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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572582

RESUMO

The abscisic acid (ABA) increase and auxin decline are both indicators of ripening initiation in grape berry, and norisoprenoid accumulation also starts at around the onset of ripening. However, the relationship between ABA, auxin, and norisoprenoids remains largely unknown, especially at the transcriptome level. To investigate the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the ABA and synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on norisoprenoid production, we performed time-series GC-MS and RNA-seq analyses on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from pre-veraison to ripening. Higher levels of free norisoprenoids were found in ABA-treated mature berries in two consecutive seasons, and both free and total norisoprenoids were significantly increased by NAA in one season. The expression pattern of known norisoprenoid-associated genes in all samples and the up-regulation of specific alternative splicing isoforms of VviDXS and VviCRTISO in NAA-treated berries were predicted to contribute to the norisoprenoid accumulation in ABA and NAA-treated berries. Combined weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) analysis suggested that VviGATA26, and the previously identified switch genes of myb RADIALIS (VIT_207s0005g02730) and MAD-box (VIT_213s0158g00100) could be potential regulators of norisoprenoid accumulation. The positive effects of ABA on free norisoprenoids and NAA on total norisoprenoid accumulation were revealed in the commercially ripening berries. Since the endogenous ABA and auxin are sensitive to environmental factors, this finding provides new insights to develop viticultural practices for managing norisoprenoids in vineyards in response to changing climates.

2.
Food Chem ; 339: 127795, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836023

RESUMO

Anthocyanin derivatives and chromatic characteristics of 234 different-vintage red wine were investigated based on a targeted HPLC-MS/MS and CIELAB approach. The K-means cluster analysis showed that the evolution pattern varies amongst anthocyanin derivative classes. Their stabilities are: pinotins > flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins, vitisin A > monomeric anthocyanin, direct anthocyanin-flavan-3-ols condensation products > vitisin B, anthocyanin ethyl-linked flavan-3-ols products. The proportion of most pyranoanthocyanins becomes more significant among all detected anthocyanin derivatives during wine aging, whereas flavanols-related anthocyanin derivatives (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) decreased drastically. PLSR showed that aging tawny characteristics is related to pyranoanthocyanins except for vitisin B, especially pinotins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavanol-related derivates (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) contribute to red violet color. But aging color density is more associated with the content of vitisin A and flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins. Two predictive models based on random forest and support vector machine modeling showed good performance in predicting the extent of wine aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vinho/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(12): 1641-1653, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282431

RESUMO

Berries of six Vitis davidii Foex (spine grape) cultivars ('Baiputao', 'Gaoshan 1', 'Gaoshan 2', 'Seputao', 'Miputao', and 'Tianputao') were harvested from a commercial vineyard in Hunan Province in China. Free and bound volatile compounds and fatty acids were analyzed by GC-MS, and amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. 'Tianputao' and 'Miputao' were characterized by relatively higher concentrations of aromatic amino acids and lower concentrations of branched-chain amino acids. The major free volatile compounds of spine grapes were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol, (E)-ß-damascenone, and benzeneacetaldehyde. The major glycosidically bound volatile compounds identified were 1-hexanol, menthol, nerol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-3-butenol, benzenemethanol, ß-phenylethanol, eugenol, and guaiacol. (E)-ß-damascenone, benzeneacetaldehyde, guaiacol, and eugenol had odor activity values (OAVs) > 1 in all cultivar grapes. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed 'Tianputao' to be distinct from the other cultivars due to its relatively higher concentrations of major terpenoids, norisoprenoids, higher alcohols, and aromatic amino acids.

4.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109388, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233090

RESUMO

Differences in key odor-active volatile compounds among the head, heart, and tail fractions of freshly distilled spirits from Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) wine were identified for the first time by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) showed that there were 34, 45, and 37 odor-active compounds in the head, heart and tail fractions, respectively. Besides, 20, 22, and 17 quantified compounds, respectively, showed odor activity values (OAVs) > 1. The head fraction was characterized by fruity, fusel/solvent notes owing to higher concentrations of higher alcohols and esters, while the tail fraction had more intense smoky/animal, sweaty/fatty attributes due to higher concentrations of volatile phenols and fatty acids. Finally, the heart fraction was characterized by ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-phenylpropanoate, ethyl cinnamate, isoamyl alcohol, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 2,3-butanedione, and (E)-ß-damascenone. Furthermore, observation of the distillation progress indicated that different volatiles with various boiling points and solubilities followed diverse distillation patterns: concentrations of most esters, higher alcohols, terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids decreased, while concentrations of volatile phenols, fatty acids and some aromatic compounds increased during distillation. As a result, their final concentrations in the three distillate fractions varied significantly.

