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1.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064471

RESUMO

The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high sensitivity and good biocompatibility is of great value for the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, a novel MRI contrast agent based on calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles modified with a liver cancer cell targeting peptide A54 (A54-CaP) was fabricated. The T1-positive contrast agent Gd-DTPA was encapsulated inside the nanoparticles (A54-CaPNPs), with a mean diameter of 30 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 92.73%. The A54-CaPNP solution exhibited higher longitudinal relaxivity (6.07 mM-1 s-1) than that of the clinically used MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA (3.56 mM-1 s-1). A much higher accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver cells was observed, which was directed by the A54 targeting peptide. Furthermore, the MRI diagnostic efficiency of A54-CaPNPs was systematically investigated in an orthotopic liver cancer model and primary HCC model. In vivo MRI experiments showed that A54-CaPNPs had higher sensitivity in the BEL-7402 orthotopic liver cancer model with a more remarkable contrast enhancement and a longer imaging time compared to those without A54 modification. Moreover, the experiments on primary HCC models suggested that A54-CaPNPs showed greatly enhanced MR imaging performance in comparison with Gd-DTPA. These results suggest that A54-CaPNPs possess great potential to enable the non-invasive early diagnosis of primary HCC for timely surgical resection.

2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 137: 105457, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058093

RESUMO

Automated vehicles (AVs), the wide adoption of which is expected to improve traffic safety significantly, are penetrating our roads. The AVs that are testing on public roads have been bullied by human road users. We are not sure whether the bullying incidents are isolated or will be common in the future. In a cross-national survey (N = 998 drivers in China and South Korea), we developed an eleven-item bullying intention questionnaire. We assumed and confirmed that, overall, participants had a greater intention to bully machine drivers than to bully other human drivers. Compared to the Korean participants, the Chinese participants reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. The correlations of their intention to bully AVs with their attitude toward AVs and with risk-benefit perception of AVs were weak. Male participants (vs. female participants) and younger participants (vs. older participants) reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. Drivers' aggressive behaviors toward AVs might be common in the future, which might increase traffic risk and hinder the implementation of this technology.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017281

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The carbon isotope composition of carbonates are widely used in petrology and paleoenvironments as a proxy for carbon sources and environmental parameters during mineral formation or late diagenesis. However, most carbonate minerals in nature are complicated mixtures (i.e., coexisting calcite and dolomite). Precise separation of individual signals in mixed carbonate minerals is essential to obtain information regarding these indexes because of the diverse isotopic behavior of different minerals. METHODS: The conditions for pretreating calcite-dolomite mixtures to determine each of their δ13 C value were optimized with a series of experiments varying the purging and reaction conditions using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with an online GasBench II interface. Sequential phosphoric acid reactions of pure calcite and dolomite were carried out to measure the characteristics of single minerals under different temperatures and reaction times. Artificial mixtures with varied proportions of calcite and dolomite were utilized to verify the precision of the proposed method. RESULTS: The optimized pretreatment conditions for δ13 C analysis of calcite in the mixture involved purging the sample bottle using helium and then reacting it with 99% H3 PO4 for 100 min in a cold water bath at 2 °C. The optimized pretreatment conditions for δ13 C analysis of dolomite in the mixture involved a second purge of the bottle with helium gas after δ13 Ccal measurement and continuing 10 h of reaction with H3 PO4 on a heating plate at 45 °C. CONCLUSIONS: This work introduces a workflow with ultimate precision for the selective δ13 C measurement of a calcite-dolomite mixture combining a GasBench II with a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer.

4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(1): 105-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776726

RESUMO

Outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains poor, highlighting the need for novel treatment approaches. The multicentre randomised phase II LEGEND trial evaluated lenalidomide in combination with rituximab, methylprednisolone and gemcitabine (R-GEM-L) vs. standard R-GEM-P as second-line treatment of DLBCL. The study closed early to recruitment after the planned interim analysis failed to demonstrate a complete response (CR) rate of ≥ 40% in either arm. Among 34 evaluable patients, 7/18 (38.9%) achieved CR with R-GEM-L and 3/16 (18.8%) with R-GEM-P. Median event-free and overall survival was 3.5/3.8 months and 10.8/8.3 months for R-GEM-L and R-GEM-P, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥ 3 toxicities was 52% in R-GEM-L and 83% in R-GEM-P. Efficacy and tolerability of R-GEM-L seem comparable with R-GEM-P and other standard salvage therapies, but a stringent design led to early trial closure. Combination of lenalidomide with gemcitabine-based regimens should be further evaluated in r/r DLBCL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 502-511, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814397

