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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is among the deadliest forms of cancer globally. Carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) is known to play central roles in regulating many cancers, but its function in the context of PAAD is rarely discussed. This study was, therefore, designed to assess the expression of CA12 in PAAD and to explore its underlying mechanistic role in this cancer type. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure CA12 expression in PAAD samples. The functionality of pancreatic cancer cells expressing varying levels of CA12 was assessed through wound healing, Transwell, and CCK-8 assays. In addition, flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis and cell cycle progression in these same cells, while Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. RESULTS: PAAD tissue samples exhibited significant CA12 downregulation (P < 0.001), and lower CA12 expression was, in turn, associated with poorer overall survival (P < 0.001). CA12 overexpression significantly impaired the proliferation of PAAD cell lines, instead inducing their apoptotic death and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest (P < 0.05). We additionally found that CA12 may exert its tumor suppressive roles via modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that CA12 functions as a tumor suppressor in PAAD and may thus be a novel therapeutic target that can be used to guide PAAD patient treatment.

2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 18, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic autoimmune connective tissue disease. However, early RA is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of effective biomarkers. This study aimed to identify new biomarkers and mechanisms for RA disease progression at the transcriptome level through a combination of microarray and bioinformatics analyses. METHODS: Microarray datasets for synovial tissue in RA or osteoarthritis (OA) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by R software. Tissue/organ-specific genes were recognized by BioGPS. Enrichment analyses were performed and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed to understand the functions and enriched pathways of DEGs and to identify hub genes. Cytoscape was used to construct the co-expressed network and competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks. Biomarkers with high diagnostic value for the early diagnosis of RA were validated by GEO datasets. The ggpubr package was used to perform statistical analyses with Student's t-test. RESULTS: A total of 275 DEGs were identified between 16 RA samples and 10 OA samples from the datasets GSE77298 and GSE82107. Among these DEGs, 71 tissue/organ-specific expressed genes were recognized. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs are mostly enriched in immune response, immune-related biological process, immune system, and cytokine signal pathways. Fifteen hub genes and gene cluster modules were identified by Cytoscape. Eight haematologic/immune system-specific expressed hub genes were verified by GEO datasets. GZMA, PRC1, and TTK may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of early RA. NEAT1-miR-212-3p/miR-132-3p/miR-129-5p-TTK, XIST-miR-25-3p/miR-129-5p-GZMA, and TTK_hsa_circ_0077158- miR-212-3p/miR-132-3p/miR-129-5p-TTK might be potential RNA regulatory pathways to regulate the disease progression of early RA. CONCLUSIONS: This work identified three haematologic/immune system-specific expressed genes, namely, GZMA, PRC1, and TTK, as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of RA and provided insight into the mechanisms of disease development in RA at the transcriptome level. In addition, we proposed that NEAT1-miR-212-3p/miR-132-3p/miR-129-5p-TTK, XIST-miR-25-3p/miR-129-5p-GZMA, and TTK_hsa_circ_0077158-miR-212-3p/miR-132-3p/miR-129-5p-TTK are potential RNA regulatory pathways that control disease progression in early RA.

3.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470106

RESUMO

Carbon monoxide (CO), as a crucial gasotransmitter, is endogenously produced by the degradation of heme and plays a critical role in regulating various physiological and pathophysiological processes such as oxidative stress. Thus, an effective fluorescent probe for investigating the relationships between CO and oxidative stress in vivo is necessary. In this paper, a ratiometric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (CP-CO) based on a coumarin-benzopyran fluorophore for imaging CO is developed. CP-CO itself displays strong coumarin emission due to its spironolactone structure. After the probe is reacted with CO and PdCl2, a notable enhancement of emission intensity at 690 nm can be found, which results in an obvious red shift of emission (200 nm). Moreover, CP-CO exhibits high sensitivity toward CO and produces a high enhancement ratio (203-fold). In addition, the probe is applied for ratiometric monitoring of exogenous and endogenous CO levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence imaging of CP-CO in zebrafish is performed by two-photon excitation along with excellent penetration ability. Most importantly, CP-CO can visualize the upregulation of CO under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in a zebrafish model, which vividly reveals its excellent ability in the elucidation of CO function in related biological events.