5.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109688, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233263

RESUMO

In this study, fruit-zone microclimate was modified by three treatments, including inter-row mulch (M), the combination of leaf removal applied at the onset of veraison and inter-row mulch (MLR-BV), and the combination of leaf removal applied at complete veraison and inter-row mulch (MLR-EV), in a semi-arid climate in three consecutive years (2015-2017). M decreased fruit-zone reflected solar radiation from vineyard floor and low temperature (10-20 °C) duration, whereas it increased soil temperature and high temperature (> 30 °C) duration. MLR-BV and MLR-EV increased fruit-zone incident photosynthetically active radiation while decreased the duration of 20-25 °C compared to M. Notably, M significantly decreased grape total norisoprenoid concentrations in 2015-2017, and total terpenoid concentrations in 2015-2016. Applying leaf removal applied at the onset of veraison could compensate the decreases of total norisoprenoids and terpenoids caused by M when two treatments were applied together. Besides, M significantly increased grape total C6/C9 compound concentrations, besides, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol concentrations were significantly higher in grapes of M than those of MLR-BV in 2015-2017. Light exposure and high temperature duration after veraison had strong positive correlations with total norisoprenoids and terpenoids, besides, low temperature duration was positively correlated with total norisoprenoids. In addition, light exposure after veraison had strong negative correlations with total C6/C9 compounds. With respect to the volatile compounds in wines, M significantly decreased the concentrations of isopentanol and ethyl acetate, and the concentrations of ethyl cinnamate, phenylacetaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-methylthio-1-propanol were significantly lower in MLR-BV and MLR-EV than in M. The outcome of this study can assist winegrowers to properly adjust vineyard managements to optimize the concentrations of desired volatile compounds in grapes and wines.

6.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062054

RESUMO

Background: Product toxicity is one of the bottlenecks for microbial production of biofuels, and transporter-mediated biofuel secretion offers a promising strategy to solve this problem. As a robust microbial host for industrial-scale production of biofuels, Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a powerful transport system to export a wide range of toxic compounds to sustain survival. The aim of this study is to improve the secretion and production of the hydrophobic product (ß-carotene) by harnessing endogenous ABC transporters combined with physiological engineering in S. cerevisiae. Results: Substrate inducibility is a prominent characteristic of most endogenous transporters. Through comparative proteomic analysis and transcriptional confirmation, we identified five potential ABC transporters (Pdr5p, Pdr10p, Snq2p, Yor1p, and Yol075cp) for ß-carotene efflux. The accumulation of ß-carotene also affects cell physiology in various aspects, including energy metabolism, mitochondrial translation, lipid metabolism, ergosterol biosynthetic process, and cell wall synthesis. Here, we adopted an inducible GAL promoter to overexpress candidate transporters and enhanced the secretion and intracellular production of ß-carotene, in which Snq2p showed the best performance (a 4.04-fold and a 1.33-fold increase compared with its parental strain YBX-01, respectively). To further promote efflux capacity, two strategies of increasing ATP supply and improving membrane fluidity were following adopted. A 5.80-fold increase of ß-carotene secretion and a 1.71-fold increase of the intracellular ß-carotene production were consequently achieved in the engineered strain YBX-20 compared with the parental strain YBX-01. Conclusions: Overall, our results showcase that engineering endogenous plasma membrane ABC transporters is a promising approach for hydrophobic product efflux in S. cerevisiae. We also highlight the importance of improving cell physiology to enhance the efficiency of ABC transporters, especially energy status and cell membrane properties.

