post-operative management, and prognosis of patients with GIST containing an air-fluid level. Data of GIST patients, spanning 5 years, including 17 GIST patients with air-fluid levels in the experimental group and 34 GIST patients without air-fluid levels in the control group, were retrieved from two hospitals in China. The clinicopathological characteristics, types of surgery, management, and clinical outcomes of GIST patients were compared between the two groups. GISTs containing air-fluid levels were significantly different from GISTs without air-fluid levels regarding tumor morphology, NIH risk category, invasion of adjacent organs, and necrosis or ulceration. Most GIST patients with air-fluid levels (14/17, 82.4%) received open surgery, significantly higher than the 20.6% in the control group. Targeted therapy with Imatinib mesylate (IM) was implemented in all GIST patients in the experimental group (17/17, 100%); markedly higher than those (3/34, 8.8%) in the control group. During follow-up, recurrence and death rates (5.9% and 5.9%) in the experimental group were higher than those (2.9% and 0%) in the control group. Open surgery is commonly performed in GIST patients with air-fluid levels who also require targeted therapy with IM. The Torricelli-Bernoulli sign could be a risk factor, adversely affecting the patient's prognosis.


Assuntos
Fístula do Sistema Digestório/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fístula do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Trato Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827956

RESUMO

Lipin-1 is known to play a regulatory role in tissues that function in lipid metabolism. In dairy cows, the lipin-1 gene (LPIN1) is highly expressed in the mammary gland, but its function in milk production is less understood. In this study, we used PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis to investigate sequence variation in three regions of bovine LPIN1 in New Zealand Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF × J)-cross dairy cows, including part of the 5' non-coding region, the region containing the LPIN1ß-spliced exon, and the sixth coding exon that encodes the putative transcriptional activating domain of the protein. No variation was found in the LPIN1ß-spliced exon, but two sequence variants containing one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were identified in the 5' non-coding region and four sequence variants containing four non-synonymous SNPs were identified in the sixth coding exon. Among the three common variants of the sixth coding exon, variant C was found to be associated with an increase in milk fat percentage (presence 4.96 ± 0.034% vs. absence 4.81 ± 0.050%; p = 0.006) and milk protein percentage (presence 4.09 ± 0.017% vs. absence 3.99 ± 0.025%; p = 0.001), but no associations (p > 0.01) were detected for milk yield. These results suggest that variation in LPIN1 affect the synthesis of fat and proteins in milk and has potential as a gene-marker to improve milk production traits.