4.
Equine Vet J ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to horses, the only evidence suggesting gastrointestinal disease in neonatal donkeys is associated with Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) is the detection of viral antigens by ELISA in just 1 of 82 symptomatic donkey foals. No additional, more comprehensive investigations have been conducted, RVAs if circulating in donkey populations have not been molecularly characterized. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if RVAs are associated with an outbreak of severe enteritis in neonatal donkeys and if associated, determine the genotype(s) along with the phylogenetic relationship to RVA strains circulating in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: RT-PCR-based techniques were used for RVA diagnosis and gene amplification. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square and Fisher's exact two-sided tests. Genotyping was performed by RotaC and phylogenetic analysis by neighbor joining. RESULTS: In 2019, acute enteritis occurred in 119 of 206 donkey foals (≤4 months) at two intensive donkey farms in the Shandong province of China. The highest morbidity (68.1%), mortality (29.5%) and fatality levels (45.5%) occurred in foals in the 30-89 day, 30-59 day and 0-29 day age groups respectively. RVA gene sequences were detected in 107 (89.9%) of the symptomatic individuals while further analysis demonstrated the outbreak was associated with the same G3P[12] RVA strain designated RVA/Donkey-wt/CHN/Don01/2019/G3P[12]. Although the VP4 gene of Don01 exhibited close phylogenetic relationships to equivalent RVA sequences commonly circulating in horses, that encoding VP7 was more closely associated with sequences isolated from bats suggesting this new donkey strain arose via an inter-genogroup reassortment event. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Actual prevalence not determined because <7% of asymptomatic donkey foals were included in this study. The complete genomic sequence of RVA/Donkey-wt/CHN/Don01/2019/G3P[12] remains to be determined. CONCLUSIONS: Valuable new information about the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in different equid species is provided by isolation and molecular characterization of a novel RVA strain from neonatal donkeys.

5.
Life Sci ; : 119088, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482188

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether MG-132 as a proteasome inhibitor can effectively hinder pterygium progression, and to screen out potential regulators involved in MG-132 mediated process. Human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs) were derived from pterygium tissues from 5 patients. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The overgrowth pterygium tissues were characterized by H&E staining and IHC compared with normal tissues. Differential mRNA expression with MG-132 treatment was determined by RNA sequencing and analyzed by GO and KEGG pathways. The expression levels of Nrf2, MCPIP1, CDKN1B and XBP1, four genes closely associated with pterygium, were detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. MG-132 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HPFs, induced G2/M phase arrest of cell cycle at a certain dose, and also caused cell apoptosis, with the levels of cleaved caspase3, cleaved PARP, Bax and p21 increased. Ki-67 and Bcl-2 were highly expressed while Bax was decreased in pterygium tissues. Total 7199 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including HSPA family most significantly increased, and AL590428.1, AL122125.1 and lincRNAs such as FGF14-AS2 decreased. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in RNA degradation pathway, while down-regulated DEGs were related to the regulation of cell cycle. The expressions of Nrf2 and MCPIP1 were significantly increased, while XBP1 and CDKN1B were decreased. In conclusion, MG-132 inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of HPFs in vitro with 7199 DEGs participated in, which may provide a useful reference for the exploitation of MG-132 in treating pterygium.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370687

