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1.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(4): 639-648, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871402

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an etiologically complicated and relapsing gastrointestinal disease, is characterized by the damage of mucosal epithelium and destruction of the intestinal homeostasis, which has caused a huge social and economic burden on the health system all over the world. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including environmental factors, genetic susceptibility, epithelial barrier defect, symbiotic flora imbalance, and dysregulated immune response. Thus far, although immune cells have become the focus of most research, it is increasingly clear that intestinal epithelial cells play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of UC. Notably, apoptosis is a vital catabolic process in cells, which is crucial to maintain the stability of intestinal environment and regulate intestinal ecology. In this review, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, as well as excessive apoptosis in intestinal epithelial dysfunction and gut microbiology imbalance are systematically and comprehensively summarized. Further understanding the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of UC may provide a novel strategy for its therapy in clinical practices and the development of new drugs.


Recently, the prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) has increased, but the pathogenesis of UC remains poorly understood. A better understanding of the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of UC may provide a promising prospect for UC treatment.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Apoptose , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Homeostase , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(8): 2015-2020, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531716

RESUMO

Essential oils(EOs) from Chinese medicinals, which can be used as adjuvants and exert certain therapeutic effect, are directly used in Chinese medicine formulas. Conventional research strategy for EOs from Chinese medicinals is to compare the efficacy of the prescriptions before and after the addition of EOs, and the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of EOs remain unclear. In modern research on EOs from Chinese medicinals, the method for studying chemical penetration enhancers is often used, which fails to reflect the overall efficacy of EOs. This study clarified the property regularity of EOs from Chinese medicinals as transdermal penetration enhancers, and thereby proposed a research model which integrated the medicinal and adjuvant properties of EOs from Chinese medicinals via "component-delivery-effect" characterization route. The core concept is that constituents of EOs from Chinese medicinals and their delivery process play a key role in their external application. This research model is expected to serve as a reference for further research on EOs from Chinese medicinals for transdermal application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Administração Cutânea , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Food Chem ; 390: 133111, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569401

RESUMO

Response-boosting of MS signal was observed in gelatin samples due to abundant Glycine residues produced by collagen enzymolysis. In this work, a new strategy utilizing response-boosting to enhance detection sensitivity was developed for absolute quantification of Asini Corii Colla, a kind of gelatin commonly used as food therapy products in Asia, by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Peptidomics analysis was used to evaluate the similarity between eight different protein matrices, and deer-hide gelatin was selected as the appropriate simulated matrix. Isotope-labelled internal standard was used to compensate the matrix effect and construct matrix-matched calibration curves. The established method showed reliability in absolute quantification of three species-specific gelatin peptides with good linearity (r2 > 0.997), precision (RSD < 8.5%), repeatability (RSD < 8.9%), accuracy (recovery 89.4%∼106.5%) and sensitivity (LOD 0.02 âˆ¼ 0.98 ng/mL). Thus, the present response-boosting based protocol provides a promising application in quality control of food rich in gelatins.

4.
Chem Biodivers ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514039

RESUMO

An undescribed C22-quassinoid named sergeolide A ( 1 ) and fifteen known quassinoids ( 2 - 16 ) were obtained from the seeds of Brucea javanica (Simaroubaceae). All chemical structures were established based on spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis. Sergeolide A ( 1 ) is the first example of a naturally occurring C22-quassinoid bearing a butenolide group fused the A ring of the bruceolide skeleton from Brucea genus. And this is the first report of the NMR data for desmethyl-bruceines B ( 2 ) and C ( 3 ) and the crystal structure for bruceolide ( 11 ). In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-pancreatic adenocarcinoma activity by measuring the growth inhibitory of the MIA PaCa-2 cell line. Consequently, compounds 1 , 7 - 10 , and 12 - 16 exhibited potent anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vitro (IC 50 = 0.054~0.357 µM).