RESUMO

Substituted triphenylamine (TPA) radical cations show great potential as oxidants and as spin-containing units in polymer magnets. Their properties can be further tuned by supramolecular assembly. Here, we examine how the properties of photogenerated radical cations, intrinsic to TPA macrocycles, are altered upon their self-assembly into one-dimensional columns. These macrocycles consist of two TPAs and two methylene ureas, which drive the assembly into porous organic materials. Advantageously, upon activation the crystals can undergo guest exchange in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation generating a series of isoskeletal host-guest complexes whose properties can be directly compared. Photoinduced electron transfer, initiated using 365 nm light-emitting diodes, affords radicals at room temperature as observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The line shape of the EPR spectra and the quantity of radicals can be modulated by both polarity and heavy atom inclusion of the encapsulated guest. These photogenerated radicals are persistent, with half-lives between 1 and 7 d and display no degradation upon radical decay. Re-irradiation of the samples can restore the radical concentration back to a similar maximum concentration, a feature that is reproducible over several cycles. EPR simulations of a representative spectrum indicate two species, one containing two N hyperfine interactions and an additional broad signal with no resolvable hyperfine interaction. Intriguingly, TPA analogues without bromine substitution also exhibit similar quantities of photogenerated radicals, suggesting that supramolecular strategies can enable more flexibility in stable TPA radical structures. These studies will help guide the development of new photoactive materials.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110265, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753343

RESUMO

Young's modulus is essential for the design and production of the alloys. Thus, we proposed a MGI (Materials Genome Initiative)-oriented strategy for the high-throughput development of Young's modulus databank in the single-phase alloys. In this study, 17 diffusion couples of the bcc Ti-rich Ti-Nb-Zr, Ti-Nb-Cr and Ti-Nb-Zr-Cr systems annealed at 1273 K for 25 h were experimentally prepared. Subsequently, the composition-dependent Young's moduli and hardness in the bcc Ti-rich Ti-Nb-Zr-Cr system were determined by combining the nanoindentation technique and the electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). Moreover, on the basis of the presently obtained experimental data, the Young's modulus databank in the bcc Ti-Nb-Zr-Cr system were established by means of the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach. Finally, the Ti-22.6 at.% Nb-30 at.% Zr-3.8 at.% Cr alloy was designed from the Young's modulus databank and verified by using the nanoindentation and cytotoxicity tests. The results reveal that the present MGI-oriented strategy with the combination of the high-throughput measurements and the CALPHAD approach is a very effective method to accelerate the design/development of novel bio-Ti alloys.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4293-4302, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840476

RESUMO

Bay cities have abundant land-sea resources and higher environmental carrying capacity. The high density of population and industry surrounding the bay makes bay cities a type of ecologically fragile areas. With Quanzhou, a typical bay city, as an example, we simulated the land use and landscape pattern change in 2030 based on multiple data sources (land use data, meteorological site data, topographic data and statistical data) using Logistic-CA-Markov coupling model to set natural scenarios, planning scenarios and protection scenarios. Four key ecosystem service (ES) including water retention, soil conservation, carbon sequestration (NPP), food supply and their trade-offs were calculated and predicted. Under the three scenarios, the area of cultivated land and construction land in Quanzhou City would increase in 2030. Forest land, grassland and water area would be reduced in varying degrees. The fragmentation of land use would be serious. In comparison with 2015, except for soil conservation service, water retention, carbon sequestrtion and food supply of Quanzhou City would decline to varying degrees in 2030. Ecosystem service function in natural scenario would be more decreased, with the decline under the protection scenario being lower than the planning scenario. In the protection and planning scenarios, the synergy between water conservation and soil conservation, water conservation and carbon sequestrtion, soil conservation and carbon sequestrtion in 2030 would be enhanced and the trade-offs would be weakened.


Assuntos
Baías , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
8.
Phys Rev E ; 100(4-1): 042124, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770878

RESUMO

Molar fractions are used in applied diffusion kinetics for incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic databases. Molar quantities (molar concentration and molar flux) and reduced molar quantities (molar fraction and reduced molar flux) usually are regarded to be equivalent; i.e., molar quantities are replaced with their reduced forms. However, as the fluxes are related to material properties, the diffusion equations expressed in molar fractions are not consistent with the normalization condition of molar fractions. We develop diffusion kinetics consistent with this condition. Our method is applicable to diffusion with total reduced flux, such as diffusion in an external field or flow field. As two case studies, the developed method is used to investigate ionic diffusion in an electrolyte solution and ionic demixing in a semiconductor oxide.