7.
Food Res Int ; 134: 109226, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517914

RESUMO

Anthocyanin derivatives are critical components that impart color to aging red wine. In this study, we developed a targeted metabolomic method for the simultaneously profiling of the primary thirty-seven malvidin-derived anthocyanin derivatives in red wine, including various pyranoanthocyanins and flavanols-related condensation products. First, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem ion trap and triple-quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometry were used to construct the mass spectral and chromatographic database of the anthocyanin derivatives that were formed in a model wine solution. Next, the targeted profiling analysis of these compounds was achieved on a QqQ mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The method displayed excellent linearity (R2 0.9391-0.9998), sensitivity (0.221-0.604 µg/L of limit of detection (LOD) and 0.274-1.157 µg/L of limit of quantification (LOQ) equivalent to malvidin-3-O-glucoside (Mv-glc)), and repeatability (less than 10% and 15% for intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) respectively). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on this method showed great discrimination over different vintage wines, thereby promising to be an effective tool in wine anthocyanin and aging related study.

8.
Food Chem ; 326: 126960, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413752

RESUMO

In this study, intermolecular copigmentation between five primary wine monoglucosidic anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) and three common wine phenolics (gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside) were investigated through experimental and theoretical methods, and the influence of substituent pattern of anthocyanin B ring was studied emphatically. Chromatic and thermodynamic analysis showed there were great differences among these different pigment-copigment systems. Spatial conformations of the 15 copigmentation complexes were obtained through theoretical calculation, and diverse π-π stacking modes were observed. These results indicated that the substituent pattern of anthocyanin B ring had significant impact on its affinity to copigments, and more, the structures of pigments and copigments determined the color expression and stability of copigmentation together.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Fenóis/química , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Cor , Glucosídeos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365554

RESUMO

Glycosylated volatile precursors are important, particularly in wine grape berries, as they contribute to the final aroma in wines by releasing volatile aglycones during yeast fermentation and wine storage. Previous study demonstrated that VviGT14 was functioned as a critical monoterpene glucosyltransferase in grape berry, while the transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviGT14 was still unknown. Here we identified VviWRKY40 as a binding factor of VviGT14 promoter by both DNA pull-down and yeast one-hybrid screening, followed by a series of in vitro verification. VviWRKY40 expression pattern negatively correlated with that of VviGT14 in grape berries. And the suppressor role of VviWRKY40 was further confirmed by using the dual luciferase assay with Arabidopsis protoplast and grape cell suspension system. Furthermore, the grape suspension cell ABA treatment study showed that ABA downregulated VviWRKY40 transcript level but promoted that of VviGT14, indicating that VviWRKY40 was at the downstream of ABA signal transduction network to regulate monoterpenoid glycosylation. These data extend our knowledge of transcriptional regulation of VviGT14, and provide new targets for grape breeding to alter monoterpenoid composition.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457771

RESUMO

Norisoprenoids are important aromatic volatiles contributing to the pleasant floral/fruity odor in grapes and wine. They are produced from carotenoids through the cleavage of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). However, the underlying mechanisms regulating VvCCD expression remain poorly understood. In this study, we showed that VvCCD4b expression was positively correlated with the accumulation of ß-damascenone, ß-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, geranylacetone, dihydroedulan I, and total norisoprenoids in developing grapes in two vintages from two regions. VvCCD4b was found to be principally expressed in flowers, mature leaves, and berries. Abscisic acid strongly induced the expression of this gene. Additionally, the present study preliminarily indicated that the activity of the VvCCD4b promoter was dropped under 37°C treatment and also responded to the illumination change. VvCCD4b was expressed in parallel with VvMADS4 in developing grape berries. The latter is a MADS family transcription factor and nucleus-localized protein that was captured by yeast one-hybrid. A dual-luciferase reporter assay in tobacco leaves revealed that VvMADS4 downregulated the activity of the VvCCD4b promoter. VvMADS4 overexpression in grape calli and Vitis quinquangularis Rehd. leaves repressed the VvCCD4b expression. In summary, this work demonstrates that VvCCD4b expression is positively correlated with the accumulation of norisoprenoids, and VvMADS4 is a potential negative regulator of VvCCD4b. Our results provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of VvCCD4b expression and norisoprenoid accumulation in grapes.