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 847828, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402299

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit (JF) is widely consumed as food in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. As a traditional Chinese medicine, JF is often used to treat anorexia, fatigue and loose stools caused by spleen deficiency syndromes in China, but the mechanism underlying this effect has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, a rat model of spleen deficiency syndromes was adopted to investigate the therapeutic effect of JF extract and its possible mechanism by metabolomics analyses of plasma and urine as well as the intestinal flora analysis. The results showed that the changes in plasma and urine metabolites caused by spleen deficiency were reversed after administration of JF, and these changed endogenous metabolites were mainly involved in retinol metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, nicotinate and niacinamide metabolism pathways. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that JF could regulate intestinal flora imbalance caused by spleen deficiency. The covariance analysis of intestinal flora structure and metabolome indicated that Aerococcus may be a candidate strain for predicting and treating the metabolic pathways of spleen deficiency and related disorders. In summary, it can be revealed that spleen deficiency, which alters metabolic profiles and the intestinal flora, could be alleviated effectively by JF extract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ziziphus , Animais , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Baço , Síndrome , Ziziphus/química , Ziziphus/metabolismo
6.
J Sep Sci ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474281

RESUMO

Zingiberis Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma are usually used together for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in clinical practices. However, their compatibility mechanism remains unclear. In this study, a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, and 6-gingerol in rat plasma after oral administration of Zingiberis Rhizoma-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma herb pair and its single herb extracts. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity, with correlation coefficients of more than 0.993. The precision deviations of intra- and interday analysis were within 10.66%, and accuracy error ranged from -12.74 to 11.56%. The average recoveries of analytes were higher than 76.60% and the matrix effects were minimal. Thus, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four ingredients in normal and ulcerative colitis rat plasma. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic parameters of four analytes in normal and model groups showed significant differences. The larger exposure (the mean AUC0-t of ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, and 6-gingerol were increased by 50.93, 141.90, 3.68, and 37.25%, respectively) and slower elimination (the CLz/F of ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, and 6-gingerol were decreased by 52.94, 83.64, and 32.18%, respectively) were observed in ulcerative colitis rats. Furthermore, compared with single herbs, the analytes in rat plasma after oral administration of combined extracts presented relatively high systemic exposure levels with AUC0-t > 2000 h·ng/mL and Cmax > 200 ng/mL. Collectively, the differences of pharmacokinetic characteristics revealed the synergistic effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma herb pair, which provided a valuable and reliable basis for its clinical application in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

7.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408512

RESUMO

Present studies have shown that Flos Chrysanthemi has anti-inflammatory and other effects and regulates intestinal function, while the chrysanthemum stem and leaf as non-medicinal parts of chrysanthemum have similar chemical components with chrysanthemum, but the activity and mechanisms are rarely elucidated. Therefore, this study used a DSS-induced zebrafish inflammatory bowel disease model to study the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of chrysanthemum stem and leaf extracts. The results indicate that DSS induction leads to increased secretion of acidic mucin in the intestines of juvenile fish, enlargement of the intestinal lumen and the emergence of intestinal inflammation. Compared with the model group, each administration group differentially inhibited the expression of IL-1ß, IL-8 and MMP9 in DSS-induced zebrafish, while upregulating the activity of superoxide dismutase. The quantitative analysis results showed that the flavonoids (including Linarin, Diosmetin-7-glucoside, Tilianin, etc.) and phenolic acids (including Isochlorogenic acid C, Isochlorogenic acid A, 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, etc.) in the alcohol extract were closely related with both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, while the polysaccharides were also shown a certain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, this study suggests that the flavonoids, phenolic acids and polysaccharides from chrysanthemum stem and leaf extracts can improve inflammatory bowel disease of zebrafish by regulating the expressions of IL-1ß, IL-8 and MMP9.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
8.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 50, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb), as one of the typical representatives of multi-effect traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), has been utilized in the treatment of various diseases due to its multicomponent nature. However, there are few systematic investigations for the corresponding effect of individual components in rhubarb. Hence, we aimed to develop a novel strategy to fuzzily identify bioactive components for different efficacies of rhubarb by the back propagation (BP) neural network association analysis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for every data (UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE) and integrated effects. METHODS: Through applying the fuzzy chemical identification, most components of rhubarb were classified into different chemical groups. Meanwhile the integration effect values of different efficacies can be determined by animal experiment evaluation and multi-attribute comprehensive indexes. Then the BP neural network was employed for association analysis of components and different efficacies by correlating the component contents determined from UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE profiling and the integration effect values. Finally, the effect contribution of one type of components may be totaled to demonstrate the universal and individual characters for different efficacies of rhubarb. RESULTS: It suggested that combined anthraquinones, flavanols and their polymers may be the universal character to the multi-functional properties of rhubarb. Other components contributed to the individuality of rhubarb efficacies, including stilbene glycosides, anthranones and their dimers, free anthraquinones, chromones, gallic acid and gallotannins, butyrylbenzenes and their glycosides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that the bioactive components for different efficacies of rhubarb were not exactly the same and can be systematically differentiated by the network-oriented strategy. These efforts will advance our knowledge and understanding of the bioactive components in rhubarb and provide scientific evidence to support the expansion of its use in clinical applications and the further development of some products based on this medicinal herb.

