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1.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480955

RESUMO

Janus wettability membranes have received much attention because of their asymmetric surface wettability. On the basis of this distinctiveness from traditional symmetrical membranes, relevant scholars have been inspired to pursue many innovations utilizing such membranes. Femtosecond laser microfabrication shows many advantages, such as precision, short time, and environmental friendliness, over traditional fabrication methods. Now this has been applied in structuring Janus membranes by researchers. This review covers recent advances in femtosecond laser-structured Janus membranes with asymmetric surface wettability. The background in femtosecond laser-structured Janus membranes is first discussed, focusing on the Janus wettability membrane and femtosecond laser microfabrication. Then the applications of Janus membranes are introduced, which are divided into unidirectional fluid transport, oil-water separation, fog harvesting, and seawater desalination. Finally, based on femtosecond laser-structured Janus membranes, some existing problems are pointed out and future perspectives proposed.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 540: 42-50, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445109

RESUMO

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), which play a very critical role in liver regeneration, function in hypoxic environments, but few studies have elucidated the specific mechanism. As a hypoxia-sensitive gene, Sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 1(SENP1) is upregulated in solid tumors due to hypoxia and promotes tumor proliferation. We speculate that LSECs may upregulate SENP1 in hypoxic environments and that SENP1 may act on downstream genes to allow the cells to adapt to the hypoxic environment. To elucidate the reasons for the survival of LSECs under hypoxia, we designed experiments to explore the possible mechanism. First, we cultured murine LSECs in hypoxic conditions for a certain time (24 h and 72 h), and then, we observed that the proliferation ability of the hypoxia group was higher than that of the normoxia group, and the number of unique fenestrae of the LSECs in the hypoxia group was more than that of the LSECs in the normoxia group. Then, we divided the LSECs into several groups for hypoxic culture for time points (6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 72 h), and we found that the expression of SENP1, HIF-1α and VEGF was significantly upregulated. Then, we silenced SENP1 and HIF-1α with si-SENP1 and si-HIF-1α, respectively. SENP1, HIF-1α and VEGF were significantly downregulated, as determined by RT-PCR, WB and ELISA. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of the LSECs decreased and the fenestrae disappeared more in the si-SENP1 and si-HIF-1α groups than in the control group. It is concluded that LSECs cultured under hypoxic conditions may maintain fenestrae and promote proliferation through the SENP1/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling axis, thereby adapting to the hypoxic environment.

3.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 474-481, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is now the most destructive invasive species in North America. While biocontrol using parasitoids shows promising results in natural forests, strategies are needed to protect high-value trees against invasive EAB populations. Emamectin benzoate is a commonly used systemic insecticide for the protection of valuable trees. Methods that optimize its use allow for reduced quantities of insecticide to be released in the environment and save time and money in efforts to protect ash trees from EAB. We hypothesize that a treated tree can also offer a protective neighboring effect to nearby untreated ash trees, allowing for an optimized spatial planning of insecticide applications. RESULTS: We sampled 896 untreated ash trees, in the vicinity of treated trees, in Maryland and Washington DC. We recorded signs of EAB infestation (canopy condition, exit holes, wood pecks, epicormic growth, and bark splits). Two subsequent yearly samplings were made of 198 and 216 trees, respectively. We also present a novel proximity index for this particular application. Results show consistent decrease in EAB infestation signs in untreated trees as proximity to treated trees increases. CONCLUSION: Results support that a neighboring effect occurs. However, proximity to treated trees must be high for a tree to be safely left untreated. This proximity seems rare in forests, but can happen in urban/planted landscapes. Future studies should test and validate these findings, and could lead to a more precise recommended safe index tailored across multiple ash species and geographic regions.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fraxinus , Inseticidas , Animais , Larva , Maryland , América do Norte , Árvores
4.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111537, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120090