9.
World J Urol ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to carry out a comprehensive meta-analysis on the existing evidence to quantify and compare the oncological, surgical and functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy between TURP group and Non-TURP group. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane databases to identify relevant studies published in English up to March 2019. A meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager. RESULTS: There were 13 studies included in the present study. Our results suggest that TURP group demonstrates a significantly higher positive surgical margin rate, bladder neck reconstruction rate and overall complication rate compared with Non-TURP group (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.58, P = 0.004, I2 = 0%; OR = 14.36, 95% CI 2.93-70.45, P = 0.001, I2 = 81%; OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.87-3.71, P < 0.00001, I2 = 0%); whereas TURP group demonstrates a significantly lower nerve sparing rate compared with Non-TURP group (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.22-0.43, P < 0.00001, I2 = 40%); the operation time, blood loss and 1-year urinary continence rate are same between TURP group and Non-TURP group (MD = 4.25, 95% CI - 0.13 to 8.63, P = 0.06, I2 = 34%; MD = 27.29, 95% CI - 10.31 to 64.90, P = 0.15, I2 = 39%; OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.43-1.06, P = 0.09, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that Non-TURP group may have a great advantage over TURP group in terms of positive surgical margin rate, bladder neck reconstruction rate, overall complication rate and sparing rate. The operation time, blood loss and 1-year urinary continence rate are comparable between TURP group and Non-TURP group. Therefore, important information should be given to those patients at risk of prostate cancer that TURP procedure may increase perioperative complications in case of a following radical prostatectomy. In the meantime, our meta-analysis found that each of these four subgroups (RARP, LRP, ORP and RARP/ORP) has its own advantages or disadvantages in every pool results. So when radical prostatectomy is performed on patients with TURP history, the appropriate operation method should be selected as per the conditions of patients, doctors and hospitals.

10.
J Inflamm Res ; 12: 231-239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695470

RESUMO

Background: Polyphenol catechins from green tea, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), exhibits numerous beneficial health effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Methods: In this study, the mechanism of EGCG-mediated healing in an experimentally injured zebrafish model was examined at the cellular and molecular level using confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Results: The mechanisms of action of EGCG were shown to involve: (1) reducing neutrophil response (accumulation, travel speed, and distance) and (2) downregulating the expression of IL-1ß, TNFα, and related signaling pathways. As determined by dynamic time-lapse tracking studies, the local accumulation of neutrophils with high migration speeds after wounding (n=33 cells, v=0.020 µm/s, d=37.8 µm), underwent significant reduction following treatment with EGCG doses of 300 µM (n=22 cells, v=0.013 µm/s, d=39.5 µm) and 600 µM (n=18 cells, v=0.008 µm/s, d=9.53 µm). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that several signature genes in the IL-1ß, TNFα, and related signaling pathways were downregulated after EGCG treatment. Conclusion: The convenience, transparency, and simplicity of the zebrafish model facilitate tracking of fluorescent neutrophils in real time, in order to monitor inflammation, and assess the impact of therapeutic agents.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614812

RESUMO

In this paper, we introduce a tracking algorithm based on labeled Random Finite Sets (RFS) and Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother via a Generalized Labeled Multi-Bernoulli (GLMB) multi-scan estimator to track multiple objects in a wide range of tracking scenarios. In the forward filtering stage, we use the GLMB filter to generate a set of labels and the association history between labels and the measurements. In the trajectory-estimating stage, we apply a track management strategy to eliminate tracks with short lifespan compared to a threshold value. Subsequently, we apply the information of trajectories captured from the forward GLMB filtering stage to carry out standard forward filtering and RTS backward smoothing on each estimated trajectory. For the experiment, we implement the tracker with standard GLMB filter, the hybrid track-before-detect (TBD) GLMB filter, and the GLMB filter with objects spawning. The results show improvements in tracking performance for all implemented trackers given negligible extra computational effort compared to standard GLMB filters.

12.
Mol Pharm ; 16(11): 4530-4541, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617723

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis is the most dangerous stage in tumorigenesis and its evolution, which causes about 80% clinical death. However, common therapies including chemotherapy may increase the risk of tumor metastasis while killing cancer cells. Tumor metastasis is closely related to many factors in the tumor microenvironment, especially hypoxia. As one of the characteristics of a malignant tumor microenvironment, hypoxia plays an important role in the growth, metabolism, and metastasis of tumors. Upregulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) would stimulate the metastasis and migration of cancer cells. In this study, we developed an artificial oxygen carrier system, a hemoglobin-loaded liposome (Hb@lipo), which was capable of effectively delivering oxygen to tumor. The way of providing oxygen not only alleviated tumor hypoxia but also downregulated the expression of HIF, which is conducive to reducing tumor malignancy. Alleviating the tumor hypoxic microenvironment alone is not enough to inhibit tumor metastasis; thus, we prepared the liposome containing a chemotherapeutic agent cabazitaxel (CBZ@lipo). Our data indicated that the combination therapy of Hb@lipo and CBZ@lipo can efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. At the same time, it can effectively entrap cancer cells in tumor sites by relieving the hypoxic microenvironment of tumors and reduce the metastasis of cancer cells during and after the chemotherapy. Our research may provide a clinical cancer chemotherapy reference that reduces the risk of cancer cell metastasis while inhibiting tumor growth.