9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 289: 119433, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483846

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is closely associated with the initiation and progression of aging. Considerable interest centers in the potential application of natural polysaccharides in oxidative stress alleviation and senescence delay. Herein, LFP-05S, an acidic heteropolysaccharide from Lycii fructus, was purified and structurally characterized based on a combination strategy of molecular weight (MW) distribution, monosaccharide composition, methylation and NMR spectroscopy analysis. The dominant population of LFP-05S was composed of long homogalacturonan (HG) backbone interspersed with alternating sequences of intra-rhamnogalacturonans-I (RG-I) domains and branched arabinogalactan and arabinan. Orally supplied LFP-05S exhibited defensive modulation in paraquat (PQ)-damaged oxidative stress Caenorhabditis elegans by strengthening the internal defense systems. Under normal conditions, LFP-05S extended the lifespan without significant impairment of propagation. Overall, these results suggested LFP-05S and L. fructus are worth further exploration as promising redox-based candidates for the prevention and management of aging and related disorders.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta , Frutas , Longevidade , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
10.
J Nat Prod ; 85(4): 1029-1038, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412828

RESUMO

Seven new naphthoquinone diglycosides (1-7), three new anthraquinones (8-10), and eight known analogues were obtained from the aerial parts of Mitracarpus hirtus collected from West Africa in a bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation. All isolated compounds were elucidated by comparison with the literature and interpretation of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of the new naphthoquinone diglycosides (1-10) were confirmed by chemical methods and ECD calculations. Notably, compound 1 was found to be the first naphthoquinone diglycoside containing carboxylic acid and isopentenyl side chains isolated from a species in the genus Mitracarpus. Compounds 6-18 showed antibacterial activity against multiple Helicobacter pylori strains with MIC values ranging from 0.0625 to 64 µg/mL. Particularly, 1-hydroxybenzoisochromanquinone (17) and benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione (18), with MIC values of 0.0625 and 0.125 µg/mL, displayed 32-512-fold higher potencies than a positive control, metronidazole. Compound 18 also demonstrated high antibiofilm activity and killed biofilm-encased Helicobacter pylori cells more effectively than metronidazole.


