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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 765616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820381

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the liver. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major source of ECM and a key regulator of liver fibrosis. Collagen type I alpha I (COL1A1) is one of the main components of ECM and is a major component in fibrotic tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma japonicum could inhibit the expression of COL1A1 in activated HSCs. In addition, studies have found that Ets proto-oncogene 1 (Ets-1) suppresses the production of ECM by down-regulating matrix related genes such as COL1A1 induced by transforming growth factor ß, and ultimately inhibits liver fibrosis. In this study, the major aim was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Ets-1 on inhibiting COL1A1 gene promoter activity in HSCs by recombinant Schistosoma japonicum protein P40 (rSjP40). We observed the rSjP40 inhibited the expression of COL1A1 by inhibiting the activity of the COL1A1 promoter, and the core region of rSjP40 acting on COL1A1 promoter was located at -1,722/-1,592. In addition, we also demonstrated that rSjP40 could promote the expression of Ets-1, and Ets-1 has a negative regulation effect on the COL1A1 promoter in human LX-2 cells. These data suggest that rSjP40 might inhibit the activity of COL1A1 promoter and inhibit the activation of HSCs by increasing the expression of transcription factor Ets-1, which will provide a new experimental basis for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 672394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777239

RESUMO

Background: McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by fibrous dysplasia, café au lait skin spots, and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies. The coexistence of precocious puberty and growth hormone excess in McCune-Albright syndrome is rare. Both conditions can manifest as accelerated growth, and treatments can be more challenging for such patients. This study aimed to describe the clinical manifestations of combined GH excess and PP in the context of McCune-Albright syndrome and analyze the clinical features and treatments of these patients. Method: Clinical data from 60 McCune-Albright syndrome patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital were obtained. The demographic characteristics, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, prolactin, alkaline phosphatase, and sex hormone levels; growth velocity; and bone age data were obtained. The growth velocity Z-score, bone age over chronological age ratio, and predicted adult height Z-score were calculated before and after treatment. Published studies and case reports were systemically searched, and data on demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics and treatment outcomes were obtained. Results: We reviewed seven patients among 60 McCune-Albright syndrome patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (5 female) and 39 patients (25 female) from the published literature. Six of the seven patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital and half of the patients from the published studies were pediatric patients. These patients had increased growth velocity Z-scores and bone age over chronological age ratios. After good control of both conditions, the growth velocity Z-score and bone age over chronological age ratio decreased significantly, and the predicted adult height Z-score increased. The final heights and predicted adult height Z-scores were not impaired in patients with gigantism. All the patients had craniofacial fibrous dysplasia associated with optic and otologic complications. Conclusion: McCune-Albright syndrome with growth hormone excess and precocious puberty is more common in girls. Patients have accelerated linear growth and advanced skeletal age, and early and good control of both conditions leads to a reduced growth velocity and stabilized bone age. The predicted adult and final heights are not negatively affected when growth hormone excess is diagnosed in pediatric patients.