11.
Food Res Int ; 130: 108885, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156346

RESUMO

Limited oxygenation and over-oxidation experiments were designed to compare the phenolic and chromatic characters of base wines Cabernet Franc (CF), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), and their counterparts that blended with modifier wines Marselan (MA) and Petit Verdot (PV). In both limited oxygenation and over-oxidation conditions, all blend wines generally contained higher C*ab, a* and Red%, and lower hab, b* and Yellow% than their base wine counterparts, because MA contributed flavonols (copigments) and anthocyanins, and PV contributed flavanols (anthocyanin derived pigments precursors). Chromatic changes that can be perceived by human eye (ΔE*ab) in CF based blend wines were more obvious than that of CS based blend wines, which indicate that base wine with lower phenolic concentrations and weak phenolic profiles (CF) might be more prone to be chromatically modified than base wine with higher phenolic concentrations and distinct phenolic profiles (CS). Chemical influences of different blending strategies on anthocyanin derivatives' formations were depending on phenolic profiles of the modifier wines and base wines, and also on the oxygen exposure. The results suggest that the chromatic improvement of base wines could be realized by blending modifier wines under different oxygen exposures.

12.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019212

RESUMO

Air- and sun-dried raisins from Thompson Seedless (TS) grapes were analyzed under GC/MS to evaluate fatty acids (FAs) and their derived volatile compounds, coming from unsaturated fatty acids oxidation. A total of 16 FAs were identified in TS raisins, including 10 saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and 6 unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs). The contents of C18:0, C15:0, and C16:0 among SFAs and C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 in USFAs were significantly higher. Furthermore, USFAs such as C16:1 and C20:1 were only identified in air-dried raisins. The principal component analysis showed the increased content of FAs and FA-derived compounds were in air-dried and sun-dried raisins, respectively. Among FA-derived compounds, 2-pentyl furan, 3-octen-2-one, 1-hexanol and heptanoic acid were more potent. This study shows that air-drying is more favorable for the production of fatty acids (SFAs and USFAs), whereas sun-drying is more advantageous in terms of fatty acid-derived volatiles.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 59, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basal leaf removal is widely practiced to increase grape cluster sunlight exposure that controls berry rot and improves quality. Studies on its influence on volatile compounds in grape berries have been performed mostly in Mediterranean or marine climate regions. It is uncertain whether similar efficiency can be achieved when grape berries are grown under continental climate. This study aimed to dissect the variation in volatile compound production and transcriptome in sunlight-exposed grape berries in a dry-hot climate region and to propose the key genes related to the variation. RESULTS: Four cluster sunlight exposure strategies, including basal leaf removal at pepper-corn size stage, leaf removal at véraison (LR-V), leaf moving at véraison (LM-V), and half-leaf removal at véraison, were implemented at the north foot of the Mt. Tianshan region of northwestern China. Various cluster exposure treatments resulted in a decline in the concentrations of norisoprenoids and monoterpenes in ripening grape berries. Both ß-carotene and lutein, the substrates of norisoprenoid biosynthesis, were reduced by cluster sunlight exposure. K-means cluster analysis showed that some genes involved in biosynthesis such as VviTPS55, VviTPS60, VviTPS66, VviCCD4a and VviCCD4b exhibited lower expression levels in exposed berries at least at one of the tested stages. Two C6-derived esters with fruity attributes, ethyl hexanoate and hexyl acetate, were reduced markedly. In contrast, main C6 alcohol compound levels were elevated in the LR-V- and LM-V-treated grape berries, which corresponded to the up-regulated expression of VviLOXA, VviLOXO and VviADH1 in the oxylipin pathway. Most of the differentially expressed genes in the exposed and control berries were enriched to the "stress response" processes, and this transcriptome difference was accumulated as the berries matured. Besides, LR-V treatment stimulated a significant up-regulation in photosynthesis-related genes in the grape berries, which did not happen with LM-V treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cluster sunlight exposure in dry-hot climate viticulture resulted in different volatile-targeted transcriptomic and metabolic responses from those obtained in the temperate Mediterranean or marine climate region. Therefore, a modified canopy management should be adopted to improve the aroma of grape berries.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Luz Solar , Transcriptoma , Vitis/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , China , Clima , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 310: 125830, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784072