RESUMO

For the analysis of xenobiotic metabolism, metabolites are commonly qualified by high-resolution mass spectrometry such as orbitrap or time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and quantified by triple-quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometer based multiple reaction monitoring. While this workflow shows drawback in the difficulty for instrumental parameters transfer, and QQQ provides less specificity. In this work, we constructed a high-resolution MS/MS (HR-MS/MS) based strategy to improve the discovery and quantification of unknown xenobiotic metabolites by metabolic pathway extension (MPE) searching combined with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Taking the flavonoid metabolism in diabetes wound S9 incubates as a test case. Firstly, MPE approach was used to screen all potential metabolites. In this step, an m/z value library of all theoretic flavonoid metabolites were constructed based on predefined flavonoid structures through 21 common xenobiotic metabolic reactions, and this library was matched with all features extracted from raw data (MS1 scan) of flavonoid-S9 co-incubate, then the matched features were exported into target list for MS2 fragmentation for structure validation. Secondly, the metabolites were relatively quantified by PRM mode based on their characteristic product ions. As a result, 131 metabolites of 9 different kinds of flavonoids in the skin and muscle were identified. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolism of flavonoids in the skin or muscle tissue. The results also validated the proposed HR-MS/MS-based strategy provided high specificity throughout both discovery and quantitation process of unknown xenobiotic metabolites without need of instrumental parameter transfer.

7.
Food Chem ; 335: 127582, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739806

RESUMO

To improve genetically modified product labelling legislation and promote the development of genetically modified foods, the mass variations of genomic DNA and length distributions of DNA fragments in non-genetically and genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) and the variations in transgenic contents during soybean protein concentrate (SPC) and soybean protein isolate (SPI) preparation were monitored. The material masses throughout the process conformed to the law of mass conservation, and amounts of DNA recovered decreased with SPC and SPI preparation. The successive steps of ethanol extraction led to a decrease in the size distribution of the recovered DNA. For the LECTIN and CP4 EPSPS targets investigated, longer fragments (>800 bp) were more affected than smaller fragments (<200 bp), and both targets degraded slowly upon degradation into small fragments. DNA distribution and degradation thereby affected GMO quantification. After preparation procedures, the transgenic contents of SPC and SPI products were higher than that of raw soybean.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/isolamento & purificação
8.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20(1): 563, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD44 is highly expressed in most cancer cells and its cross-linking pattern is closely related to tumor migration and invasion. However, the underlying molecular mechanism regarding CD44 cross-linking during cancer cell metastasis is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore whether disruption of CD44 cross-linking in breast cancer cells could prevent the cells migration and invasion and determine the effects of CD44 cross-linking on the malignancy of the cancer cells. METHODS: The expression of CD44, CD44 cross-linking and Moesin phosphorylation in breast cancer cells was assessed by Western Blot assays. Effects of CD44 cross-linking on tumor metastasis were evaluated by Transwell assay. The effects of CD44 cross-linking disruption on cell viability were assessed using CCK-8 assays. The expression of p-Moesin between normal and breast cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: High expression of CD44 cross-linking was found in invasive breast cancer cells (BT-549 and MDA-MB-231), which is associated with the malignancy of breast cancer. The expressions of ERM complex in a panel of breast cancer cell lines indicate that Moesin and its phosphorylation may play a significant role in cell metastasis. Moesin phosphorylation was inhibited by CD44 de-crosslinking in breast cancer cells and Moesin shRNA knockdown attenuated the promotion of CD44 cross-linking on cell migration and invasion. Finally, immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that p-Moesin was overexpressed in primary and metastatic cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that CD44 cross-linking could elevate p-Moesin expression and further affect migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. These results also indicate that p-Moesin may be useful in future targeted cancer therapy.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355358

RESUMO

Laeverin (LVRN) was first detected on the outer layer of the chorion laeve and migrating extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). It is an enzyme that plays an important role in the placentation and pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Previous studies have indicated that LVRN may be required for the invasion of human trophoblast cells. Paradoxically, LVRN was found to be highly expressed in the trophoblasts of PE patients with impaired invasive capacities. In this study, we detected the expression of LVRN in the placentas of PE patients (n=5) and normal term pregnancy women (n=5) as a control group by immunohistochemistry. LVRN was elevated in decidua (P=0.0083) and villi (P=0.0079) of PE patients. Next, LVRN was overexpressed via adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer in trophoblastic cell lines HTR8, Swan71, and JAR. Matrigel transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that overexpression of LVRN impeded the invasion of these three cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that LVRN overexpression caused downregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulation of E-cadherin, suggesting the inhibitory role of LVRN in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, our data indicated that long noncoding RNA NONSTAT103348 (lnc10-7) was elevated in PE patients. Silencing lnc10-7 led to decreased LVRN expression. Taken together, although the basal level of LVRN may be crucial for cell invasion, overexpression of LVRN may abrogate the cell invasiveness, suggesting a multifaceted role of LVRN in the pathogenesis of PE.