3.
Med Phys ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Establishing the tolerance limits of patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) processes based on the gamma passing rate (GPR) by using normal statistical process control (SPC) methods involves certain problems. The aim of this study was three-fold: (a) to show that the heuristic SPC method can replace the quantile method for establishing tolerance limits in PSQA processes and is more robust, (b) to introduce an iterative procedure of "Identify-Eliminate-Recalculate" for establishing the tolerance limits in PSQA processes with unknown states based on retrospective GPRs, and (c) to recommend a workflow to define tolerance limits based on actual clinical retrospective GPRs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,671 VMAT pre-treatment plans were measured on four linear accelerators (linacs) and analyzed by treatment sites using the GPRs under the 2%/2 mm, 3%/2 mm, and 3%/3 mm criteria. Normality testing was performed using the Anderson-Darling (AD) statistic and the optimal distributions of GPRs were determined using the Fitter Python package. The iterative "Identify-Eliminate-Recalculate" procedure was used to identify the PSQA outliers. The tolerance limits of the initial PSQAs, remaining PSQAs after elimination, and in-control PSQAs after correction were calculated using the conventional Shewhart method, two transformation methods, three heuristic methods, and two quantile methods. The tolerance limits of PSQA processes with different states for the respective methods, linacs, and treatment sites were comprehensively compared and analyzed. RESULTS: It was found that 75% of the initial PSQA processes and 63% of the in-control processes were non-normal (AD test, P < 0.05). The optimal distributions of GPRs for the initial and in-control PSQAs varied with different linacs and treatment sites. In the implementation of the "Identify-Eliminate-Recalculate" procedure, the quantile methods could not identify the out-of-control PSQAs effectively due to the influence of outliers. The tolerance limits of the in-control PSQAs, calculated using the quantile of optimal fitting distributions, represented the ground truth. The tolerance limits of the in-control PSQAs and remaining PSQAs after elimination calculated using the heuristic methods were considerably close to the ground truth (the maximum average absolute deviations were 0.50% and 1.03%, respectively). Some transformation failures occurred under both transformation methods. For the in-control PSQAs at 3%/2 mm gamma criteria, the maximum differences in the tolerance limits for four linacs and different treatment sites were 3.10% and 5.02%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The GPR distributions of PSQA processes vary with different linacs and treatment sites but most are skewed. In applying SPC methodologies to PSQA processes, heuristic methods are robust. For in-control PSQA processes, the tolerance limits calculated by heuristic methods are in good agreement with the ground truth. For unknown PSQA processes, the tolerance limits calculated by the heuristic methods after the iterative "Identify-Eliminate-Recalculate" procedure are closest to the ground truth. Setting linac- and treatment site-specific tolerance limits for PSQA processes is necessary for clinical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1842, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 15 [r (15)] is an uncommon finding with various clinical manifestations. A common phenotype for these patients has not been established and data on the efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment in patients with r (15) syndrome are limited. METHODS: One short stature patient in our hospital with r (15) syndrome by whole exome sequencing (WES) and karyotype examination was included. All published r (15) syndrome cases as of March 15, 2021, were searched, and their clinical information was recorded and summarized. RESULTS: One 11.5-year-old female with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, ventricular septal defect, intellectual disability, downward corners, short fifth metacarpal bone, scattered milk coffee spots, and a right ovarian cyst was included. Her height was 126.9 cm (-3.45 SDS). Karyotype analysis showed 46, XX, r (15). WES revealed a 4.5 Mb heterozygous deletion in the chromosome 15q26.2-q26.3 region, encompassing genes from ARRDC4 to OR4F15. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (triptorelin) and rhGH were administered for 6 months. The height has increased 3.8 cm (+0.2SDS) and the calculated growth rate has improved from 4.7 to 7.6 cm/y. The literature review indicated the main clinical manifestations of r (15) syndrome with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, characteristic craniofacial features, and multisystem abnormalities, and rhGH treatment is beneficial for r (15) syndrome patients with short stature. CONCLUSION: We delineate the clinical spectrum of r (15) syndrome with the identification of an additional individual and rhGH treatment is beneficial for r (15) syndrome patients with short stature.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 738895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603213

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the bone turnover markers and bone microarchitecture parameters derived from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in active and controlled acromegaly patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 55 acromegaly patients from a tertiary hospital (23 males and 32 females, aged 45.0 ± 11.6 years). Firstly, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and markers for bone turnover were assessed. Next, we derived peripheral bone microstructure parameters and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) through HR-pQCT. These parameters were compared between acromegaly patients and 110 healthy controls, as well as between 27 active and 28 controlled acromegaly patients. Moreover, the relationship between GH/IGF-1 and bone microstructure parameters was analyzed through multiple linear regression. Results: As compared with healthy controls, acromegaly patients exhibited elevated cortical vBMD, reduced trabecular vBMD, and increased trabecular inhomogeneity in the distal radius and tibia. While controlled acromegaly patients had slower bone turnover, they did not necessarily have better bone microstructure relative to active patients in intergroup comparison. Nevertheless, multiple regression indicated that higher IGF-1 was associated with lower tibial stiffness and failure load. Additionally, males with higher IGF-1 typically had larger trabecular separation, lower trabecular number, and larger cortical pores in the radius. Moreover, patients with elevated GH typically had more porous cortical bone in the radius and fewer trabeculae in the tibia. However, the compromised bone strength in active patients was partially compensated by increased bone thickness. Furthermore, no significant linkage was observed between elevated GH/IGF-1 and the most important HR-pQCT parameters such as trabecular volumetric bone density. Conclusion: Acromegaly adversely affected bone quality, even in controlled patients. As the deterioration in bone microstructure due to prolonged GH/IGF-1 exposure was not fully reversible, clinicians should be aware of the bone fragility of acromegaly patients even after they had achieved biochemical remission.