Assuntos
Helicobacter pylori , Naftoquinonas , Rubiaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(4): 862-871, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285184

RESUMO

As a unique medical resource in China, Chinese herbal medicine plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. With the gradual expansion of applications, the quality of Chinese herbal medicine has become the focus of attention. The quality of Chinese herbal medicines depends largely on their source authenticity. Tracing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines plays an important role in ensuring their quality and efficacy and reducing the mixing and adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines from different regions. Stable isotope technology, as a key technology for origin tracing of agricultural products and food, has been used in the research of Chinese herbal medicines from multiple sources and origins in recent years. This new technological means contributes to standardizing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines and controlling their quality from the source. Apart from introducing the basic principles of stable isotope technology and the characteristics of common stable isotopes, this study reviewed the application status of light and heavy stable isotopes in the origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and their correlation with ecological factors, and forecasted the application prospect of this technology in the authentication of Chinese herbal medicines, aiming to provide reference for the geographical origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and promote the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Humanos , Isótopos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(6): 1445-1452, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347942

RESUMO

The demand for Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the dry root of Angelica sinensis, has been increasing year by year. However, the continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, overuse of chemical pesticides, excessive pesticide residues and other problems in Angelicae Sinensis Radix production have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the common diseases and pests attacking Angelica sinensis as well as the detection methods and characteristics of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix from 2002 to 2021. Additionally, we compared the limit standards of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix in and out of China and put forward suggestions for the high-quality and green development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry conside-ring the existing problems. The pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have been changing from organochlorines to organophosphorus pesticides. In recent years, some organophosphorus pesticides such as phorate, phoxim, isofenphos-methyl, phorate-sulfoxide, fenamiphos, isocarbophos, omethoate, and triazophos in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have seriously exceeded the standards. The detection methods of pesticide residues has evolved from chromatography to high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and some new detection techniques such as immunoassay have also been applied. Pesticide residues have become a primary factor that restricting the development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry. Therefore, moderate application of pesticides, establishment of ecological planting system, and strict limit standards of pesticide residues are necessary to solve the pesticide residue problem.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Angelica sinensis/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos Organofosforados
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(5): 1279-1285, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343155

RESUMO

This paper explored the specific peptides from Bubali Cornu by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and based on mathematics set theory. Following the profile analysis of peptides from Bubali Cornu, Bovis Grunniens Cornu, Caprae Hircus Cornu, and Suis Cornu by nano LC-LTQ-Obitrap-MS after digestion with trypsin, the relationship of peptide composition among different samples was analyzed using the mathematics set theory. The ones that existed only in the Bubali Cornu set rather than in any other set were considered as the specific peptides of Bubali Cornu. The further bioinformatic analysis revealed four specific peptides from Bubali Cornu, whose specificity was verified by UPLC-QQQ-MS. The results showed that these four peptides could be used for distinguishing Bubali Cornu from Caprae Hircus Cornu and Suis Cornu. This study has provided a rapid and simple method for seeking the specific peptides in animal medicines, which can be utilized for quality evaluation of animal medicines, thus making them authenticable and traceable.


Assuntos
Cornus , Cornos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Cornos/química , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(1): 215-223, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178928

RESUMO

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in rat plasma after oral administration of Bufei Huoxue Capsules. After SD rats were administered with Bufei Huoxue Capsules suspension by gavage, blood samples were collected from the inner canthus at different time points. After protein precipitation, plasma samples were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% formic acid in gradient elution. The positive and negative ions were measured simultaneously in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and fitted by DAS 3.2.8. Psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone were detected in the rat plasma after drug administration, with AUC_(0-t) of(3 357±1 348),(3 555±1 696),(3.03±0.88),(2.21±0.33),(1 787±522),(2 295±539),(5.69±1.41) and(3.40±0.75) µg·L~(-1)·h, and T_(max) of(1.56±0.62),(1.40±0.70),(0.21±0.05),(0.25±0.12),(0.26±0.11),(0.34±0.29),(0.74±0.59), and 0.25 h. The method is proved specific and repeatable and is suitable for the determination of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, pso-ralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in the rat plasma, which can be applied to pharmacokinetic study.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cápsulas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(2): 392-402, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178981