4.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(10): 851-6, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of acupuncture in improving cognitive ability by regulating hippocampal phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in vascular dementia (VD) rats. METHODS: A total of 80 male SD rats were randomized into sham operation, model, non-acupoint and acupoint groups (n=18 per group). The VD model was established by ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries. For rats of the acupoint group, "Baihui" (GV20) and bilateral "Zusanli "(ST36) were needled and stimulated by twirling the needles with reinforcing method, and for rats of the non-acupoint group, the bilateral subcostal spots (about 10 mm superior to the iliac cresta) were needled and stimulated by twirling the needles with uniform reinforcing and reducing method. The treatment was conducted once daily, 6 times a week for two weeks, beginning 3 days after successful modeling. Rats of the sham operation group and model group received grasps as those in the acupoint groups. Morris water maze test was used to detect the abilities of learning and spatial memory. The contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) in the hippocampus tissue were detected by using ELISA, changes of hippocampal mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) detected using JC-1 fluorescence probe, and the expression levels of hippocampal phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, p-Akt and mTOR proteins measured using Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the sham operation group, the escape latency, contents of ROS and MDA, and AChE activity were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the spatial memory ability, SOD activity, ChAT activity, MMP, p-PI3K, p-Akt and mTOR expression levels were significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, carotid artery ligature-induced increase of the escape latency, contents of ROS and MDA, and AChE activity, and decrease of the spatial memory ability, SOD activity, ChAT activity, MMP, p-PI3K, p-Akt and mTOR expression levels were significantly reversed in the acupuncture group (P< 0.05), but not in the non-acupoint group (P>0.05). The therapeutic effects of acupoint needling were obviously superior to those of non-acupoint needling in decreasing the escape latency, contents of ROS and MDA, and AChE activity (P<0.05), and in increasing the spatial memory ability, SOD activity, ChAT activity, MMP, p-PI3K, p-Akt and mTOR expre-ssion levels (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture can improve cognitive function of VD rats, which may be related with its functions in easing oxidative stress and MMP reduction by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Demência Vascular , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Cognição , Demência Vascular/genética , Demência Vascular/terapia , Hipocampo , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
5.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153701, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by limited airflow due to pulmonary and alveolar abnormalities from exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). Current therapeutic drugs are limited and the development of novel treatments to prevent disease progression is challenging. Isoforskolin (ISOF) from the plant Coleus forskohlii is an effective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms. Previously we found ISOF could attenuate acute lung injury in animal models, while the effect of ISOF on COPD has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ISOF on COPD and reveal its potential mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of COPD was established by long-term exposure to CS, then the rats were orally administered with ISOF (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg). The pulmonary function, lung morphology, inflammatory cells and cytokines in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated. Transcriptomics, proteomics and network pharmacology analysis were utilized to identify potential mechanisms of ISOF. Droplet digital PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of AC1-10 in donor lung tissues. AC activation was determined in recombinant human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing human AC isoforms. In addition, ISOF caused trachea relaxation ex vivo were assessed in isolated trachea rings from guinea pigs. RESULTS: ISOF significantly ameliorated pathological damage of lung tissue and improved pulmonary function in COPD rats. ISOF treatment decreased the number of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood, and also the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and BALF. Consistent with omics-based analyses, ISOF markedly downregulated the mTOR level in lung tissue. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ISOF treatment reduced the ratio of Th17/Treg cells in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the expression levels of AC1 and AC2 are relatively higher than other AC isoforms in normal lung tissues, and ISOF could potently activate AC1 and AC2 in vitro and significantly relax isolated guinea pig trachea. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our studies suggest that ISOF exerts its anti-COPD effect by improving lung function, anti-inflammation and trachea relaxation, which may be related to AC activation, mTOR signaling and Th17/Treg balance.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases , Colforsina/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumaça , Animais , Coleus/química , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar
6.
Org Lett ; 23(17): 6750-6755, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406770

RESUMO

The catalytic diastereo- and enantioselective syntheses of C2-symmetric axially chiral 1,4-dicarbonyl derivatives with 2,3-quaternary stereocenters were achieved by utilizing an organo-/iodine binary catalytic strategy. The reactions proceeded well under mild conditions without metals or strong bases.

7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202103

RESUMO

Eight novel pyridyl-oxazole carboxamides were evaluated against fungi and displayed good fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinereal and Rhizoctonia solani. Preliminary bioassay results indicated that at 100 mg/L, compounds 6a-6e, 6g and 6h exhibited 100% fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinerea, and the compound 6b to Rhizoctonia solani at 100%. Then, the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test was performed to assess the toxicity of 6b and 6c. A series of malformations appeared, when the zebrafish embryos were exposed to 6b and 6c, such as delayed yolk sac resorption, significant shortening of body length, pericardial edema, bending spine, lack of melanin, heart hemorrhage, head hemorrhage, delayed swim sac development, yolk malformation and head malformation. In addition, the acute toxicity of 6b to zebrafish embryo is 4.878 mg/L, and 6c is 6.257 mg/L.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Imidazóis , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia
8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 684309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109130