6.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4053-4069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611395

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Two Chinese herbal medicines Huang Qi (HQ, Astragalus mongholicus) and Dan Shen (DS, Salvia miltiorrhiza) are often combined to treat coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying synergistic effects and mechanisms of HQ and DS against CHD. Methods: The active components and targets of HQ and DS, CHD-related genes, and the biological progression were analysed by network pharmacology. The myocardial infarction (MI) rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiac function was detected by ultrasonic electrocardiography. The MI size, fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, lipid metabolism, blood viscosity, and coagulation indexes were analysed by histological staining or chemical methods, respectively. Results: A total of 170 shared and specific seed genes of HQ and DS against CHD were identified. The shared and specific biological processes of HQ and DS against CHD were obtained. The LVEF and LVFS values significantly increased, the myocardium infarct size and fibrosis significantly decreased, the values of lipid metabolism indexes and blood viscosity indexes significantly reduced in the HQ + DS treatment group vs HQ or DS single treatment (P < 0.05); the LVEDd, LVEDs, and the CSA values significantly reduced in HQ single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05); the coagulation index (APTT, PT, TT, and FIB) values decreased significantly in the DS single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In MI rats, HQ and DS exhibited synergistic effects on improving cardiac function, reducing MI size, fibrosis, regulating hyperlipidaemia, and maintaining circulatory system homeostasis; HQ had the specific advantage of alleviating cardiac remodelling; DS had the specific advantage of regulating hypercoagulability. This study revealed that HQ and DS not only exerted synergistic effects but also exhibited complementary effects on CHD.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 721591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595115

RESUMO

Purpose: To find a suitable method for analyzing electronic portal imaging device (EPID) transmission fluence maps for the identification of position errors in the in vivo dose monitoring of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Methods: Position errors combining 0-, 2-, and 4-mm errors in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions in the delivery of 40 GO patient radiotherapy plans to a human head phantom were simulated and EPID transmission fluence maps were acquired. Dose difference (DD) and structural similarity (SSIM) maps were calculated to quantify changes in the fluence maps. Three types of machine learning (ML) models that utilize radiomics features of the DD maps (ML 1 models), features of the SSIM maps (ML 2 models), and features of both DD and SSIM maps (ML 3 models) as inputs were used to perform three types of position error classification, namely a binary classification of the isocenter error (type 1), three binary classifications of LR, SI, and AP direction errors (type 2), and an eight-element classification of the combined LR, SI, and AP direction errors (type 3). Convolutional neural network (CNN) was also used to classify position errors using the DD and SSIM maps as input. Results: The best-performing ML 1 model was XGBoost, which achieved accuracies of 0.889, 0.755, 0.778, 0.833, and 0.532 in the type 1, type 2-LR, type 2-AP, type 2-SI, and type 3 classification, respectively. The best ML 2 model was XGBoost, which achieved accuracies of 0.856, 0.731, 0.736, 0.949, and 0.491, respectively. The best ML 3 model was linear discriminant classifier (LDC), which achieved accuracies of 0.903, 0.792, 0.870, 0.931, and 0.671, respectively. The CNN achieved classification accuracies of 0.925, 0.833, 0.875, 0.949, and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: ML models and CNN using combined DD and SSIM maps can analyze EPID transmission fluence maps to identify position errors in the treatment of GO patients. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to improve the accuracy of CNN.