RESUMO

Obvious epigenetic differentiation occurred on Lycium barbarum in different cultivation areas in China. To investigate the difference and change rule of DNA methylation level and pattern of L. barbarum from different cultivation areas in China, the present study employed fluorescence-assisted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP) to analyze the methylation level and polymorphism of 53 genomic DNA samples from Yinchuan Plain in Ningxia, Bayannur city in Inner Mongolia, Jingyuan county and Yumen city in Gansu, Delingha city in Qinghai, and Jinghe county in Xinjiang. The MSAP technical system suitable for the methylation analysis of L. barbarum genomic DNA was established and ten pairs of selective primers were selected. Among amplified 5'-CCGG-3' methylated sites, there were 35.85% full-methylated sites and 39.88% hemi-methylated sites, showing a high degree of epigenetic differentiation. Stoichiometric analysis showed that the ecological environment was the main factor affecting the epigenetic characteristics of L. barbarum, followed by cultivated varieties. Precipitation, air temperature, and soil pH were the main ecological factors affecting DNA methylation in different areas. This study provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of the epigenetic mechanism of L. barbarum to adapt to the diffe-rent ecological environments and research ideas for the introduction, cultivation, and germplasm traceability of L. barbarum.


Assuntos
Lycium , China , Metilação de DNA , Primers do DNA , Epigênese Genética , Lycium/genética
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(2): 444-452, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178988

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Laminaria , Oligoelementos , Arsênio/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(4): 1615-1631, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129656

RESUMO

Rhubarb, a traditional herb, has been used in clinical practice for hundreds of years to cure constipation, but its mechanism is still not clear enough. Currently, growing evidence suggests that intestinal flora might be a potential target for the treatment of constipation. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the laxative effect of rhubarb via systematically analyzing the metagenome and metabolome of the gut microbiota. In this study, the laxative effects of rhubarb were investigated by loperamide-induced constipation in rats. The gut microbiota was determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for fecal metabolomics analysis. The data showed that rhubarb could significantly shorten gastrointestinal transit time, increase fecal water content and defecation frequency, improve gastrointestinal hormone disruption, and protect the colon mucus layer. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that rhubarb could improve the disorder of intestinal microbiota in constipated rats. For example, beneficial bacteria such as Ligilactobacillus, Limosilalactobacillus, and Prevotellaceae UCG-001 were remarkably increased, and pathogens such as Escherichia-Shigella were significantly decreased after rhubarb treatment. Additionally, the fecal metabolic profiles of constipated rats were improved by rhubarb. After rhubarb treatment, metabolites such as chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, prostaglandin F2α, and α-linolenic acid were markedly increased in constipation rats; in contrast, the metabolites such as lithocholic acid, calcidiol, and 10-hydroxystearic acid were notably reduced in constipation rats. Moreover, correlation analysis indicated a close relationship between intestinal flora, fecal metabolites, and biochemical indices associated with constipation. In conclusion, the amelioration of rhubarb in constipation might modulate the intestinal microflora and its metabolism. Moreover, the application of fecal metabolomics could provide a new strategy to uncover the mechanism of herbal medicines.Key points• Rhubarb could significantly improve gut microbiota disorder in constipation rats.• Rhubarb could markedly modulate the fecal metabolite profile of constipated rats.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rheum , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Laxantes/análise , Laxantes/farmacologia , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Rheum/química
18.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 293-309, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164528

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS), a chemical communication process between bacteria, depends on the synthesis, secretion and detection of signal molecules. It can synchronize the gene expression of bacteria to promote cooperation within the population and improve competitiveness among populations. The preliminary exploration of bacterial QS has been completed under ideal and highly controllable conditions. There is an urgent need to investigate the QS of bacteria under natural conditions, especially the QS of intestinal flora, which is closely related to health. Excitingly, growing evidence has shown that QS also exists in the intestinal flora. The crosstalk of QS between gut microbiota and the host is systematically clarified in this review.