RESUMO

The standard third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) includes the small-molecule anti-vascular drugs (Regofenib and Fruquintinib) and the chemotherapy drug trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride (TAS-102). There is no standard treatment for mCRC if the third-line treatment failed. Therefore, it is a pressing need to develop new therapeutic approaches to improve the survival of patients who developed drug resistance to the third-line treatment. In this study, we report a case of mCRC with RAS/BRAF wild-type, who was successfully treated using cetuximab in combination with fruquintinib after resistance to chemotherapy, bevacizumab, cetuximab and regorafenib. This patient responded to this combination regimen. Then, we discuss the mechanisms of action of this combination. Furthermore, we introduce the clinical trials on the combination regimens of anti-EGFR with anti-vascular monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we discuss the clinical explorations of using combination of anti-EGFR with small-molecule anti-VEGF drugs and their potential benefits. The clinical effects of small-molecule anti-vascular drugs in combination with anti-EGFR in the treatment of CRC warrant further explored.

9.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(5): 1707-1717, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146386

RESUMO

The telencephalon is also known as the cerebrum, and it consists of the largest part of the brain. It makes up about 85% of the total weight of the brain. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a protein found in neurons of both the peripheral and central nervous system that appears to convey some resilience to hypoxia, while the hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif-1α) is a dimeric protein complex that plays an integral role in the body's response to low oxygen concentrations, or hypoxia. The study examines the expression of Ngb and Hif-1α in the telencephalon of adult yak in the telencephalon. The immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon. Ngb and Hif-1α are significantly expressed in all tissues of the telencephalon except the hypothalamus. The cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum and corpus callosum recorded the highest expression but not significant. The overall expression revealed that Ngb expression was higher as compared to Hif-1α. The IHC results also showed that the expression of Ngb and Hif-1α were higher in the cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum and corpus callosum as compared to other regions. The results suggested that Ngb and Hif-1α expression influence the adaptive mechanism of yak to the high altitude environment. Both Ngb and Hif-1α participate in oxygen transports throughout the telencephalon and have functions in neuroprotection. Further studies are needed to confirm the mechanism of adaptation.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7657, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828195

RESUMO

RecurIndex, a multigene profiling assay, can predict the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis in female breast cancer (FBC), but its role in male breast cancer (MBC) remains unclear. In this study, the clinicopathological data of 43 consecutive MBC patients undergoing surgeries between 2009 and 2018 were retrospectively analysed. Their paraffin-embedded tissue sections were examined by RecurIndex test which comprised 2 models: recurrence index for local recurrence (RI-LR) and recurrence index for distant recurrence (RI-DR). Of 43 patients, there were 26 low-risk and 17 high-risk patients assessed by RI-LR, while 17 low-risk and 26 high-risk patients by RI-DR. For RI-LR, tumor N stage showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) between low- and high-risk patients; for RI-DR, differences were pronounced in tumor grade (P = 0.033), T stage (P = 0.043) and N stage (P = 0.003). In terms of clinical outcomes, the overall survival (OS) of low- and high-risk patients stratified by RI-LR showed no statistically significant differences (P = 0.460), while high-risk patients identified by RI-DR had a significantly worse distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) (P = 0.035), progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.019) and OS (P = 0.044) than low-risk patients. Overall, RI-DR can effectively predict the DRFS, PFS and OS of MBC patients and identify those at low risk of recurrence, which may serve as a potential prognostic tool for MBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 167: 160-168, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249155

RESUMO

One water exopolysaccharide, designated G-EPS, was secreted by Rhodopseudomonas palustris GJ-22 culture media. The structure of G-EPS was characterized with HPGPC, GC-MS, methylation, 1D and 2D NMR, along with UV and FT-IR spectrum. The G-EPS molecular weight was 10.026 kilodalton, and is composed of D-mannose (92.8%) and d-glucose (7.2%). The purified G-EPS promoted plant growth and induced systemic resistance against TMV in Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggested that G-EPS is an important active component of the bio-control capacity of GJ-22.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Rodopseudomonas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Phytopathology ; 111(3): 500-508, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876530