RESUMO

Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace, the residue of red wine production, is a good source material for production of anthocyanins. In this study, an effective and simple method for semi-preparative isolation of anthocyanins from grape pomace was developed. Ultrasonication with acidified MeOH was used to extract anthocyanins, with 56.15 mg total anthocyanins being obtained from 50 g grape pomace. Crude extracts were purified by XAD-7HP column chromatography, followed by isolation of the anthocyanin mixtures using semi-preparative HPLC, and subsequent identification of anthocyanin monomers by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Fourteen anthocyanins were isolated with high purities (≥90%), among which were non-acylated and acylated anthocyanins, and their cis and trans isomers. It is believed this is the first time that nearly all primary anthocyanin monomers in grapes have been isolated simultaneously using a single-step semi-HPLC procedure. The findings of this study will contribute to further research on anthocyanin monomers and profitable utilization of grape pomace.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Vitis/química , Acilação , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resíduos , Vinho
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 583, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light conditions significantly influence grape berry ripening and the accumulation of phenolic compounds, but the underlying molecular basis remains partially understood. Here, we applied integrated transcriptomics and pathway-level metabolomics analyses to investigate the effect of cluster bagging during various developmental stages on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. RESULTS: Bagging treatments had limited effects on berry quality attributes at harvest and did not consistently affect phenolic acid biosynthesis between seasons. Significantly elevated flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents were detected in re-exposed berries after bagging during early-developmental stages, while bagging after véraison markedly inhibited skin anthocyanin accumulation. Several anthocyanin derivatives and flavonol glycosides were identified as marker phenolic metabolites for distinguishing bagged and non-bagged grapes. Coordinated transcriptional changes in the light signaling components CRY2 and HY5/HYHs, transcription regulator MYBA1, and enzymes LAR, ANR, UFGT and FLS4, coincided well with light-responsive biosynthesis of the corresponding flavonoids. The activation of multiple hormone signaling pathways after both light exclusion and re-exposure treatments was inconsistent with the changes in phenolic accumulation, indicating a limited role of plant hormones in mediating light/darkness-regulated phenolic biosynthesis processes. Furthermore, gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses discovered that the light-responsive expression of genes encoding bHLH, MYB, WRKY, NAC, and MADS-box transcription factors, and proteins involved in genetic information processing and epigenetic regulation such as nucleosome assembly and histone acetylation, showed a high positive correlation with grape berry phenolic accumulation in response to different light regimes. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our findings provide novel insights into the understanding of berry phenolic biosynthesis under light/darkness and practical guidance for improving grape features.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carbocíclicos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Luz Solar
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(6): 6311-6323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535324

RESUMO

Norisoprenoids are produced from carotenoids under oxidative degradation mediated by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) and contribute to floral and fruity notes in grape berries and wine. The diversity of CCD substrates and products has been demonstrated by in vitro recombinant proteins extracted from Escherichia coli expressing CCD genes and of in vivo proteins in an E. coli system co-expressing genes for carotenoid synthesis and cleavage. In the current study, VvCCD1 and VvCCD4b were isolated from the cDNA library of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and then transformed into carotenoid-accumulating recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of the target genes was monitored during the yeast growth period, and the accumulation of carotenoids and norisoprenoids in the recombinant strains was measured. The results indicated that both of the VvCCDs cleaved ß-carotene at the 7, 8 (7', 8') position into ß-cyclocitral for the first time. Additionally, the two enzymes also degraded ß-carotene at the 9, 10 (9', 10') position to generate ß-ionone and cleaved lycopene at the 5, 6 (5', 6') position into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. These findings suggested that the VvCCDs may possess more cleavage characteristics under the eukaryotic expression system in S. cerevisiae than the prokaryotic system in E. coli, which could better explain the biochemical functions of VvCCDs in grape berries.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vitis/enzimologia , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Biblioteca Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transformação Genética , Vitis/genética , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461838