RESUMO

Terracing and rainfall characteristics notably influence the water erosion processes. However, an extensive long term in situ quantitative evaluation of the approaches to control the water erosion in different orchard terraces has not yet been performed, especially considering the increasing frequency and severity of extreme rainfall events due to the global climate change. In this study, six types of orchard terraces, including slope land as the control (SLck), level terrace with bare (LTb) and vegetation taluses (LTv), outward (OTv) and inward terrace (ITv) with vegetation taluses and level terrace having front mounds and back ditches with vegetation taluses (MDLTv), were used to analyze the effects of extreme and ordinary rainfall events on the surface runoff and soil erosion. According to the measured data for twelve consecutive years, 356 natural rainfall events were divided into extreme and ordinary rainfall, based on the World Meteorological Organization standard. The results indicated that more severe surface runoff and sediment loss occurred under extreme rainfall: the runoff coefficient and soil loss under extreme rainfall were 2.6 and 11.5 times those under ordinary rainfall, respectively. The sediment yield (contribution rate, 42.9%) exhibited a higher sensitivity to extreme rainfall events compared to that of the surface runoff generation (contribution rate, 16.4%). Moreover, the reduction in the surface runoff and sediment in the extreme rainfall case differed for different orchard terraces. The average surface runoff coefficient and soil loss amount decreased in the following order: SLck>LTb>OTv>LTv>ITv>MDLTv. Nevertheless, the highest and lowest contributions of the extreme rainfall to the sediment yield occurred in the LTb (64.8%) and MDLTv (21.7%) plots, respectively. Therefore, severe talus erosion caused by extreme rainfall should be monitored, and a combination of vegetation taluses and front mounds and back ditches on the platforms is recommended as a sustainable strategy to prevent extreme water erosion when transforming slope land into orchard terraces.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Solo , Água , Pesos e Medidas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268026

RESUMO

Oxycodone is a common type of opioid used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Besides its analgesic effects on neuron cells, the effects of oxycodone on other cell types are yet to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that oxycodone displayed both pro- and anti-cancer effects on bulk cancer cells. This work further investigated the effects of oxycodone on normal and malignant hematopoietic stem cells. Using hematopoietic CD34+ cells isolated from normal bone marrow (NBM) or patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we showed that oxycodone activates hematopoietic cells regardless of cell development stage and malignant status. Oxycodone dose-dependently increases colony formation and self-renewal capacity of NBM and AML stem/progenitor cells, and promotes proliferation of AML bulk cells. NBM stem/progenitor cells are more sensitive to oxycodone than AML counterparts. In addition, oxycodone alleviates chemotherapy drug-induced toxicity in AML stem/progenitor cells. Mechanism studies demonstrate that oxycodone acts on hematopoietic cells in an opioid-receptor-independent manner. Oxycodone did not affect epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling neither but stimulated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Rescue studies via depleting ß-catenin using genetic and pharmacological approaches confirmed that ß-catenin was required for the activation of hematopoietic cells induced by oxycodone. Our work demonstrates 1) the protective role of oxycodone in malignant hematopoietic cells from chemotherapy; 2) stimulatory effects of oxycodone in normal hematopoietic stem cells; and 3) ability of oxycodone in Wnt signaling activation.

6.
J Burn Care Res ; 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313794

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Severe burns predispose to shock and necessitate escharectomy and skin grafting. Previous studies show that mesenchymal stem cells are effective for burn wound healing and immune regulation. In this study, we combined escharectomy and skin grafting after burn injury with stem cell application, so as to examine the immune regulation of stem cells and the effect on the transplanted skin graft. METHOD: SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, sham group, normal + hUCMSCs group, and normal + SB203580 group. normal saline, hUCMSCs, and SB203580 were injected into the tail vein of each group, and serum inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. The expression of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway proteins in rat liver was detected by western blot. Skin activity was detected by Trypan blue staining and western blot. Skin graft inflammatory infiltration was detected by Histological analysis. RESULTS: We found that hUCMSCs could regulate the phosphorylation levels of P38MAPK and NF- B P65 proteins in the liver to reduce the inflammatory response, These effects could continue to reduce the production of inflammatory factors HMGB-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, and increase the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The infiltration of inflammatory cells in skin graft was significantly reduced in the normal + hUCMSCs group, and the macrophages in the hUCMSCs group polarized to the anti-inflammatory M2 direction in 3d. However, the changes of skin graft activity and necroptosis markers protein RIP3 were not observed. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the immunomodulatory effects of hUCMSCs on the systemic and skin graft microenvironment after excision.