13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(44): 4717-4724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibacterial multidrug resistance has emerged as one of the foremost global problems affecting human health. The emergence of resistant infections with the increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens has posed a serious problem, which required innovative collaborations across multiple disciplines to address this issue. METHODS: In this review, we will explain the mechanisms of bacterial multidrug resistance and discuss different strategies for combating it, including combination therapy, the use of novel natural antibiotics, and the use of nanotechnology in the development of efflux pump inhibitors. RESULTS: While combination therapy will remain the mainstay of bacterial multi-drug resistance treatment, nanotechnology will play critical roles in the development of novel treatments in the coming years. CONCLUSION: Nanotechnology provides an encouraging platform for the development of clinically relevant and practical strategies to overcome drug resistance in the future.

14.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2081-2088, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564855

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation, which is associated with emphysema and chronic inflammation. Oxidative/antioxidant imbalance is one of the mechanisms of the current pathogenesis of COPD and several recent studies have attempted to uncover genetic causes of COPD and its progression. GST, HO-1, and SOD-3 are important susceptibility genes related to COPD. Methods: A total of 300 blood samples were included in two groups: Control group and COPD group. We genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these 3 genes in 150 COPD patients and 150 controls to analyze genetic polymorphisms and interactions with COPD-related quantitative traits using correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that genotype distributions and allele frequencies of GSTP1, HO-1, and SOD-3 were significantly different between the COPD and the control group, while there is no correlation between the polymorphism of GSTP1, HO-1, SOD3, and the different stages of COPD. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that COPD GSTP1-exon5 SNP and HO-1 (GT)n SNP are high-risk factors for COPD and there was interaction between GSTP1 exon5 SNPS and HO-1 (GT)n SNP. More important, the genotypes, AG, GG of GSTP1 exon5 and L/M*S, L/L of HO-1 (GT)n associated with increased 8-iso-prostaglandin F (2 alpha) (8-iso-PGF2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased catalase (CAT) activity. Conclusion: Collectively, this study shows that genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1, HO-1, and SOD-3 are associated with COPD susceptibility.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 11994-12001, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618578

RESUMO

Bioactivity-guided isolation of the endophytic fungus Fusarium sambucinum TE-6L residing in Nicotiana tabacum L. led to the discovery of two new angularly prenylated indole alkaloids (PIAs) with pyrano[2,3-g]indole moieties, amoenamide C (1) and sclerotiamide B (2), and four known biosynthetic congeners (3-6). Their structures were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 containing the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane core and indoxyl unit is rarely reported. All the compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. Notably, compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory effects against three human- and one plant-pathogenic bacterium, and seven plant-pathogenic fungi. Compounds 2-4 also exhibited remarkable larvicidal activity against first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera with mortality rates of 70.2%, 83.2%, and 70.5%, respectively. Further toxicity tests on zebrafish embryos were performed to evaluate the potential toxicity of PIAs. Of significance was that compound 3 in particular exhibited the highest activities but the lowest effects on the hatching of embryos among all the compounds. This study provides a basis for understanding developmental toxicity of PIAs exposure to zebrafish embryos, and also indicates the potential environmental risks of other natural compounds exposure in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Endófitos/química , Fusarium/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Inseticidas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
16.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555142

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scars are pathological scars that result from abnormal responses to trauma, and could cause serious functional and cosmetic disability. To date, no optimal treatment method has been established. A variety of cell types are involved in hypertrophic scar formation after wound healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular origins of hypertrophic scars are not fully understood. Macrophages are major effector cells in the immune response after tissue injury that orchestrates the process of wound healing. Depending on the local microenvironment, macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes at different stages during scar pathogenesis. This review intends to summarize the direct and indirect roles of macrophages during hypertrophic scar formation. The in vivo depletion of macrophages or blocking their signaling reduces scar formation in experimental models, thereby establishing macrophages as positive regulatory cells in the skin scar formation. In the future, a significant amount of attention should be given to molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause the phenotypic switch of wound macrophages, which may provide novel therapeutic targets for hypertrophic scars.

