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1.
Foods ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068968

RESUMO

When cassava is used for the production of distilled spirits through fermentation and distillation, toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is released from linamarin and carcinogenic ethyl carbamate is produced. Herein, cyanide and ethyl carbamate contents were monitored during the fermentation and lab-scale continuous distillation processes. Thereafter, mass balance and the influence of copper chips were evaluated. Results showed that 81.5% of cyanide was removed after fermentation. Use of copper chips completely prevented the migration of cyanide into the distilled spirits, while 88.3% of cyanide migrated from the fermented liquid in the absence of copper chips. Formation of ethyl carbamate was significantly promoted during distillation. Most of the produced ethyl carbamate (73.2%) was transferred into the distilled spirits in the absence of copper chips, only 9.6% of the ethyl carbamate was transferred when copper chips were used. Thus, copper chips effectively prevented the migration of cyanide and ethyl carbamate into the distilled spirts during continuous distillation.

2.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805759

RESUMO

Fat globule size and phospholipid (PL) content in human milk (HM) were investigated. HM was classified into three groups depending on fat content (A < B < C). PL content (mg/100 g HM) was significantly higher in the C group (p < 0.05), indicating its positive relationship with HM fat content. When the PL content was normalized (mg/g fat), that of group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and fat droplet size in group C was slightly larger, suggesting that HM fat content is affected by fat droplet numbers to a larger extent than by fat droplet size. A correlation between PC and SM content in HM was observed regardless of fat content, while correlation between PE and either PC or SM increased in the order of C > B > A, hence the composition and content of PL species in HM varied according to its fat content.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/ultraestrutura , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Leite/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/análise , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(2): 93-103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023581

RESUMO

In this study, the antioxidative capacity of caffeic acid (CA), ascorbyl palmitate (AP), α-tocopherol (α-TO), and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was evaluated under the thermal oxidation model, in which 200 ppm of each compound was added to soybean oil, followed by thermal oxidation at 180°C for 32 h. Change of viscosity, acid value (AV), conjugated dienoic acid value (CDAV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), total polar materials (TPM), and the ratio of C18:2 to C16:0 (LA/PA) were evaluated during the reaction. All antioxidants showed significantly lower viscosity, TPM, and p-AV, and higher LA/PA, than the control (without antioxidant, CON), indicating that thermal oxidation was delayed. Among them, CAPE showed significantly lower viscosity, TPM, and p-AV, and higher LA/PA, than the other antioxidants (p < 0.05). In the correlation between the oxidation parameters measured from CON and CAPE, the correlation coefficient between p-AV and viscosity was rather low at r = 0.7603 (in CON) and r = 0.7338 (in CAPE), respectively.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ésteres/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Oxirredução
4.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484355

RESUMO

Thirty-four samples of human milk (HM) collected from mothers in Korea were classified into three groups according to their fat content. The lutein + zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin, ß-carotene, lycopene, α-carotene, and fatty acids (FAs) present in the HM were quantitatively analyzed. Lutein + zeaxanthin and ß-cryptoxanthin were the most abundant carotenoid components in this study, followed by ß-carotene. When the classified groups were compared in terms of the content of each carotenoid, there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05), indicating that there is no correlation between the content of fat and carotenoid in HM. The mean content of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs, and polyunsaturated FAs in the analyzed HM were 1.46, 1.36, and 0.83 g/100 g, respectively. In addition, the mean content of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.02 and 0.029 g/100 g, respectively. Alternatively, all FAs except for certain SFAs (i.e., C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0) did not show statistical difference in composition among the three groups (p > 0.05), indicating that the differences in the fat content of HM have limited influence on the FA composition of HM.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Gorduras/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Leite Humano/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Humanos , República da Coreia
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(36): 27788-27798, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983739

RESUMO

NO can be removed at the same time with SO2 by aqueous Co(NH3)62+ solution. The reduction of Co(NH3)63+ to Co(NH3)62+ is catalyzed by activated carbon to regain the NO absorption ability of the scrubbing solution. Oxalic acid solution is explored to change the carbon surface to ameliorate its catalytic capability. The experimental results suggest that the best catalyst is prepared by impregnating the carbon sample in 0.7 mol l-1 oxalic acid solution for 24 h followed by being activated at 600 °C for 5 h under nitrogen atmosphere. After being treated with oxalic acid solution, the surface area and the acidity on the carbon surface increase. The experiments show that the carbon modified with oxalic acid can get a much higher NO removal efficiency than the original carbon.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/química , Ácido Oxálico/análise , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Cobalto
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