8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 735655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659121

RESUMO

Purpose: Xanthomatous hypophysitis (XHP) is an extremely rare form of primary hypophysitis for which there is a lack of clinical experience. A comprehensive understanding of its clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment is needed. Methods: Here, we report a case study and conduct a systematic review of XHP. Thirty-six cases were included, and their clinical manifestations, endocrine assessment, imaging features, treatment and follow-up data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 39.1 years, and females were predominant (75.0%). The most common symptom was headache (68.6%), and 66.7% of female patients presented menstrual disorders. The most common pituitary dysfunction was growth hormone (GH) deficiency. More than half of patients exhibited central diabetes insipidus (CDI). The majority of patients had an imaging presentation of a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement. Pituitary stalk thickening was observed in half of the patients. Total lesion resection was achieved in 57.1% of cases. The recurrence rate after partial resection and biopsy was significantly higher than that after total lesion resection (57.1% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.0147). The most common pituitary hormone abnormalities to resolve after surgery were hyperprolactinemia (100.0%) and GH deficiency (91.7%). The typical pathological feature was inflammatory infiltration of foamy histiocytes, which showed positivity for CD68. Conclusion: Diagnosis of XHP is difficult when relying on clinical symptoms and imaging features. Therefore, surgical histopathology is necessary. Based on the available evidence, total lesion resection is recommended for treatment. However, the long-term prognosis for this rare disease remains unclear.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636127

RESUMO

Multiple resonance (MR) emitters are promising for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with narrowband emission; however, they still face intractable challenges with concentration-caused emission quenching, exciton annihilation, and spectral broadening. In this study, sterically wrapped MR dopants with a fluorescent MR core sandwiched by bulk substituents were developed to address the intractable challenges by reducing intermolecular interactions. Consequently, high photo-luminance quantum yields of ≥90% and small full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of ≤25 nm over a wide range of dopant concentrations (1 wt%-20 wt%) were recorded. In addition, we demonstrated that the sandwiched MR emitter can effectively suppress Dexter interaction when doped in a thermally activated delayed fluorescence sensitizer, eliminating exciton loss through dopant triplet. Within the above dopant concentration range, the optimal emitter realizes remarkably high maximum external quantum efficiencies of 36.3%-37.2%, identical small FWHMs of 24 nm, and alleviated efficiency roll-offs in OLEDs.

10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 149, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are related to high cardiovascular mortality. The underlying mechanism is not well known. This research aims to study the clinical characteristics of cardiovascular patients with extremely low levels of HDL-C. METHODS: All cardiovascular patients in a single Chinese cardiology center that were admitted from January to December 2019 were reviewed. The clinical characteristics of those with HDL-C<20 mg/dL were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 20,655 individuals were enrolled. Of these, 52.17 % were males, and the average age was 58.20 ± 12.98 years old. The prevalence of HDL-C<20 mg/dL was 0.47 % for all patients (N=98) and 1.05 % for inpatients. Of those with HDL-C<20 mg/dL, 88.8 % were inpatients, and 77.6 % were males. Their average age was 60.7 ± 15.1 years. Compared with matched patients with normal HDL-C, systemic inflammation (OR= 5.556, 95% CI 2.798-11.030), hypoalbuminemia (OR=5.714, 95% CI 2.702-12.085), hyperuricemia (OR=5.156, 95% CI 2.560-10.386), low T3 syndrome (OR=4.278, 95% CI 1.627-11.245), anemia (OR=3.577, 95% CI 1.680-7.617), diabetes (OR=3.534, 95% CI 1.693-7.376) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR=2.493, 95% CI 1.264-4.918) were identified as adverse concomitant factors of extremely low HDL-C. HDL-C levels were inversely correlated with the total risk scores in patients with HDL-C<20 mg/dL (r=-0.381, P<0.001) and more significantly correlated in patients with HDL-C<15 mg/dL (r=-0.511, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Extremely low levels of HDL-C tend to occur more frequently in males, older individuals and inpatients. For cardiovascular patients, extremely low levels of HDL-C are usually due to the presence of multiple adverse factors with relatively severe conditions. This could explain the high cardiovascular mortality of individuals with extremely low levels of HDL-C.