17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 9(8): 1429-1440, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559172

RESUMO

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes regions of ulceration within the interior of the colon. UC is estimated to afflict hundreds of thousands of people in the United States alone. In addition to traditional colonoscopy, ultrasonic techniques can detect colitis, but have limited spatial resolution, which frequently results in underdiagnoses. Nevertheless, clinical diagnosis of colitis is still generally performed via colonoscopy. Optical techniques such as confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed to detect UC with higher resolution. However, UC can potentially alter tissue biomechanical properties, providing additional contrast for earlier and potentially more accurate detection. Although clinically available elastography techniques have been immensely useful, they do not have the resolution for imaging small tissues, such as in small mammalian disease models. However, OCT-based elastography, optical coherence elastography (OCE), is well-suited for imaging the biomechanical properties of small mammal colon tissue. Methods: In this work, we induced elastic waves in ex vivo mouse colon tissue using a focused air-pulse. The elastic waves were detected using a phase-stabilized swept source OCE system, and the wave velocity was translated into stiffness. Measurements were taken at six positions for each sample to assess regional sample elasticity. Additional contrast between the control and diseased tissue was detected by analyzing the dispersion of the elastic wave and tissue optical properties obtained from the OCT structural image. Results: The results show distinct differences (P<0.05) in the stiffness between control and colitis disease samples, with a Young's modulus of 11.8±8.0 and 5.1±1.5 kPa, respectively. The OCT signal standard deviations for control and diseased samples were 5.8±0.3 and 5.5±0.2 dB, respectively. The slope of the OCT signal spatial frequency decay in the control samples was 92.7±10.0 and 87.3±4.7 dB∙µm in the colitis samples. The slope of the linearly fitted dispersion curve in the control samples was 1.5 mm, and 0.8 mm in the colitis samples. Conclusions: Our results show that OCE can be utilized to distinguish tissue based on stiffness and optical properties. Our estimates of tissue stiffness suggest that the healthy colon tissue was stiffer than diseased tissue. Furthermore, structural analysis of the tissue indicates a distinct difference in tissue optical properties between the healthy and UC-like diseased tissue.

19.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 18(2): 556-568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531041

RESUMO

Sustained release of thermal-instable and water-soluble drugs with low molecule weight is a challenge. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was encapsulated in ethyl cellulose microspheres by a novel solid-in-oil-in-oil (S/O/O) emulsification method using acetonitrile/soybean oil as new solvent pairs. Properties of the microspheres such as size, recovery rate, morphology, drug content, and drug release behavior were evaluated to investigate the suitable preparation techniques. In the case of that the ratio of the internal and external oil phase was 1: 9, Tween 80 as a stabilizer resulted in the highest drug content (2.68%) and a good spherical shape of microspheres. After the ratio increased to 1: 4, the microspheres using Tween 80 as the stabilizer also had high drug content (1.96%) and exhibited a sustained release behavior, with 70% of drug released within 12 h and a sustained release of more than 40 h. Otherwise, different emulsification temperatures at which acetonitrile was evaporated could influence the drug release behaviour of microspheres obtained. This novel method is a potential and effective method to achieve the encapsulation and the sustained release of thermal-instable and water-soluble drugs with low molecule weight.

20.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3773-3781, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485637

RESUMO

T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified T cell coinhibitory receptor. Studies have shown that TIGIT is expressed in colon adenocarcinoma, uterine corpus endometrioid carcinoma, breast carcinoma and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma. However, the role of the TIGIT/human poliovirus receptor (CD155) pathway in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression of TIGIT and CD155 in HCC tissues and peripheral blood were determined, and correlations among TIGIT, CD155, TIGIT+ CD4+ T cells, TIGIT+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and α­fetoprotein (AFP) were investigated in order to identify a potential target for diagnosing and treating HCC. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription­quantitative PCR analysis and western blotting were used to examine the expression of TIGIT and CD155 in cancerous tissues and peripheral blood collected from patients with HCC. The frequency of TIGIT+ CD4+ T cells and TIGIT+ Treg cells and the concentration of inflammatory cytokines secreted by T cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry and a Merck Milliplex assay. Correlations between the frequency of TIGIT+ CD4+ T and TIGIT+ Treg cells and AFP were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation test. With the degree of cancerous differentiation from high to low, the expression levels of TIGIT and CD155 were upregulated in the cancerous tissues from patients with HCC. TIGIT+ CD4+ T cell and TIGIT+ Treg cell frequencies were decreased in peripheral blood from postoperative patients with HCC. The increased expression of TIGIT was positively correlated with the level of AFP. These results indicate that co­inhibitory receptor TIGIT may be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC and represent a novel target for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

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