7.
Opt Lett ; 45(24): 6707-6710, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325875

RESUMO

A significant enhancement of light extraction of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with micro patterns has been experimentally investigated. The micro patterns on the surface of a polymer layer are fabricated by a femtosecond laser Bessel beam for obtaining microhole arrays with large depth, resulting in the reduction of photon loss by total internal reflection (TIR) at the surface of the LED. The light output power of the LED is apparently increased by introducing the array patterns without influencing its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Moreover, the electroluminescence spectra of a multi-color LED and its angular radiation profiles with orthogonal and hexagonal patterns also have been explored. In addition, the optical field distributions of the micro patterns simulated by the finite difference time domain method have expressed the modulation effect of the array depth. Finally, the patterned LED as a transmitter is embedded in the visible light communication system for evaluating the transmission signal quality.

8.
J Econ Entomol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164069

RESUMO

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to Northeast Asia, is the most destructive invasive ash (Fraxinus spp.) pest in the United States. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of exposure of diapausing mature fourth instars (J-shaped larvae, JL) of EAB to cool temperatures, either 1.7 or 12.8°C for 1-9 mo, on their post-chill development including adult emergence, longevity, and lifetime fecundity under standard rearing conditions (26 ± 0.5°C, 16:8 h L:D). In addition, we determined the effect of different stages of the larvae chilled at 12.8°C for 3 mo on the subsequent post-chill development to EAB adults. Findings from the study revealed that a period (≥2 mo) of chill at 12.8°C is required for the termination of the EAB diapause. However, chill treatment of the larvae at the near zero temperature (1.7°C) does not result in the post-diapause larval development to adults, regardless of the chill time (1-9 mo). In addition, our results showed that chill treatment of immature young larvae (L1-L4 prior to JL) results in little production of EAB adults, indicating that EAB diapause predominantly as JL. Findings of this study may be useful to laboratory rearing of EAB from eggs through continuous generations and help us understand the pest's voltinism resulting from the diapause and post-diapause development under different climatic conditions.

9.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 11351-11358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192094

RESUMO

Immunotherapy provided with checkpoint inhibitors such as the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor or its ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein has been shown to be effective for treating several types of cancer, and was recently approved for use in treating malignant melanoma, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), urothelial carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, liver cancer, and additional forms of cancer. However, there is little evidence concerning its effectiveness in treating thymic squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Here, we report two cases of refractory TSCC that were treated with PD-1 single/combination therapy in a clinical setting. The patients exhibited variable responses to therapy without any serious adverse events. In summary, our findings show that immunotherapy provided with an immuno-checkpoint inhibitor in combination with chemotherapy/anti-angiogenesis therapy can improve the treatment response of patients with refractory TSCC. Anti-PD-1 single/combination therapy may be used as a strategy for treating advanced refractory TC.

10.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 14: 242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903819

RESUMO

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced during abnormal and normal physiological conditions. Understanding the expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) in plasma-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their roles in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that cause cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is imperative. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats (250-300 g) were allocated to sham or SAH groups established using endovascular perforation method. miRNA expression profiles of plasma sEVs in both groups (each n = 4) were evaluated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results: There were 142 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly expressed differently between the two groups, of which 73 were up-regulated while 69 were down-regulated in SAH sEVs compared with those of sham (p < 0.05; fold change ≥ 2). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses of differently expressed (DE) miRNAs revealed signaling pathways and target genes (TGs) in the SAH group. rno-miR-185-5p, rno-miR-103-3p, rno-miR-15b-3p, rno-miR-93-5p, and rno-miR-98-5p were the top five most up-regulated sEVs miRNAs. Conclusion: Our results suggest that miRNA can be selectively packaged into sEVs under SAH, and this could help develop potential targets for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CVS after this condition.

11.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838970

RESUMO

The Footprint of Uncertainty (FOU) for an Interval type-2 (IT2) input fuzzy set is a key parameter of IT2 fuzzy PI and PD (FPI and FPD) controllers because it provides additional options to handle uncertainties. Because the effects of FOUs on IT2 FPI and FPD controller are still unclear, it is necessary to provide a guideline for designing the FOUs. In this study, from the input-output relationship of IT2 FPI and FPD controllers using typical and popular configuration, the variation trend of variable gains, in relation to the increase of FOUs, was analyzed. It is mathematically proven that variable gains of typical controllers decrease or not increase as the FOUs increase. These theoretical results can be extended to provide a guideline for designing FOUs of typical IT2 FPI and FPD controllers. Real-time response of linear voice coil motor is used to show the effectiveness of our results.