10.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(10): 201147, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204471

RESUMO

To evaluate DNA fragmentation and GMO quantification during soya bean protein concentrate and isolate preparation, genetically modified soya bean event GTS 40-3-2 (Roundup ReadyTM soya bean, RRS) was blended with conventional soya beans at mass percentages of 0.9%, 2%, 3%, 5% and 10%. Qualitative PCR and real-time PCR were used to monitor the taxon-specific lectin and exogenous cp4 epsps target levels in all of the main products and by-products, which has practical significance for RRS labelling threshold and traceability. Along the preparation chain, the majority of DNA was distributed in main products, and the DNA degradation was noticed. From a holistic perspective, the lectin target degraded more than cp4 epsps target during both of the two soya bean proteins preparations. Therefore, the transgenic contents in the final protein products were higher than the actual mass percentages of RRS in raw materials. Our results are beneficial to the improvement of GMO labelling legislation and the protection of consumer rights.

11.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2020: 9091360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133324

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of the NDM-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains has led to limited therapeutic options for clinical treatment. Understanding the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm assay, and the virulence genes of these isolated strains is of great significance. Methods: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae. The clinical information of the patients was collected from medical records. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing. Sixty strains of NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolated during the same period were collected as the control group for the virulence analysis. The virulence phenotype of the strains was preliminarily evaluated by the string test and crystal violet semiquantitative biofilm formation experiment. PCR combined with gene sequencing was used to detect common high toxicity capsule genes (K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57) and common virulence-related genes (entB, ybtS, ureA, ycf, WabG, FimH, uge, iutA, KfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, magA, Alls, IrnN, and VatD). Results: In the 30 nonduplicated NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates, 43.33% (13/30) of the patients had a history of a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Nine STs were identified, 77% (10/13) strains from the NICU were ST11. The NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae string tests were all negative, and 35% (21/60) NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae were positive. The ratios of NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates biofilm formation ability according to strong, medium, and weak classification were 67%, 23%, and 10%, respectively. NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae isolates were 60%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (t = 0.61, P=0.2723). The virulence-associated genes with more than 80% of detection rates among the 30 NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates included entB (100%, 30/30), ybtS (93.33%, 28/30), ureA (90%, 27/30), ycf (83.33%, 25/30), and wabG (90%, 27/30). KfuB and iutA were detected at prevalence of 3.33% and 13.33%. vatD, allS, iroN, aerobactin, and rmpA were not detected. In the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae, all other 14 virulence genes except VatD were detected. After statistical analysis, FimH, WabG, ycf, iutA, kfuB, aerobactin, rmpA, and Alls virulence genes, P < 0.005, there was a statistical difference. Conclusion: NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae exhibited multidrug resistance, MLST typing is mainly ST11, there is small clonal dissemination in the NICU in the hospital, and the NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate is lower than the NDM-1-negative K. pneumoniae virulence genes carrier rate.

