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1.
Int J Psychol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704250

RESUMO

Recent research outcomes suggest that social and economic conservatism show divergent associations with external criteria. In this article, we present a quantitative study with 534 Colombian participants. We found that, although positively correlated, these two dimensions of conservative ideology also exhibit suppression effects and differentiated psychological profiles regarding moral foundations and moral absolutism. Specifically, controlling for economic conservatism increased the positive association between social conservatism and the binding moral foundations and moral absolutism, while controlling for social conservatism changed the signs of the initial positive associations between economic conservatism and these variables. Our results suggest the need to use independent measures for each dimension of ideology and test for suppression when evaluating their respective interaction with other psychological constructs.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 102, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the 2016 Peace Agreement with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Colombia promised to reincorporate more than 13,000 guerrilla fighters into its healthcare system. Despite a subsidized healthcare insurance program and the establishment of 24 Espacios Territoriales de Capacitación y Reincorporación (ETCRs-Territorial Spaces for Training and Reintegration) to facilitate this transition, data has shown that FARC ex-combatants access care at disproportionately lower rates, and face barriers to healthcare services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with FARC health promoters and healthcare providers working in ETCRs to determine healthcare access barriers for FARC ex-combatants. Analysis was completed with a qualitative team-based coding method and barriers were categorized according to Julio Frenk's Domains of Healthcare Access framework. RESULTS: Among 32 participants, 25 were healthcare providers and 7 self-identified as FARC health promoters. The sample was majority female (71.9%) and worked with the FARC for an average of 12 months in hospital, health center, medical brigade, and ETCR settings. Our sample had experiences with FARC across 16 ETCRs in 13 Departments of Colombia. Participants identified a total of 141 healthcare access barriers affecting FARC ex-combatants, which affected healthcare needs, desires, seeking, initiation and continuation. Significant barriers were related to a lack of resources in rural areas, limited knowledge of the Colombian health system, the health insurance program, perceived stigma, and transition process from the FARC health system. CONCLUSIONS: FARC ex-combatants face significant healthcare access barriers, some of which are unique from other low-resource populations in Colombia. Potential solutions to these barriers included health insurance provider partnerships with health centers close to ETCRs, and training and contracting FARC health promoters to be primary healthcare providers in ETCRs. Future studies are needed to quantify the healthcare barriers affecting FARC ex-combatants, in order to implement targeted interventions to improve healthcare access.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cognição , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(5): 757-765, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145516

RESUMO

Objectives: In the 2016 Peace Accord with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Colombia promised to reincorporate 14,000 ex-combatants into the healthcare system. However, FARC ex-combatants have faced significant challenges in receiving healthcare, and little is known about physicians' abilities to address this population's healthcare needs. Methods: An electronic questionnaire sent to the Colombian Emergency Medicine professional society and teaching hospitals assessed physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with the FARC ex-combatant reincorporation process. Results: Among 53 participants, most were male (60.4%), and ∼25% were affected by the FARC conflict (22.6%). Overall knowledge of FARC reincorporation was low, with nearly two-thirds of participants (61.6%) scoring in the lowest category. Attitudes around ex-combatants showed low bias. Few physicians received training about reincorporation (7.5%), but 83% indicated they would like such training. Twenty-two participants (41.5%) had identified a patient as an ex-combatant in the healthcare setting. Higher knowledge scores were significantly correlated with training about reincorporation (r = 0.354, n = 53, P = 0.015), and experience identifying patients as ex-combatants (r = 0.356, n = 47, P = 0.014). Conclusion: Findings suggested high interest in training and low knowledge of the reincorporation process. Most physicians had low bias, frequent experiences with ex-combatants, and cared for these patients when they self-identify. The emergency department (ED) serves as an entrance into healthcare for this population and a potential setting for interventions to improve care delivery, especially those related to mental healthcare. Future studies could evaluate effects of care delivery following training on ex-combatant healthcare reintegration.