12.
Environ Entomol ; 49(5): 1041-1048, 2020 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794565

RESUMO

Ontsira mellipes Ashmead is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of woodboring cerambycids. It is native to North America but can readily attack the exotic Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky). This study aimed to develop an efficient rearing system for this parasitoid, as a potential novel association biocontrol agent for the beetle, by investigating the effects of different densities of host (two, three, or four larvae) and parasitoid (one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, and eight female wasps) on Ontsira's parasitization efficiency and reproductive outcomes. Results showed that overall parasitism and total numbers of parasitized hosts or progeny produced increased with host and/or parasitoid densities, but the number of parasitized hosts or progeny produced per female parasitoid decreased with parasitoid density at each given host density. Nonlinear regression indicated a consistent pattern of mutual interference as parasitoid density increased. Additional experiments showed that superparasitism (indirect interference) did not occur probably because the parasitoid detects hosts through vibration cues from host feeding and attacked (thus paralyzed) hosts are no longer detectable. Thus, the interference probably results from direct or exploitative competition. Interestingly, female parasitoids responded to increased parasitoid density with a significant increase in clutch size. Overall, per capita parasitization efficiency or reproductive outcomes were optimized at a low parasitoid-host ratio but with large group size of hosts and parasitoids. Therefore, an optimal combination of exposing three or four parasitoids to four hosts is proposed for efficient mass-rearing of this parasitoid.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(16)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796557

RESUMO

The increasing demands for real-time marine monitoring call for the wide deployment of Marine Monitoring Networks (MMNs). The low-rate underwater communications over a long distance, long propagation delay of underwater acoustic channel, and high deployment costs of marine sensors in a large-scale three-dimensional space bring great challenges in the network deployment and management of MMN. In this paper, we first propose a multitier, hierarchical network architecture of MMN with the support of edge computing (HMMN-EC) to enable efficient monitoring services in a harsh marine environment, taking into consideration the salient features of marine communications. Specifically, HMMN-EC is composed of three subnetworks, i.e., underwater acoustic subnetwork, the sea-surface wireless subnetwork, and the air wireless subnetwork, with a diversity of network nodes with different capabilities. We then jointly investigate the deployment diverse network nodes with various constraints in different subnetworks of HMMN-EC. To this end, we formulate a Multiobjective Optimization (MO) problem to minimize the network deployment cost while achieving the maximal network lifetime, subject to the limited energy of different marine nodes and the complex deployment environment. To solve the formulated problem, we present an Ant-Colony-based Efficient Topology Optimization (AC-ETO) algorithm to find the optimal locations of nodes in different subnetworks of MMN in a large-scale deployment. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is also analyzed. Finally, extensive simulations are carried out to validate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm compared with some existing solutions.

14.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 2486065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802034

RESUMO

Objective: This study was aimed at identifying the potential outcome predictors, comparing the efficacy in patients with different tremor characteristics, and summarizing the adverse effect rates (AERs) of deep brain stimulation on the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM-DBS) for essential tremor (ET). Methods: An extensive search of articles published to date in 2019 was conducted, and two main aspects were analyzed. Improvement was calculated as a percentage of change in any objective tremor rating scale (TRS) and analyzed by subgroup analyses of patients' tremor characteristics, laterality, and stimulation parameters. Furthermore, the AERs were analyzed as follows: the adverse effects (AEs) were classified as stimulation-related, surgical-related, or device-related effects. A simple regression analysis was used to identify the potential prognostic factors, and a two-sample mean-comparison test was used to verify the statistical significance of the subgroup analyses. Results: Forty-six articles involving 1714 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled improvement in any objective TRS score was 61.3% (95% CI: 0.564-0.660) at the mean follow-up visit (20.0 ± 17.3 months). The midline and extremity symptoms showed consistent improvement (P = 0.440), and the results of the comparison of postural and kinetic tremor were the same (P = 0.219). In addition, the improvement in rest tremor was similar to that in action tremor (OR = 2.759, P = 0.120). In the simple regression analysis, the preoperative Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (FTM-TRS) scores and follow-up time were negatively correlated with the percentage change in any objective TRS score (P < 0.05). The most common adverse event was dysarthria (10.5%), which is a stimulation-related AE (23.6%), while the rates of the surgical-related and device-related AEs were 6.4% and 11.5%, respectively. Conclusion: VIM-DBS is an efficient and safe surgical method in ET, and the efficacy was not affected by the body distribution of tremor, age at surgery, and disease duration. Lower preoperative FTM-TRS scores likely indicate greater improvement, and the effect of VIM-DBS declines over time.