RESUMO

G-negative bacteria produce myriad N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) that can function as quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules. AHLs are also known to regulate various plant biological activities. p-Coumaroyl-homoserine lactone (pC-HSL) is the only QS molecule produced by a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The role of pC-HSL in the interaction between R. palustris and plant has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of pC-HSL on plant immunity and found that this QS molecule can induce a systemic resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. The results show that pC-HSL treatment can prolong the activation of two mitogen-associated protein kinase genes (i.e., NbSIPK and NbWIPK) and increase the expression of transcription factor WRKY8 as well as immune response marker genes NbPR1 and NbPR10, leading to an increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the TMV-infected plants. Our results also show that pC-HSL treatment can increase activities of two ROS-scavenging enzymes, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Knockdown of NbSIPK or NbWIPK expression in N. benthamiana plants through virus-induced gene silencing nullified or attenuated pC-HSL-induced systemic resistance, indicating that the functioning of pC-HSL relies on the activity of those two kinases. Meanwhile, pC-HSL-pretreated plants also showed a strong induction of kinase activities of NbSIPK and NbWIPK after TMV inoculation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pC-HSL treatment increases plant resistance to TMV infection, which is helpful to uncover the outcome of interaction between R. palustris and its host plants.


Assuntos
Percepção de Quorum , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Plantas , Rodopseudomonas , Tabaco , Regulação para Cima
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260627

RESUMO

Squamosa promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes are plant-specific transcription factors involved in plant growth and development, morphogenesis and biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, these genes have been understudied in pepper, especially with respect to defense responses to Phytophthora capsici infection. CaSBP11 is a SBP-box family gene in pepper that was identified in our previous research. Silencing CaSBP11 enhanced the defense response of pepper plants to Phytophthora capsici. Without treatment, the expression of defense-related genes (CaBPR1, CaPO1, CaSAR8.2 and CaDEF1) increased in CaSBP11-silenced plants. However, the expression levels of these genes were inhibited under transient CaSBP11 expression. CaSBP11 overexpression in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana decreased defense responses, while in Arabidopsis, it induced or inhibited the expression of genes in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways. CaSBP11 overexpression in sid2-2 mutants induced AtNPR1, AtNPR3, AtNPR4, AtPAD4, AtEDS1, AtEDS5, AtMPK4 and AtNDR1 expression, while AtSARD1 and AtTGA6 expression was inhibited. CaSBP11 overexpression in coi1-21 and coi1-22 mutants, respectively, inhibited AtPDF1.2 expression and induced AtPR1 expression. These results indicate CaSBP11 has a negative regulatory effect on defense responses to Phytophthora capsici. Moreover, it may participate in the defense response of pepper to Phytophthora capsici by regulating defense-related genes and the salicylic and jasmonic acid-mediated disease resistance signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Capsicum/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Capsicum/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Inativação Gênica , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/microbiologia
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1779-1785, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134511

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Bactrian camel, which is native to China and Mongolia, is large in size and is an even-toed ungulate species. The double humps on the Bactrian camel back differentiate it from the dromedary camel, which has a single hump. This species has adapted to unsuitable conditions (lack of food and water) in the Gobi Desert and is advanced in unique anatomical and physiological characteristics during a prolonged evolution period. Several studies have been conducted on the anatomical features of the Bactrian camel, but none have given attention to the alveolar capillaries of the Bactrian camel lung. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the architecture of the alveolar capillary in the Bactrian camel lung and further explain the mechanism of blood flow in its lung. The current study extracted and examined the architecture of the alveolar capillary in the lung of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and further explained the mechanism of blood flow by performing lung casting and replica scanning electron microscopy methods. The reports showed that the resources of the alveolar-capillary originated from the capillaries of the subpleural space or interlobular septulum, sometimes originating from the precapillary arterioles or directly from the terminal arterioles. The alveolar capillaries anastomosed and formed a single layer of dense, basket-like network surrounding the alveolus. The mash diameter of the alveolar-capillary network was larger than that of the capillary, and the appearance of the mash was oval and elliptical. Many of the collapsed alveolar-capillary networks were found in the alveolar microvascular architecture in the lung of the Bactrian camel. The study found that, due to many collapsed alveoli in the Bactrian camel lung, the disproportional pressure between the pulmonary alveoli induced less imbalance of blood flow in the alveolar capillary, which affected the gas exchange efficiency. Therefore, the function of the anastomosing capillary branch was likely to regulate the blood flow between the alveolar-capillary network.