4.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 23(4): 126-134, Oct-Dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058356

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: En Colombia, en el periodo 2007-2011, se estima que se diagnosticaron alrededor de 1.500 casos de cáncer de cavidad oral y que por esta causa fallecieron 500 personas, en su mayoría eran hombres. La etiología de esta enfermedad está relacionada con el virus del papiloma humano y, el consumo de alcohol y de cigarrillo. Este estudio buscó cuantificar el efecto en la incidencia del cáncer de cavidad oral del cambio hipotético en la prevalencia de factores de riesgo como consumo de alcohol y, de cigarrillo e infección por virus del papiloma humano en Colombia para el periodo 2015-2050. Métodos: Modelo de simulación macro basado en datos secundarios. Resultados: Según los escenarios simulados, al eliminar el consumo de cigarrillo, alcohol e infección por virus del papiloma humano en la población colombiana probablemente sería posible evitar del 27,6% al 82,1% de los casos nuevos de cáncer de cavidad oral en el país en el periodo 2015-2050. Conclusiones: Bajo los supuestos de un escenario basado en las expectativas de la OMS, las estimaciones del modelo elaborado prevé un posible aumento de los casos de cáncer de cavidad oral asociados al consumo de alcohol y un bajo impacto en la prevención con las medidas actuales, por lo que puede ser necesario que se pongan en marcha acciones para disminuir el consumo de alcohol, así como de cigarrillo. Aunque la dirección de los cambios está bien demostrada en los resultados, es importante tener en cuenta que un modelo de simulación depende de muchos supuestos y por ende tiene limitaciones.


Abstract: Introduction: It is estimated that in the period 2007-2011, around 1500 new cases of oral cavity were diagnosed in Colombia, and that around 500 people died of this cause, the majority men. The etiology of this disease is related to the human papilloma virus, alcohol and cigarette use. This study tries to quantify the effect on oral cancer incidence of a hypothetical change in the prevalence of these risk factors in the period 2015-2050. Methods: macrosimulation models based on secondary data. Results: According to the simulated scenarios, elimination of cigarette and alcohol use and elimination of infection by the human papillomavirus in the Colombian population, would probably prevent 27.6 % to 82.1 % of all new cases of oral cavity cancer expected to occur in the period 2015-2050. Conclusions: according to the projections produced by the World Health Organization and the models we specified, there will be a potential increase in the number of new patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer associated with the use of alcohol and a low impact of the interventions currently in place. It will be necessary to implement measures to descrease alcohol consumption and sustain current efforts to reduce cigarette use. It is important to take into account the limitations of the simulation models.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais , Prevalência , Simulação , Boca
5.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 26: 61-63, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737474

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease usually occurring in endemic areas that can affect immuno-impaired patients in whom pulmonary involvement is the rule. We present the case of an 18 year-old immunocompetent, male patient, resident of the State of Florida, who showed signs of mononucleosis syndrome that included odynophagia, cervical adenomegaly, sporadic fever and rash; however, no pulmonary involvement or visceromegaly were present. Faced with this atypical and unexpected clinical picture, histoplasmosis infection was eventually diagnosed following cervical lymph-node biopsy. Disseminated histoplasmosis may have unexpected manifestations, as is pointed out in the case described below.

6.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(supl.2): 10-17, sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193058

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El aprendizaje en estudiantes universitarios está mediado por diversos factores; una forma de medirlo es a través de los enfoques de aprendizaje. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los enfoques de aprendizaje y su intensidad, rendimiento académico y los factores relacionados, en estudiantes que cursan último año intramural de los programas de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un estudio cuantitativo de enfoque trasversal, descriptivo. Participaron 156 estudiantes de los programas de pregrado de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Boyacá del último año intramural. Se aplicó el cuestionario «Revisión de dos factores del proceso de estudio cuestionario: R-SPQ-2F». RESULTADOS: El enfoque profundo fue el más predominante en un 92,9% en la totalidad de la muestra, se destaca con una intensidad alta en un 84%. La edad promedio fue de 22,3 años con asociación significativa para el tipo de enfoque e intensidad. Los estudiantes que presentaron un enfoque profundo de intensidad alta no habían reprobado asignaturas clínicas ni presentaban registro de algún tipo de prueba académica con una asociación estadísticamente no significativa (p < 0,05). DISCUSIÓN: Esta investigación proporcionó que la adopción más predominante es el enfoque profundo con una intensidad alta. Los factores asociados que determinaron este comportamiento no son significativos. La literatura afín con la temática es ambigua con los resultados de las investigaciones que aplican el cuestionario: R-SPQ-2F y escasa en población estudiantil en los últimos años de los programas de las Ciencias de la Salud