11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0047321, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668726

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcript factor that plays an important role in regulating immunity and cell differentiation. However, its role in cell-autonomous antiviral resistance has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that interruption of AHR signaling in human cells by a chemical antagonist or genetic targeting led to significant reductions in the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), revealing an unexpected proviral function of AHR. Interestingly, the enhanced viral control in the absence of AHR is independent of type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Together, these results reveal a previously unknown function of AHR in promoting viral replication in vitro and suggest a potential intervention point for treating viral disease. IMPORTANCE This study describes how a virus might utilize host aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling to promote its replication, even in the presence of type I interferons.

12.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 82(5): 567-575, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513564

RESUMO

Introduction To help diagnose and evaluate the prognosis of pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus (CS) invasion and guide endonasal endoscopic surgery (EES) assisted by intraoperative navigation (ION) with three-dimensional multimodal imaging (3D-MMI). We propose a classification of CS invasion based on 3D-MMI. Methods We picked some appropriate cases and reconstructed the 3D-MMI and then classified them into 3 grades according to the stereo relationship among ICA, tumor and CS in 3D-MMI. Then, we applied different strategies according to their grade to remove pituitary adenomas that invaded the CS. Results All 38 patients were divided into 3 grades. Tumors compressing the ICA and CS without CS invasion were divided into grade 1. Tumors encasing the ICA and invading the superior-posterior compartment and/or anterior-inferior compartment but without distinct separation of the ICA and CS lateral wall were deemed as grade 2. Tumors encasing the ICA and filling the lateral compartment of the CS that dissociated the lateral wall from the ICA were deemed as grade 3. The 3D-MMI enabled adequate spatial visualization of the ICA, CS and tumors. All patients were operated on under the guidance of ION with 3D-MMI. Conclusion Classification based on 3D-MMI can better demonstrate the relationships among tumor, ICA and CS in a stereo and multi-angle view, which will have significance in guiding the surgical strategy.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106071, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate, update, and extend the role of RNF213 p.R4810K (G>A) for predicting the phenotype of moyamoya disease (MMD) patients and explore the different effects on pediatric and adult groups. METHODS: A total of 2,877 patients conducted from 2004 to 2018 were included. Review Manage 5.3 and SPSS 20.0 were applied to complete all statistical analyses. Information on age at onset, sex, initial symptom, family history and complications were obtained via retrospective chart review. Angiographic records were evaluated. RESULTS: In China, geographic proximity to Korea or Japan may affect the carrying rate of RNF213 p.R4810K. The proportion of patients with the following characteristics was significantly higher (P <0.017) in the GA than in the GG group: female, age at onset < 18 years, infarct after transient ischemic attack, family history of MMD, and posterior cerebral artery involvement. For pediatric patients, GA showed more cerebral hemorrhage (CH) (odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] = 3.99 (1.61-9.88), P = 0.003), more patients were in the Suzuki early and intermediate stage (P = 0.001; P = 0.001, respectively), while for the adult group, GA indicated more female (OR [95% CIs] = 1.43 [1.15-1.79], P = 0.001), fewer patients with diabetes (0.58 [0.38-0.86], P = 0.007) and intermediate Suzuki stage (P = 3.70 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and carrying rates of RNF213 p.R4810K in various regions for Chinese MMD patients were obviously different. RNF213 p.R4810K has different predictive effects on phenotypes of pediatric and adult patients.