12.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(10): 5545-5549, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133556

RESUMO

To explore the associations between dietary factors and breast cancer (BC) molecular subtypes. The retrospective cases were confirmed by pathological diagnosis with breast cancer were gathered in two major hospitals in Xuzhou city, China, from 2015 to 2016. These cases were classified by the meeting standard of 13th St Gallen: luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 overexpression, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. A 1:2 paired retrospective case-control study with 210 cases and 420 controls was conducted to evaluate individual dietary intake, by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimate odds ratios (ORs), by the Cox regression model. For overall breast cancer patients, the more frequency of red meat (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.001-1.004) and salted food (OR = 1.003, 95% CI = 1.001-1.005) were statistically significantly associated with a greater risk of breast cancer. Beans (OR = 0.997, 95% CI = 0.995-0.999), white meat (OR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.989-0.997), aquatic products (OR = 0.990, 95% CI = 0.984-0.996), vegetables (OR = 0.999, 95% CI = 0.999-0.999), fruit (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.997-0.999), and green tea (OR = 0.997, 95% CI = 0.994-0.999) were significantly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. For luminal breast cancer patients, beans (OR = 0.997, 95% CI = 0.994-0.999), white meat (OR = 0.992, 95% CI = 0.987-0.997), green tea (OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.991-0.999), and milk (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.996-0.999) were protective factors. While for nonluminal breast cancer, red meat was not included in the equation, and beans (OR = 0.989, 95% CI = 0.981-0.997), white meat (OR = 0.989, 95% CI = 0.981-0.998), vegetables (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.997-0.999), and milk (OR = 0.994, 95% CI = 0.989-0.999) still showed a significantly reduced risk of nonluminal breast cancer. Different dietary factors revealed different effects on the etiology of breast cancer. Red meat may be a specific risk factor for luminal-type breast cancer.

13.
Food Chem ; : 128220, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223291

RESUMO

Wheat bran arabinoxylan (AX) discard from wheat production was utilized to form pH-responsive microgels. AX was modified by carboxymethylation, and the carboxymethylated arabinoxylans (CMAX) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and rheological analysis. The CMAX microgel was cross-linked by Fe3+ using an inverse emulsification polymerization. The morphology, particle size, pH sensitivity, and mechanism of cross-linking between COO- and Fe3+ of the CMAX microgel was investigated. The CMAX microgel was used to be an oral protein drug carrier. The CMAX microgel particles exhibited a stable spherical structure. FT-IR spectral analysis of the CMAX microgel indicated that the microgel was crosslinked by bridging Fe3+ and COO- with unidentate binding. The CMAX microgel exhibited good pH sensitivity and high stability in acid condition. Additionally, BSA was used as the embedding protein, and the controlled release effect of CMAX microgel was explored in gastrointestinal tract simulation.

14.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 264, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is rare that drains cannot be removed after surgery, however, this situation cannot be completely avoided, and is also hard to deal with. The main reason for a tethered drain is inadvertent suture fixation. At present, no effective way was published or widely accepted to locate the tethered drain. METHODS: Three cases of orthopedic trauma patients experienced unsuccessful removal of the drain after surgery. The ultrasound was used to locate the sutured site of the drain. Based on the sliding sign and vanishing point which can be detected by the ultrasound, the sutured site of the drain can be clearly identified. Finally, the suture was loosened through a small incision, and the drain was completely removed. RESULTS: The surgical procedure was very successful in all patients. The tethered drain was quickly and completely removed through a small incision with locating by ultrasound. Intravenous antibiotics were administered within 24 h after surgery, and no wound or deep infections occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound can be used to locate a tethered drain based on the sliding sign. This method can simplify the release procedure and achieve fast removal of the drain. Furthermore, it will help lower the risk of a retained drain and soft tissue complications.

15.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 151, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) presents a high number of plateau loach species. As one of the three major groups of fishes distributed on the QTP, plateau loach has high ecological value. However, the taxonomy and systematics of these fish are still controversial, and a large number of new species have been reported. The reason for this phenomenon is that the degree of morphological variation is low, the phylogenetic information provided by morphological and anatomical features used for species identification is relatively poor, and many cryptic species are observed. Based on the high-density sampling points from the biodiversity hotspots surveyed, this study aims to evaluate the biodiversity of plateau loach in the northeastern part of the QTP and reveal the hidden diversity by comparing morphological species with molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). RESULTS: After careful identification and comparison of the morphology and DNA barcoding of 1630 specimens, 22 species were identified, with 20 considered valid local species and two identified as new species that had not been previously described. Based on the combination of morphological and molecular methods, a total of 24 native species were found, two of which were cryptic species: Triplophysa robusta sp1 and Triplophysa minxianensis sp1. Fourteen of the 24 species form clusters of barcodes that allow them to be reliably identified. The remaining cases involved 10 closely related species, including rapidly differentiated species and species that seemed to have experienced incomplete lineage sorting or showed introgressions. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the need to combine traditional taxonomies with molecular methods to correctly identify species, especially closely related species, such as the plateau loach. This study provides a basis for protecting the biodiversity of plateau loach.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Filogenia , Animais , Cipriniformes/genética , DNA , Tibet
16.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 588099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101261