INTRODUCTION: Learning in university students is mediated by several factors; one way to measure it is through learning approaches. The objective of this study is to analyze the learning approaches and their intensity, academic performance and related factors, in students who attend the last year intramural of the programs of the Faculty of Health Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional, descriptive study was applied. 156 students from the undergraduate programs of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Boyacá of the last intramural year participated. The questionnaire "Two factor review of the questionnaire study process: R-SPQ-2F" was applied. RESULTS: The deep focus was the most predominant in 92.9% in the whole sample, stands out with a high intensity in 84%. The mean age was 22.3 years with a significant association for the type of approach and intensity. Students who had a high intensity deep focus had not failed clinical subjects or had any type of academic test with a statistically non-significant association (p < .05). DISCUSSION: This research provided, that the most prevalent adoption is the deep focus with a high intensity. The associated factors that determined this behavior are not significant. The literature on the subject, is ambiguous with the results of the research that apply the questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F and scarce in the student population in the last years of the programs of the Health Sciences


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Aprendizagem , Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 26(2): 75-84, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing liver transplant have worse outcomes in the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Correlation between echocardiography and catheterization derived pressures in this population is not well studied. Our study's aim is to show the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure derived from transthoracic echo (ePASP) with pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured during right heart catheterization (cPASP). METHODS: Single center retrospective study, patients being evaluated for liver transplant (n = 31) who had an interpretable Doppler signal for ePASP and had right heart catheterization (RHC) measurements within 3 months constituted the study group. Control group (n = 49) consisted of patients who did not have liver disease. RESULTS: There was modest correlation between ePASP and cPASP (R = 0.58, p < 0.001) in LT candidates (n = 31) compared with the control group (R = 0.74, p < 0.001, n = 49). The 95% limits of agreement by Bland-Altman analysis ranged from +33.6 mmHg to -21.7 mmHg. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, ePASP cut-off > 47 mmHg was 59% sensitive and 78% specific to diagnose pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension (mean PA pressure > 25 mmHg) in the LT candidates, while a similar cutoff performed well in the control group (cutoff > 43 mmHg, n = 47, 91% sensitive, 100% specific). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other disease states, ePASP correlates modestly with cPASP in patients with advanced liver disease. A higher ePASP cutoff should be used to screen for pulmonary hypertension. A multi-center prospective study with simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography and RHC measurements is required to determine the best cut-off in this population.

8.
MedUNAB ; 20(3): 383-392, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-965329

RESUMO

Introducción: La malaria es una enfermedad infecciosa vectorial de predominio en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Existen 5 serotipos de Plasmodium, en Colombia se encuentran dos serotipos para malaria endémica, P. vivax y P. falciparum. Norte de Santander es una zona endémica para P. vivax. Objetivo: Presentación de un caso de malaria grave importada por P. falciparum, con una breve descripción de los aspectos fisiopatológicos de la malaria grave y los advenimientos de las nuevas terapias antipalúdicas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 45 años procedente de una región endémica para P. falciparum, que ingresó por cuadro febril inespecífico, trombocitopenia severa, alteración de la función renal y hepática con deterioro de su estado general. Es trasladado a la unidad de cuidados intensivos como urgencia dialítica, se diagnóstica malaria grave por P. falciparum, es tratado con antimaláricos y se reporta posible coinfección para el virus del dengue por inmunoglobulina M positiva (IgM), recibe terapia de reemplazo renal. Se contextualiza bajo un círculo vicioso en la disfunción de órganos, estructurado entre la insuficiencia renal y la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda con incremento de la permeabilidad vascular e hipoxemia refractaria, pese al esfuerzo terapéutico fallece por falla orgánica múltiple, por malaria grave. Conclusiones: La malaria es un problema en el área de salud pública, en nuestro caso corresponde a una malaria importada ya que en el departamento de Norte de Santander no se ha identificado dicho serotipo. [Ortiz-Ruiz G, Urbina-Contreras ZE, Lamos-Duarte AF, Ferreira MF, García-Zambrano F. Malaria grave en unidad de cuidados intensivos: Reporte de un caso de una especie no endémica en Norte de Santander, Colombia. MedUNAB 2017-2018; 20(3): 383-392].


Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease which is predominant in tropical and subtropical regions. There are 5 serotypes of Plasmodium, in Colombia there are two serotypes for endemic malaria, P. vivax and P. falciparum. North of Santander is an endemic area for P. vivax. Objective: To show a case of severe malaria caused by P. falciparum, with a brief description of the pathophysiological aspects of severe malaria and the advent of new antimalarial therapies. Case Presentation: A 45- year-old male patient from an endemic region with P. falciparum, who was admitted due to nonspecific febrile symptoms, severe thrombocytopenia, impaired renal and hepatic functions with deterioration of his general condition. He is transferred to the intensive care unit as a dialytic urgency. Severe malaria due to P. falciparum was diagnosed, he is treated with antimalarial medication, and a possible coinfection is reported for the dengue virus due to a positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) result, so he receives a renal replacement therapy. The case is contextualized in a vicious circle of organ dysfunction, which is structured between renal failure and acute respiratory failure with an increased vascular permeability and refractory hypoxemia; despite the therapeutic effort, the patient dies due to multiple organ failures, and severe malaria. Conclusions: Malaria is a problem in the public health area. This case corresponds to imported malaria because this serotype has not been identified yet in the department of North of Santander. [Ortiz- Ruiz G, Urbina-Contreras ZE, Lamos-Duarte AF, Ferreira MF, García-Zambrano F. Severe Malaria in the Intensive Care Unit: The report of a Case of a Non-Endemic Species in North of Santander, Colombia. MedUNAB 2017-2018; 20(3): 383-392].


Introdução: A malária é uma doença infecciosa vetorial predominantemente nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Existem 5 sorotipos de Plasmodium, na Colômbia existem dois sorotipos para malária endêmica, P. vivax e P. falciparum. O estado de Norte de Santander é uma região endêmica para P. vivax. Objetivo:Apresentação de um caso de malária grave importado por P. falciparum, com uma breve descrição dos aspectos fisiopatológicos da malária grave e o advento das novas terapias anti-maláricas. Apresentação do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino de 45 anos de uma região endêmica do P. falciparum, admitido com sintomas febris não específicados, trombocitopenia grave, insuficiência renal e função hepática, num estado geral deteriorado. Ele é transferido para a unidade de cuidados intensivos como emergência de diálise, é diagnosticada a malaria grave causada pelo P. falciparum, ele é tratado com antimaláricos e se reporta uma posível co-infecção pelo vírus da dengue pela imunoglobulina M (IgM) positiva, recebe então, tratamento de reposição renal. É contextualizado num círculo vicioso na disfunção dos órgãos, estruturado entre insuficiência renal e insuficiência respiratória aguda com aumento da permeabilidade vascular e hipoxemia refractária, apesar do esforço terapêutico morre devido à falência múltipla de órgãos, gerada pela malária grave. Conclusões: A malária é um problema na área da saúde pública, no nosso caso corresponde a uma malária importada, já que no departamento de Norte de Santander este serótipo não foi identificado. [Ortiz-Ruiz G, Urbina-Contreras ZE, Lamos- Duarte AF, Ferreira MF, García-Zambrano F. Malária grave na unidade de terapia intensiva: Informe de um caso de um tipo não endêmica no estado de Norte de Santander, na Colômbia. MedUNAB 2017-2018; 20(3): 383-392].