RESUMEN: El camello bactriano, es originario de China y Mongolia, es de gran tamaño y es una especie de ungulado de dedos pares. Las dobles jorobas del lomo del camello bactriano lo diferencian del dromedario, que tiene una sola joroba. Esta especie se ha adaptado a condiciones inadecuadas (falta de alimento y agua) en el desierto de Gobi y ha avanzado en características anatómicas y fisiológicas únicas durante un período de evolución prolongado. Se han realizado varios estudios sobre las características anatómicas del camello bactriano, pero ninguno ha prestado atención a los capilares alveolares del pulmón de este animal. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal explorar la arquitectura del capilar alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano y explicar el mecanismo del flujo sanguíneo. A partir de nuestro trabajo se examinó la arquitectura del capilar alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano (Camelus bactrianus) mediante la realización de métodos de microscopía electrónica de barrido y escaneo pulmonar. Los informes mostraron que los recursos del alvéolo-capilar se originaban en los capilares del espacio subpleural o del tabique interlobulillar y a veces se originaban en las arteriolas precapilares o directamente en las arteriolas terminales. Los capilares alveolares se anastomosaban y formaban una densa red de capa única en forma de cesta que rodeaba el alvéolo. El diámetro del macerado de la red alveolar-capilar era mayor que el del capilar y el aspecto del macerado era ovalado y elíptico. Muchas de las redes alvéolo-capilares colapsadas se encontraron en la arquitectura microvascular alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano. El estudio encontró que, muchos alvéolos colapsados en el pulmón del camello bactriano, la presión desproporcionada entre los alvéolos pulmonares inducía un menor desequilibrio del flujo sanguíneo en el capilar alveolar, lo que afectaba la eficiencia del intercambio de gases. Por lo tanto, la función de la rama capilar anastomosante probablemente regularía el flujo sanguíneo entre la red alveolar-capilar.


Assuntos
Animais , Alvéolos Pulmonares/irrigação sanguínea , Alvéolos Pulmonares/ultraestrutura , Capilares/anatomia & histologia , Capilares/ultraestrutura , Camelus/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
16.
Molecules ; 25(15)2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722453

RESUMO

A series of novel phenyl methoxyacrylate derivatives containing a 2-alkenylthiopyrimidine substructure were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in terms of acaricidal activity. The structures of the title compounds were identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectra (HRMS). Compound (E)-methyl 2-(2-((2-(3,3-dichloroallylthio)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yloxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacr-ylate (4j) exhibited significant acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) in greenhouse tests possessing nearly twice the larvicidal and ovicidal activity compared to fluacrypyrim. Furthermore, the results of the field trials demonstrated that compound 4j could effectively control Panonychuscitri with long-lasting persistence and rapid action. The toxicology data in terms of LD50 value confirmed that compound 4j has a relatively low acute toxicity to mammals, birds, and honeybees.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Inseticidas/química , Pirimidinas/química , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Acaricidas/síntese química , Acrilatos/síntese química , Acrilatos/química , Acrilatos/farmacologia , Animais , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tetranychidae/patogenicidade
17.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 18(8): 362-367, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609042