RESUMO

4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is present in food. It has a caramel-like flavor, which affects the quality of food, and is formed via multiple pathways. Msalais is a traditional wine fermented from boiled local grape juice in Xinjiang (China). It has a strong caramel odor, which suggests high furaneol content. Furaneol formation during Msalais-making had not been investigated to date. Here, high-performance liquid chromatography and different fermentation models of Msalais-making were used to investigate the furaneol content and formation during Msalais-making. The furaneol content of Msalais is high, between 27.59 ± 0.493 mg/L and 117.6 ± 0.235 mg/L. It is formed throughout the entire Msalais-making process. The formation pathways include the Maillard reaction and chemical hydrolysis of bound furaneol during grape juice concentration; enzymatic release and/or chemical acidic hydrolysis of furaneol glucosides, and biosynthesis from Maillard products and d-fructose-1,6-diphosphate during fermentation; chemical transformation of Maillard products at room temperature (16-25 °C) and hydrolysis of furaneol glucosides during storage. Importantly, furaneol is formed by an efficient biotransformation of Maillard products. These findings suggest that furaneol content can be used as an important indicator of wine quality, and could be controlled by controlling the grape quality, grape juice concentration, fermentation, and wine storage.


Assuntos
Furanos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Vinho/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Reação de Maillard
18.
Food Res Int ; 122: 56-65, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229111

RESUMO

Cluster thinning (CT) is a common practice to prevent overcropping in viticulture. CT affects vine balance between vegetative and productive growth and further modifies grape composition. This study investigated the effects of cluster thinning treatments applied at pea-size stage (CT-AF) and the onset of veraison (CT-V), respectively, on volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon in two seasons (2013-2014). The experimental vineyard was located in the north-west of China with semi-arid and monsoon climate. CT exhibited limited effects on the evolutions of volatile compounds. CT-AF exhibited an inhibition on 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one accumulation. There were no differences in terpene concentrations between CT-treated and control grapes regardless of CT time. Regarding C6/C9 compounds and their derivatives, CT-AF decreased nonanal concentration whilst CT-V increased (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol concentration. Additionally, there were increases in nonanal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol concentrations in grapes with delayed CT. Among benzene derivatives, earlier CT resulted in lower phenol concentrations.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Norisoprenoides/análise , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178837

RESUMO

The levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in grape must significantly influence yeast metabolism and the production of aroma compounds. In this work, cDNA microarray technology was applied to analyze the transcriptional discrepancies of wine yeast (commercial wine yeast Lalvin EC1118) fermenting in synthetic grape must supplemented with different concentrations of a mixture of UFAs (including linoleic acid, oleic acid, and α-linolenic acid). The results showed that the initial addition of a high level of UFAs can significantly enrich the intracellular UFAs when compared to a low addition of UFAs and further increase the cell population and most volatiles, including higher alcohols and esters, except for several fatty acids. Microarray analyses identified that 63 genes were upregulated, and 91 genes were downregulated during the different fermentation stages. The up-regulated genes were involved in yeast growth and proliferation, stress responses and amino acid transportation, while the repressed genes were associated with lipid and sterol biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle regulation, mitochondrial respiration, and stress responses. Unexpectedly, the genes directly related to the biosynthesis of volatile compounds did not vary substantially between the fermentations with the high and low UFA additions. The beneficial aromatic function of the UFAs was ascribed to the increased biomass and amino acid transportation, considering that the incorporation of the additional UFAs in yeast cells maintains high membrane fluidity and increases the ability of the cells to resist deleterious conditions. Our results highlighted the importance of UFAs in the regulation of aroma biosynthesis during wine fermentation and suggested that the improvement of the resistance of yeast to extreme stresses during alcoholic fermentation is essential to effectively modulate and improve the production of aroma compounds. A potential way to achieve this goal could be the rational increase of the UFA contents in grape must.

20.
Food Chem ; 292: 237-246, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054670

RESUMO

The ripeness of a grape is critical to berry composition and to the resultant wine. For wineries with a single cultivar occupying an extensive area, the total soluble solid of grapes can range from 22°Brix to 28°Brix. Accordingly, the influence of different harvest dates (ripeness) on berry compositions and on the resultant wine profile was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon.' Berry dehydration was observed as berry weight and juice yields decreased. Berry anthocyanins were concentrated and methylated anthocyanin levels fluctuated with increasing delays in harvesting. Hexanal and 2-hexenal levels in must decreased significantly as berries ripened. In the resultant wines, 2,3-butanediol levels increased. Wines harvested earlier were lighter, presented lower color intensity (CI) values and higher yellow% levels, and exhibited richer aroma profiles (compounds). Through a principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, the compounds characterizing each harvest date were identified.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Clima , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo , Vitis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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