Assuntos
Malária , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Malária Falciparum , Cuidados Críticos , Insuficiência Renal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
9.
MedUNAB ; 20(2): 244-251, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-995708

RESUMO

Introducción: El síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica severo es la complicación más grave de la estimulación ovárica durante la inducción de la ovulación. Los hallazgos característicos son la presencia de ovarios aumentados de volumen y ascitis en relación a extravasación de líquido por aumento de la permeabilidad capilar, cuya severidad puede llevar a falla respiratoria, renal, colapso hemodinámico y eventos tromboembólicos. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica, junto con una revisión de la literatura sobre la patología, orientada al diagnóstico y tratamiento óptimo de pacientes con estas características clínicas. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 29 años con antecedente de síndrome de ovario poliquístico que presenta síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica severo como complicación secundaria a estimulación gonadotrófica. El cuadro clínico mostró ovarios aumentados de tamaño en la evaluación sonográfica; anasarca dada por ascitis y derrames pleurales bilaterales e insuficiencia respiratoria tipo distrés respiratorio del adulto. Se realizó paracentesis y se utilizó ventilación mecánica no invasiva, logrando la expansión pulmonar. Discusión: El análisis de este caso se inició siete días después de la administración de gonadotropina, favorecido por las condiciones previas de la paciente, sin complicaciones letales. Conclusiones: La paracentesis puede constituir una opción terapéutica efectiva en el tratamiento de ascitis con compromiso de la función pulmonar. La ventilación mecánica no invasiva es una estrategia para evitar la intubación en estas pacientes lo cual evita los periodos de sedación exhaustivos y el consiguiente riesgo de broncoaspiración. [Urbina-Contreras ZE, Urbina-Echeverry SE,Lamos-Duarte AF, Picón-Jaimes YA. Síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica severo: Informe de caso y revisión de literatura. MedUNAB 2017; 20(2): 244-251].


Introduction: Severe ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome is the most serious complication of ovarian stimulation during the induction of ovulation. Characteristic findings are the presence of increased ovarian volume and ascites in relation to fluid extravasation due to increased capillary permeability whose severity can lead to respiratory failure, renal failure, and hemodynamic collapse and thromboembolic events. Objective: To describe a clinical case of OHSS, along with a review of the literature on the pathology, aimed at the diagnosis and optimal treatment of patients with these clinical characteristics. Case presentation: A 29-year-old patient with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome who presented severe Severe ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome as a secondary complication to gonadotrophic stimulation. The clinical profile showed enlarged ovaries in the sonographic test; anasarca due to ascites and bilateral pleural effusions and respiratory failures that belong to a respiratory distress type in this adult patient. Paracentesis was performed and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used, achieving lung expansion with it. Discussion: The analysis of this case was started seven days after the administration of gonadotropin, favored by the patient's previous conditions, with no lethal complications. Conclusions: Paracentesis may be an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of ascites with compromised lung function. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is a strategy to avoid intubation in these patients, which avoids the periods of exhaustive sedation and the consequent risk of bronchoaspiration. [Urbina-Contreras ZE, Urbina-Echeverry SE, Lamos-Duarte AF, Picón-Jaimes YA. Severe Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review. MedUNAB 2017; 20(2): 244-251].


Introdução: O síndrome de hiperestimulação ovárica avançado é a complicação mais grave da estimulação ovariana durante a indução da ovulação. As características achadas são o aumento do volumem dos ovários e ascite em relação ao extravasamento do fluido devido ao aumento da permeabilidade capilar, cuja gravidade pode levar à insuficiência respiratória, insuficiência renal,colapso hemodinâmico e eventos tromboembólicos. Objetivo: Descrever um caso clínico de síndrome de hiperestimulação ovárica avançado, juntamente com uma revisão da literatura sobre a patologia, visando o diagnóstico e tratamento ótimo de pacientes com essas características clínicas. A presentação do caso: Paciente de 29 anos com história de síndrome de ovário policístico que apresenta síndrome de hiperestimulação ovárica avançado como complicação secundária à estimulação gonadotrófica. O quadro clínico mostrou ovários ampliados na avaliação ultra-sonográfica; anasarca devido à ascite e derrames pleurais bilaterais e insuficiência respiratória do tipo insuficiência respiratória do adulto. Foi realizada a paracentese e foi utilizada ventilação mecânica não invasiva, atingindo a expansão pulmonar. Discussão: A análise deste caso começou sete dias após a administração da gonadotrofina, favorecida pelas condições prévias da paciente, sem complicações letais. Conclusões: A paracentese pode constituir uma opção terapêutica efetiva no tratamento de ascite com comprometimento da função pulmonar. Aventilação mecânica não invasiva é uma estratégia para evitar intubação nessas pacientes, o que evita os períodos de sedação exaustiva e o consequente risco de bronco-aspiração. [Urbina-Contreras ZE, Urbina-Echeverry SE, Lamos-Duarte AF, Picón-Jaimes YA. Síndrome de hiperestimulação ovárica grave: Relato de caso e revisão da literatura. MedUNAB 2017; 20(2): 244-251].