RESUMO

Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that is widely present in all life domains. It has been identified in many bacterial species and functions as an important energy storage compound. In addition, it plays important roles in bacterial transmission, pathogenicity, and environmental viability. There are five essential enzymes (coding genes) directly involved in bacterial glycogen metabolism, which forms a single operon glgBXCAP with a suboperonic promoter in glgC gene in Escherichia coli. Currently, there is no comparative study of how the disruptions of the five glycogen metabolism genes influence bacterial phenotypes, such as growth rate, biofilm formation, and environmental survival, etc. In this study, we systematically and comparatively studied five E. coli single-gene mutants (ΔglgC, ΔglgA, ΔglgB, ΔglgP, ΔglgX) in terms of glycogen metabolism and explored their phenotype changes with a focus on environmental stress endurance, such as nutrient deprivation, low temperature, desiccation, and oxidation, etc. Biofilm formation in wild-type and mutant strains was also compared. E. coli wild-type stores the highest glycogen content after around 20-h culture while disruption of degradation genes (glgP, glgX) leads to continuous accumulation of glycogen. However, glycogen primary structure was abnormally changed in ΔglgP and ΔglgX. Meanwhile, increased accumulation of glycogen facilitates the growth of E. coli mutants but reduces glucose consumption in liquid culture and vice versa. Glycogen metabolism disruption also significantly and consistently increases biofilm formation in all the mutants. As for environmental stress endurance, glycogen over-accumulating mutants have enhanced starvation viability and reduced desiccation viability while all mutants showed decreased survival rate at low temperature. No consistent results were found for oxidative stress resistance in terms of glycogen metabolism disruptions, though ΔglgA shows highest resistance toward oxidation with unknown mechanisms. In sum, single gene disruptions in glgBXCAP operon significantly influence bacterial growth and glucose consumption during culture. Accumulation and structure of intracellular glycogen were also significantly altered. In addition, we observed significant changes in E. coli environmental viabilities due to the deletions of certain genes in the operon. Further investigations shall be focused on the molecular mechanisms behind these phenotype changes.

17.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 10(10): 1973-1983, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014729