14.
Neurosurg Focus ; 51(3): E9, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was designed to confirm the role of atorvastatin in collateral circulation formation induced by encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with MMD at the Department of Neurosurgery in the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, between June 2017 and May 2018 were included. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein and were analyzed using flow cytometry. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were defined as CD34brCD133+CD45dimKDR+. All patients included in the study underwent EDAS. Patients voluntarily chose whether to undergo atorvastatin treatment after EDAS. The correlation between atorvastatin and good postoperative collateral circulation was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients with MMD were included in this study. Fifty-three patients (50%) received atorvastatin treatment. The baseline characteristics did not display statistically significant differences between the atorvastatin-treated and non-atorvastatin groups. Seventy-eight (42.9%) of the 182 hemispheres investigated postoperatively were classified as grade A collateral circulation, 47 (25.8%) as grade B, and 57 (31.3%) as grade C. Multivariate analysis revealed that only atorvastatin was significantly correlated with good collateral circulation after EDAS (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective clinical trial have indicated that atorvastatin administered at 20 mg daily is safe and effective for the formation of postoperative collateral induced by EDAS.


Assuntos
Revascularização Cerebral , Doença de Moyamoya , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Circulação Colateral , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(38): 45686-45695, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529401

RESUMO

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have had commercial success in displays and lighting. Compared to red and green OLEDs, blue OLEDs are still the bottleneck because the high-energy and long-lived triplet exciton in traditional blue OLEDs causes the short operational lifetime of the device. As a new type emitter, lanthanide complexes with a 5d-4f transition could have short excited-state lifetimes on the order of nanoseconds. To achieve a high-efficiency 5d-4f transition, we systematically tuned the steric and electronic effects of tripodal tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands and drew a full picture of their Ce(III) complexes. Intriguingly, all of these complexes show bright blue emission with high photoluminescence quantum yields exceeding 95% and short decay lifetimes of 35-73 ns both in the solid powder and in dichloromethane solutions. Using the Ce(III) complex emitter, we show a blue OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 14.1% and a maximum luminance of 33,160 cd m-2, and the specific electroluminescence mechanism of direct exciton formation on the Ce(III) ion with a near-unity exciton utilization efficiency is also confirmed. The discovered photoluminescence and electroluminescence property-structure relationships may shed new light on the rational design of highly efficient lanthanide-based blue emitters and their optoelectronic devices such as OLEDs.

16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(21): 9891-9904, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585512

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a group of tumour cells with stem cell characteristics, have the ability of self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation and tumour formation. Since CSCs are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, their existence may be one of the root causes of cancer treatment failure and tumour progression. The elimination of CSCs may be effective for eventual tumour eradication. Because of the good therapeutic effects without major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and the unique characteristics of CSCs, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is expected to be an important method to eliminate CSCs. In this review, we have discussed the feasibility of CSCs-targeted CAR-T therapy for cancer treatment, summarized current research and clinical trials of targeting CSCs with CAR-T cells and forecasted the challenges and future direction from the perspectives of toxicity, persistence and potency, trafficking, infiltration, immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and tumour heterogeneity.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 665145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512542

RESUMO

The aquaporin 2 (AQP2) plays a critical role in water reabsorption to maintain water homeostasis. AQP2 mutation leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), characterized by polyuria, polydipsia, and hypernatremia. We previously reported that a novel AQP2 mutation (G215S) caused NDI in a boy. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the cell biological consequences of this mutation on AQP2 function and clarify the molecular pathogenic mechanism for NDI in this patient. First, we analyzed AQP2 expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by AQP2-G215S or AQP2-WT plasmid transfection and found significantly decreased AQP2-G215S expression in cytoplasmic membrane compared with AQP2-WT, independent of forskolin treatment. Further, we found co-localization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker (Calnexin) with AQP2-G215S rather than AQP2-WT in MDCK cells by immunocytochemistry. The functional analysis showed that MDCK cells transfected with AQP2-G215S displayed reduced water permeability compared with AQP2-WT. Visualization of AQP2 structure implied that AQP2-G215S mutation might interrupt the folding of the sixth transmembrane α-helix and/or the packing of α-helices, resulting in the misfolding of monomer and further impaired formation of tetramer. Taken together, these findings suggested that AQP2-G215S was misfolded and retained in the ER and could not be translocated to the apical membrane to function as a water channel, which revealed the molecular pathogenic mechanism of AQP2-G215S mutation and explained for the phenotype of NDI in this patient.