15.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 12: 55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636938

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a specific neurovascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Clinically, family history is a widely recognized risk factor for DR, assisting diagnosis and risk strata. However, among a great amount of DR patients without hereditary history like hypertension and diabetes, direct and simple risk factors to assist clinical decisions are still required. Herein, we intend to investigate the associated risk factors for these DR patients based on systemic inflammatory response indexes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). Methods: We consecutively enrolled 1030 patients with a definite diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the endocrinology department of the Second hospital of People in Yun Nan. Based on funduscopy and family history checking, we excluded patients with a family history of hypertension and diabetes and finally enrolled 264 patients with DR and 206 patients with non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR). Through correlation analysis, univariate and multivariate regression, we further explore the association between NLR, PLR, and DR. On top of that, we investigate the effect of NLR and PLR on risk reclassification of DR. Results: Compared with NDR patients, NLR and PLR levels are significantly higher among DR patients (NLR: 2.36 ± 1.16 in DR group versus 1.97 ± 1.06 in NDR group, p < 0.001; PLR: 11.62 ± 4.55 in DR group versus10.56 ± 4.45 in NDR group, p = 0.012). According to univariate analysis, NLR and PLR add risks to DR. After fully adjusting co-founders, NLR, as both continuous and categorical variate, remains an independent risk factor for DR (OR (95%CI): 1.37 (1.06, 1.78) P = 0.018). And though PLR was not independently associated with DR as a continuous variable (OR (95%CI) 1.05 (0.99, 1.11) p = 0.135), the highest quantile of PLR add two-fold increased risk (OR (95%CI) 2.20 (1.05, 4.59) p = 0.037) in the fully adjusted model for DR. In addition, addition of PLR and NLR to the established factor hemoglobin (Hb) improved the discriminability of the model and assisted the reclassification of DR. After combining PLR and NLR the Area under curve (AUC) of Hb based model raised from 0.76 to 0.78, with a category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.532 (p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of 0.029 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Systemic inflammatory response indexes NLR and PLR were associated with the presence of DR among patients without associated family history and contributed to improvements in reclassification of DR in addition to Hb.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110398, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603889

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury (HIRI) HIRI is a complex, multifactorial pathophysiological process and in liver surgery has been known to significantly affect disease prognosis, surgical success rates, and patient survival. Ginsenoside Rgl (Rgl) monomer is one of the main active ingredients of ginseng. Previous studies have demonstrated that Rgl exerts various pharmacological effects through several mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis-related proteins levels, downregulation of inflammatory mediators and as well as antioxidant, which effectively exerts an organ protective effect I/R-induced damage. However, the exact mechanisms of Rg1 on HIRI remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of Rg1 on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (HIRI) and explored its underlying molecular mechanism. A rat warm I/R injury model in vivo and an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-treated BRL-3A cell model in vitro were established after pretreating with Rg1(20 mg/kg). The results showed that Rg1 reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). TUNEL staining showed that pretreated with Rg1 inhibited the apoptosis rate compared with the I/R group. Moreover, pretreated with Rg1 significantly reduced the expression of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 to inhibit the cell apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed the MMP in the I/R group was significantly increased, whereas pretreated with Rg1 effectively stabilized the MMP compared with the I/R group. in vitro, the proliferation of BRL-3A cells was significantly decreased by the OGD/R treatment, while Rg1 effectively reversed this phenomenon. In addition, western blotting showed that the increase of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 was inhibited by H2O2. These observations suggest that Rg1 exerts the protective effect by inhibiting the CypD protein-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

17.
Appl Opt ; 59(19): 5803-5811, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609708

RESUMO

Aimed at the structural parameters in the new optical Y-branch, this paper uses the Morris screening method and Sobol method in global sensitivity analysis to analyze the sensitivity of each parameter when the input optical field introduces an offset. The sensitivity parameters of the optical Y-branch are selected, and global sensitivity analysis of the sensitivity parameters is performed. The results of sensitivity analysis improve the parameter optimization process of the optical Y-branch. Finally, the optical Y-branch is optimized to obtain a small insertion loss, good uniformity, low wavelength-dependent loss, and polarization-dependent loss.