Plain language summary A large number of bacteria live in the human intestinal tract and they are closely related to intestinal health. Bacteria also rely on a number of chemicals to communicate in the intestine. These chemicals play an essential role in the intestinal mucosal barrier as well as the inflammatory response. Studies have found that this method of communication affects the metabolic function of the bacteria in the gut. The cells in our intestine can also detect this communication between bacteria and communicate with the intestinal flora by producing similar substances.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Percepção de Quorum , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(5): 6404-6416, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077153

RESUMO

In situ oxygen generation is the most common strategy to boost reactive oxygen species (ROS) for enhancing the efficacy of phototherapy in cancer, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, hyperoxidation or hyperthermia often triggers stress-defense pathways and promotes tumor cell survival, thus severely limiting the therapeutic efficacy. To overcome the tumor hypoxia and thermal resistance existing in phototherapy, we constructed a self-synergistic nanoplatform for tumors by incorporating brusatol, a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) inhibitor, into the silica nanonetwork. It was then sequentially decorated with MnO2 and the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and then coated with poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PEG-FA)-functionalized polydopamine (PDA) (designated as brusatol/silica@MnO2/Ce6@PDA-PEG-FA). As an oxygen generator, MnO2 can promote ROS production, which not only directly enhances Ce6-mediated PDT but also strengthens PDA-mediated PTT by attacking heat shock proteins (HSPs). Particularly, brusatol could efficiently inhibit the activation of Nrf2 defense pathway under hyperoxidation and hyperthermia and cause glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and ferritin heavy chain (FTH) inactivation, thereby inducing ferroptosis and ultimately enhancing the phototherapeutic effects. By exploiting these features, brusatol/silica@MnO2/Ce6@PDA-PEG-FA exhibited excellent antitumor efficacy with enhanced PDT and PTT both in in vitro and in vivo studies. Overall, our work highlights a promising strategy against hypoxia- and hyperthermia-associated resistance in phototherapy via suppressing stress-defense system and inducing ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Fototerapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clorofilídeos/química , Clorofilídeos/farmacologia , Clorofilídeos/uso terapêutico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Indóis/química , Raios Infravermelhos , Compostos de Manganês/química , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Óxidos/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polímeros/química , Quassinas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 11, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, multiple myeloma (MM) is still an incurable plasma cell malignancy in urgent need of novel therapeutic targets and drugs. METHODS: Bufalin was known as a highly toxic but effective anti-cancer compound. We used Bufalin as a probe to screen its potential targets by proteome microarray, in which AHSA1 was the unique target of Bufalin. The effects of AHSA1 on cellular proliferation and drug resistance were determined by MTT, western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry staining and xenograft model in vivo. The potential mechanisms of Bufalin and KU-177 in AHSA1/HSP90 were verified by co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, site mutation and microscale thermophoresis assay. RESULTS: AHSA1 expression was increased in MM samples compared to normal controls, which was significantly associated with MM relapse and poor outcomes. Furthermore, AHSA1 promoted MM cell proliferation and proteasome inhibitor (PI) resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism exploration indicated that AHSA1 acted as a co-chaperone of HSP90A to activate CDK6 and PSMD2, which were key regulators of MM proliferation and PI resistance respectively. Additionally, we identified AHSA1-K137 as the specific binding site of Bufalin on AHSA1, mutation of which decreased the interaction of AHSA1 with HSP90A and suppressed the function of AHSA1 on mediating CDK6 and PSMD2. Intriguingly, we discovered KU-177, an AHSA1 selective inhibitor, and found KU-177 targeting the same site as Bufalin. Bufalin and KU-177 treatments hampered the proliferation of flow MRD-positive cells in both primary MM and recurrent MM patient samples. Moreover, KU-177 abrogated the cellular proliferation and PI resistance induced by elevated AHSA1, and decreased the expression of CDK6 and PSMD2. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that AHSA1 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for cellular proliferation and proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bufanolídeos/uso terapêutico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Transfecção
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