RESUMO

Background: Sexual orientation has been suggested to affect executive function, of which the neurobiological basis is still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the interrelationship between neuropsychological characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual men and their anatomical connectome by graph theoretical analysis. Methods: Fifty-three homosexual and 47 heterosexual males underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological assessments. Whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed using white matter tractography, performed on the diffusion tensor imaging data. Neuropsychological tests included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Trail-Making Test (TMT). Results: The cognitive performance of homosexual men was significantly poorer than their heterosexual counterparts in terms of WCST total correct responses. Anatomical connectome analysis revealed a lower (P=0.001) anatomical connectivity between left PoCG and left SMG (P=0.003) in homosexual men as compared to heterosexual men. Linear regression analyses showed that the WCST total correct responses score was significantly linked with sexual orientation (P=0.001). The anatomical connectivity strength between left PoCG and left SMG was also shown to be significantly correlated with sexual orientation (P=0.039) and education (P=0.047). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the differences in the performance of WCST and anatomical connectome of large-scale brain networks between homosexual and heterosexual men, extending our understanding of the brain's circuitry and the characteristics of executive function in men of different sexual orientation.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1489, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing aging population has been posing a significant challenge to disease burden in developing countries. In particular, the contribution of population aging to and long term changes of disease burden of malignant neoplasm of female genital organs (MNFGO) have not been quantitatively demonstrated. METHODS: Data were collected from the Shanghai Vital Statistics System of Pudong New Area (PNA). Crude mortality rate (CMR), age-standardized mortality rate by Segi's world standard population (ASMRW), and years of life lost (YLL) of MNFGO as the underlying cause of death in age and pathology types from 1995 to 2018 were calculated. The joinpoint regression was used to estimate the trends of those rates by identifying the annual percent changes (APCs), and the decomposition method was used to calculate the increased rates and the contribution resulting from demographic and non-demographic factors. RESULTS: From 1995 to 2018, a total of 2869 MNFGO-specific deaths were reported in PNA, accounting for 0.64% of the total deaths. The CMR and ASMRW of MNFGO were 9.23/105 person-years and 4.80/105 person-years, respectively. Ovary cancer was the most common cause of MNFGO death, accounting for 43.9% (1260/2869) of all MNFGO death. Other common causes of MNFGO death included cervix uteri cancer, uterus unspecified cancer, and corpus uteri cancer. With the increase of age, the mortality rate of MNFGO in residents had shown an upward trend ([APC (95%CI) = 3.46 (2.74, 4.18), P < 0.001)] for each five-year age group from 0 to 4 to 85+ years. From 1995 to 2018, YLL of MNFGO in Shanghai PNA was 42,152.82 years, and the rate of YLL was 135.56 /105. The top three MNFGO types in YLLs were ovary cancer, cervix uteri cancer and uterus unspecified cancer. Demographic factors contributed significantly to the upward trends of CMR, ASMRW, and YLL rates of MNFGO. CONCLUSION: With aggravated population aging in Shanghai, MNFGO is and will continue to be a serious threat to women's health. More precise and effective prevention strategies are needed to target high risk population, to achieve efficient health resource allocation and to improve women's health in particular.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4095-4104, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124291

RESUMO

A two-dimensional model MIKE21 coupled with a modified EcoLab module was applied to model the water quality of surface flow wetlands. In the model, vegetation effects, oxygen production, nutrient consumption by microorganisms and vegetation were set in the solutions of hydrodynamic, chemical, and biological processes. Based on the field investigation and measurements in the Guishui River wetland, the model was established for the downstream reaches of the Guishui River and the Sanli River. The model calculated the hydrodynamics and water quality changes by vegetation type and distribution. The model parameters were calibrated and results were validated using the measurements. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, and total nitrogen at outflow decreased by 14.29%, 33.33%, and 20.00% in the presence of wetland vegetation compared to no wetland vegetation. During water circulation, the flow rate increased by 0.4 m3 ·s-1 at the inlet of Guishui and Sanli rivers, increasing the water level and velocity in some parts of the rivers. The water areas with vegetation in Sanli and Guishui rivers increased by 144.44% and 13.16%, respectively. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, and total nitrogen at outflow decreased by 35.71%, 50.00%, and 46.67% compared to no wetlands and no circulation. The circulation strengthened the wetland purification function. The wetland vegetation distribution was organically integrated into the model for water quality calculation, which provides the technical support for the water quality response research under comprehensive measures such as river and lake wetland ecological restoration and water conservancy regulation.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Água
20.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12982, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025632

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint destruction. Although great progress has been made in the treatment of RA with antagonists of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1, the disease remains refractory in some patients. Previous studies have found that small-molecule inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipoxins and platelet-activating factor, play a significant role in the development of RA. Such compounds help to induce, maintain or reduce inflammation and could therefore be potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the roles of various classes of small-molecule inflammatory mediators in RA and discuss the effects of some drugs that modulate their activity. Many drugs targeting these mediators have demonstrated good efficacy in mouse models of RA but not in patients. However, it is clear that many small-molecule inflammatory mediators play key roles in the pathogenesis of RA, and a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways may assist in the development of targeted therapies that are efficacious in RA patients.

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