RESUMO

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious threat to individual health. Diagnosis of OSA is mainly polysomnography (PSG). However, PSG monitoring is costly and time-consuming. At present, increasing studies are exploring new diagnostic methods for OSA. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic role of Sestrin2 in OSA. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects were recruited in this study. The concentration of plasma Sestrin2 of all subjects were measured and compared. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between plasma Sestrin2 concentration and other factors. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to investigate the role of Sestrin2 in the diagnosis of OSA, moderate-severe and severe OSA. Results: Subjects were divided into OSA group (n = 38) and control (n = 26). Levels of Plasma Sestrin2 were significantly higher in OSA patients than in controls. Sestrin2 was positively correlated with oxygen reduction index and negatively correlated with mean oxygen saturation and lowest oxygen saturation. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of Sestrin2 for OSA diagnosis was 0.740 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.615-0.842], the cutoff value was 1.86 ng/mL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 81.58% and 61.54%, respectively. The AUC of Sestrin2 for the diagnosis of severe OSA was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.682-0.890), and the cutoff value was 5.21 ng/mL exhibiting the sensitivity and specificity of 61.90% and 90.70%, respectively. Conclusion: Setrin2 is a marker for OSA and may be helpful in the diagnosis of OSA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissonografia , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(3): 591-599, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is native to Eurasia and is a member of the family Bovidae. Prior to 1920, the antelope had been extensively hunted for its horns, which were used in traditional Chinese medicine. Since 1920, the Saiga antelope has been protected because of this extensive hunting, which nearly led to its extinction. OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated haematological and biochemical parameters to provide references for the Calf Saiga antelope (S. tatarica). The study also sought to explore the mechanisms affecting these parameters in both genders of the Calf Saiga antelope. METHODS: Haematological and biochemical parameters were collected from the Calf Saiga antelope. Haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed by the Coulter counter and Automatic analyser, respectively. RESULTS: The average concentrations of female triglyceride levels showed significantly higher values than the significant concentrations of male. Female red blood cells and platelets concentrations were statistically significant than the significant concentrations of males. Magnesium female concentrations were also significantly higher than male values. Other parameters showed differences between males and females. CONCLUSION: The reported results show that haematological and biochemical characteristics varied among Calf Saiga antelope and other animals. The study results suggest that regardless of the factors, breed, the breeding environment, and climatic variables, haematological and biochemical variations can be triggered that can result in a reduction in the heat production needed for maintenance of homeothermy.


Assuntos
Antílopes/sangue , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Magnésio/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , China , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Can Respir J ; 2019: 2047674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781313

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to serious complications such as coronary heart disease and hypertension due to oxidative stress. Sestrin2 expression is upregulated under conditions of oxidative stress. This study aimed to explore whether Sestrin2 was involved in OSA. OSA and healthy control subjects were recruited and matched with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Plasma Sestrin2 levels were measured and compared. A multivariate stepwise regression model was used to detect the relationship between Sestrin2 and other variable factors. The Sestrin2 levels were compared between before and after four weeks treatment by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in severe OSA patients. Fifty-seven subjects were divided into two groups: control group (39.33 ± 9.40 years, n = 21) and OSA group (38.81 ± 7.84 years, n = 36). Plasma Sestrin2 levels increased in the OSA group (control group 2.06 ± 1.76 ng/mL, OSA group 4.16 ± 2.37 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Sestrin2 levels decreased after four-week nCPAP treatment (pre-nCPAP 5.21 ± 2.32 ng/mL, post-nCPAP 4.01 ± 1.54 ng/mL; P = 0.004). Sestrin2 was positively correlated with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) oxygen desaturation index, while negatively correlated with mean oxygen saturation. Moreover, these correlations remained unchanged after adjusting for gender, age, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was an association between Sestrin2 and AHI. Our findings suggest that Sestrin2 is involved in OSA. The increase of plasma Sestrin2 is directly related to the severity of OSA. To some extent, Sestrin2 may be useful for determining the severity of OSA and monitoring the effect of CPAP. In addition, since some complications of OSA such as coronary heart disease and diabetes are usually related with oxidative stress, the role of Sestrin2 in those OSA complications needs further study.


Assuntos
Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
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