18.
Transl Androl Urol ; 9(3): 1244-1251, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676407

RESUMO

Background: The treatment of ketamine-induced bladder contractures remains poorly studied. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of cystectasia with a sodium hyaluronate balanced solution in this kind of bladder contracture. Methods: Eighteen patients presenting with ketamine-induced bladder contracture between July 2010 and February 2018 were selected and analysed. Ketamine was discontinued in all patients, who were then treated with weekly cystectasia (0.09% sodium hyaluronate balanced solution) 3 times. The volume of the first perfusion was twice the preoperatively measured bladder capacity, and the volume of the subsequent two perfusions was increased by 100 mL each time. The Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) symptom score, O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Symptom Index (ICSI), IC Problem Index (ICPI), Quality of Life (QOL) score, and bladder capacity were recorded before surgery and 3 and 12 months after the 3rd expansion. Results: No significant complications were observed during the 3 expansions. Fourteen patients completed the full follow-up schedule. Preoperatively and at the 3- and 12-month follow-up evaluations performed after the 3rd expansion, the PUF symptom scores were 20.4±3.6, 11.5±3.1, and 13.2±3.3, respectively; the mean ICSI was 13.6±2.8, 7.7±2.3, and 8.2±2.5, respectively; the mean ICPI was 10.6±2.6, 7.3±2.1, and 7.7±2.5, respectively; and the mean QOL scores were 6.0±0, 2.1±0.5, and 2.7±0.8, respectively; and the mean bladder catheter volume was 83±27, 234±56, and 228±52 mL, respectively. There were significant differences between all preoperative and postoperative values. Conclusions: Cystectasia with a sodium hyaluronate balanced solution is an effective treatment modality for ketamine-induced bladder contracture.

19.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(9): 755-760, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572228

RESUMO

Although the fates of microplastics (0.1-5 mm in size) and nanoplastics (<100 nm) in marine environments are being increasingly well studied1,2, little is known about the behaviour of nanoplastics in terrestrial environments3-6, especially agricultural soils7. Previous studies have evaluated the consequences of nanoplastic accumulation in aquatic plants, but there is no direct evidence for the internalization of nanoplastics in terrestrial plants. Here, we show that both positively and negatively charged nanoplastics can accumulate in Arabidopsis thaliana. The aggregation promoted by the growth medium and root exudates limited the uptake of amino-modified polystyrene nanoplastics with positive surface charges. Thus, positively charged nanoplastics accumulated at relatively low levels in the root tips, but these nanoplastics induced a higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited plant growth and seedling development more strongly than negatively charged sulfonic-acid-modified nanoplastics. By contrast, the negatively charged nanoplastics were observed frequently in the apoplast and xylem. Our findings provide direct evidence that nanoplastics can accumulate in plants, depending on their surface charge. Plant accumulation of nanoplastics can have both direct ecological effects and implications for agricultural sustainability and food safety.

20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1643-1650, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401478

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating actuality in clinics worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 10 million people among the world suffer from TBI each year, and a considerable number of patients will be temporarily or permanently disabled or even die due to this disease. Astrocytes play a very important role in the repair of brain tissue after TBI, including the formation of a neuroprotective barrier, inhibition of brain edema, and inhibition of normal nerve cell apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this protective effect is still unclear. To investigate the regulatory factors of astrocytes to other neurons post-TBI, we established a TBI rat model and used the AAV to mediate the overexpression of GJA1-20k in astrocytes of rats. And functionally, the specific overexpression of GJA1-20k in astrocytes promoted the viability and recovery of neurons in TBI. Mechanistically, the astrocytes-specific upregulation of GJA1-20k protected the function of mitochondria in neurons of FPI rats, thus suppressing the apoptosis of the damaged neurons. We hereby reported that astrocytes-specific overexpression of GJA1-20k enhanced the viability and recovery of the neurons in TBI through regulating their mitochondrial function.

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