18.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2103293, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516019

RESUMO

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters featuring preferential horizontal emitting dipole orientation (EDO) are in urgent demand for enhanced optical outcoupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, simultaneously manipulating EDO and optoelectronic properties remains a formidable challenge. Here, an extended linear D-A-D structure with both enlarged donor (D) and acceptor (A) π-systems is established, not only elaborately manipulating parallel horizontal molecular orientation and EDO along its long axis by multi-driving-forces for a high horizontal dipole ratio (Θ// ), but also delocalizing distribution of frontier energy levels for optimized electronic properties. The proof-of-the-concept emitter simultaneously affords a high Θ// of 92%, a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 95%, and a fast reverse intersystem crossing rate of 1.16 × 106 s-1 . The corresponding OLED achieves a champion maximum external quantum efficiency of 39.1% among all green TADF devices without any external light-extraction techniques, together with a maximum power efficiency of 112.0 lm W-1 and alleviated efficiency roll-off. These findings may inspire even better full-color TADF emitters that push the device efficiency toward the theoretical limits.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112691, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450424

RESUMO

Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used chemical compound that has neurotoxicity in human, but whether ACR could impair the cerebellum and the related mechanism were still unknown. This study aimed to observe the changes in behavioral performance and cerebellar morphology caused by chronic ACR exposure, and to evaluate its influence on apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and autophagy. Rats were treated with 0, 0.5 and 5 mg/kg ACR by drinking water for 12 months. Results showed that 5 mg/kg ACR treatment damaged the gait, balance ability, hindlimb muscle strength and motor coordination ability of rats. The results of hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining indicated that ACR impaired the structures of all three layers of the cerebellum, especially the Purkinje cell layer, showing abnormal morphology with nucleus condensation and pyknosis. Accumulation of autophagosomes, dilated endoplasmic reticulum and swollen mitochondria were observed in neurons under transmission electron microscopy. The enhanced apoptotic rates and the increased Bax expression indicated the elevated level of apoptosis. The results of Western blot showed that ACR treatment elevated protein levels of Beclin1, LC3-II/LC3-I, p-PERK/t-PERK, ATF4 and CHOP, indicating the initiation of autophagy, the activation of PERK pathway in ERS. This work helps to demonstrate the ACR neurotoxicity on cerebellum under chronic treatment and its underlying mechanism.

20.
Endocrinology ; 162(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427636

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glucocorticoids act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) encoded by the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1) gene. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the function of NR3C1 variants and their possible pathogenic role in Cushing disease (CD). METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was conducted in 49 CD patients. Corticotroph tumor GR protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Constructs harboring the 3 NR3C1-mutant and wild-type (WT) GR were transfected into the murine corticotropic adenoma cell line (AtT-20), and GR protein expression was quantified by Western blot. Translocation activity was assessed by immunofluorescence and effects of the GR mutants on corticotroph tumor proliferation, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription, and ACTH secretion were tested. RESULTS: Clinical features were similar in patients harboring the NR3C1 mutations and WT GR. Recurrent adenomas showed higher GR IHC scores than nonrecurrent tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that the p.R469X mutant generated a truncated GR protein, and the p.D590G and p.Y693D GR mutants resulted in lower GR expression. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment of AtT-20 cells demonstrated decreased DEX-induced nuclear translocation, increased cell proliferation, and attenuated suppression of POMC transcription of 3 GR mutants. Interestingly, the p.R469X GR mutant resulted in increased murine corticotroph tumor ACTH secretion compared to WT GR. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify 3/49 (6.1%) consecutive human corticotroph tumors harboring GR mutations. Further findings demonstrate the role NR3C1 plays in CD pathogenesis and offer insights into a novel treatment approach in this patient subset.

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