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Parasitology ; 146(7): 947-955, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859932


The plerocercoid (sparganum) of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is the main aetiological agent of human sparganosis. To improve the current knowledge on S. erinaceieuropaei evolution, we performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of sparganum isolates from China for the first time. All available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for the Spirometra were downloaded from the GenBank. The identification and localization of microsatellites in ESTs was accomplished by MISA. Based on the selected microsatellites, the genetic structure of 64 sparganum isolates collected from 11 geographical locations in southwest China were investigated through principal component analysis, STRUCTURE analysis and neighbour-joining clustering. A total of 522 non-redundant ESTs containing 915 simple sequence repeats were identified from 12 481 ESTs screened. Five primer pairs were finally selected. Using these loci, a total of 12 alleles were detected in 64 sparganum isolates. Little variability was observed within each of geographical population, especially among isolates derived from Kunming of Yunnan (YN-KM) province. Both STRUCTURE analysis and the clustering analysis supported that two genotypes existed among the sparganum isolates from southwest China. In conclusion, five microsatellite markers were successfully developed, and sparganum population was observed to harbour low genetic variation, further investigation with deeper sampling was needed to elucidate the population structure.

Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Plerocercoide/genética , Alelos , Animais , Anuros/parasitologia , China , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Serpentes/parasitologia , Esparganose
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 117: 75-82, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606444


The larva of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei can parasitize humans, causing a serious parasitic zoonosis known as sparganosis. Although it is medically important, our knowledge about the phylogenetic position of S. erinaceieuropaei and its evolutionary history is fragmentary. In this study, complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 4 geographically distinct isolates of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana collected from 4 frog hosts (Hylarana guentheri, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugulosa, R. temporaria) were characterized using an Illumina sequencing platform. In addition, all available mt genomes of Cestoda in GenBank were included to reconstruct the phylogeny and to explore the evolutionary history of these tapeworms. The genome features of S. erinaceieuropaei contained 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. Nucleotide sequences of mtDNA from different frog hosts were similar. Three genes, cox1, cytb and nad4, had high levels of nucleotide diversity. Phylogenetic analyses supported the sibling relationship between Bothriocephalidae and Diphyllobothriidae. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the divergence between Diphyllobothrium and Diplogonoporus started in the late Miocene. The mt genomes of S. erinaceieuropaei will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics and systematics of the species of Spirometra genus in particular and diphyllobothriid tapeworms in general.

Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ranidae/parasitologia
Exp Parasitol ; 175: 1-7, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185895


Although medically important, the systematics of Spirometra and the taxonomic position of S. erinaceieuropaei remain unclear. In this study, the 18S rDNA gene of S. erinaceieuropaei sparganum from naturally infected frogs caught in 14 geographical locations of China was sequenced. In addition, all available 18S sequences of the family Diphyllobothriidae in the Genbank database were included to reconstruct the phylogeny of diphyllobothriid tapeworms. The secondary structure model of the 18S rDNA was also predicated to further explore the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The intraspecific divergences of 18S rDNA in Chinese sparganum isolates ranged from 0.0 to 0.4%. Regions of V2, V4 and V7 were the most variable regions in the secondary structure of 18S rDNA. With the exception of genera Duthiersia and Probothriocephalus, other genera (i.e., Adenocephalus, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Duthiersia, Schistocephalus and Spirometra) selected in the Diphyllobothriidae shared similar topologies of V2, V4 and V7 structures. The topology of generated phylogenetic trees revealed close relationships among Adenocephalus, Digramma, Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus, Ligula, Sparganum and Spirometra. The exact phylogenetic position of Spirometra species should be further analyzed with more sampling and more useful molecular markers.

DNA Ribossômico/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Spirometra/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , China , Funções Verossimilhança , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ranidae , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Plerocercoide/classificação , Plerocercoide/genética , Spirometra/genética
Acta Trop ; 166: 351-355, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983972


The aim of this study was to detect Trichinella spiralis DNA in mouse feces during the early stages of infection using PCR. The target gene fragment, a 1.6kb repetitive sequence of T. spiralis genome, was amplified by PCR from feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae at 3-24h post infection (hpi) and 2-28dpi. The sensitivity of PCR was 0.016 larvae in feces. The primers used were highly specific for T. spiralis. No cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other intestinal helminths. T. spiralis DNA was detected in 100% (12/12) of feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae as early as 3hpi, with the peak detection lasting to 12-24hpi, and then fluctuating before declining gradually. By 28dpi, the detection rate of T. spiralis DNA in feces of the two groups of infected mice decreased to 8.33% and 25%, respectively. PCR detection of T. spiralis DNA in feces is simple and specific; it might be useful for the early diagnosis of Trichinella infection.

DNA de Helmintos/análise , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Animais , Primers do DNA , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Larva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Triquinelose/parasitologia
Parasitol Res ; 115(12): 4707-4709, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601238


The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Larva , Carne/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/epidemiologia
Parasitol Res ; 115(2): 615-22, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468148


The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but specific IgG antibodies were not detected in early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early diagnostic antigens from ES proteins of intestinal infective larvae (IIL), the first invasive stage of T. spiralis. Six bands (92, 52, 45, 35, 32, and 29 kDa) of IIL ES proteins were recognized by infection sera in Western blotting as early as 10 days post infection. Total of 54 T. spiralis proteins in six bands were identified by shotgun LC-MS/MS, 30 proteins were annotated, and 27 had hydrolase activity. Several proteins (serine protease, putative trypsin, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, etc.) could be considered as the potential early diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis. Our study provides new insights for screening early diagnostic antigens from intestinal worms of T. spiralis.

Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Proteômica , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Larva/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/parasitologia , Serina Proteases/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Suínos , Triquinelose/imunologia