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana , Indução da Ovulação , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Infertilidade Feminina
10.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 4(2): 248-266, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-967463

RESUMO

Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo del uso de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica que conllevan el desarrollo de neumonía en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos de un hospital de tercer nivel de Cúcuta. Métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal y con enfoque retrospectivo. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas de pacientes que ingresaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz de Cúcuta. Se obtuvieron 284 historias clínicas y se analizaron los datos de 69 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos. Resultados. De los 69 pacientes incluidos, 29 (42%) eran hombres. Se presentó neumonía asociada con asistencia respiratoria mecánica tardía en 28 pacientes (42%) y, con asistencia respiratoria mecánica temprana, en 12 pacientes (15,9%); los gérmenes aislados fueron Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudo-monas aeruginosa en un 13% de los cultivos reportados. El promedio de los días de estancia fue 29,7 y de asistencia respiratoria mecánica de 18. La probabilidad de presentar este tipo de neumonía fue 3,3 veces mayor al sufrir una enfermedad inmunosupresora y 3,2 veces mayor en los hombres, lo cual se reflejó en la prueba de ji al cuadrado (p=0,02) Conclusiones. La incidencia de la neumonía asociada con la asistencia respiratoria está en aumento, afectando de manera negativa a los pacientes que requieren soporte respiratorio en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, y eleva la mortalidad, los días de asistencia respiratoria, la estancia hospitalaria e, incluso, los gastos del sistema de salud


Objective: Determine the prevalence and risk factors of use mechanical ventilation that may lead to development pneumonia in the adults' intensive care unit of a third level hospital in Cúcuta. Methods: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study with a retrospective approach was conducted. Data were obtained from medical records of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cúcuta city. We obtained 284 clinical histories and data from 69 patients who met the established inclusion criteria were analyzed. Results: 69 patients were included, 42% (29) patients were men. Pneumonia associated with delayed mechanical ventilation was present in 28 patients (42%) and, with early mechanical ventilation was found in 12 patients (15.9%); Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in 13% of the reported cultures. The day's average of stay was 29.7 with mechanical ventilation therapy of 18 days. Statistical analysis show that probability of presenting this type of pneumonia was 3.3 times higher when patient have an immunosuppressive disease and 3.2 times higher in men, which it was reflected in the chi-square test (p = 0.02). Conclusions: The incidence of pneumonia associated with respiratory assistance is increasing, negatively affecting patients who require respiratory support in intensive care units, and increases mortality, days of respiratory support, hospital permanence and increment the health system costs


Objetivo. Determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco do uso de ventilação mecânica que implica o desenvolvimento de pneumonia na unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital terciário de Cucuta. Métodos. Estudo observacional, analítico, transversal, com abordagem retrospectiva. Os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários de pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos do Hospital Universitário Erasmo Meoz de Cúcuta. Foram obtidos 284 históricos clínicos e analisados os dados de 69 pacientes que cumpriram com os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Resultados. Dos 69 pacientes incluídos, 29 (42%) foram homens. Foi apresentada pneumonia asso-ciada a ventilação mecânica retardada em 28 pacientes (42%) e com ventilação mecânica precoce em 12 pacientes (15,9%); os germes isolados foram Klebsiella pneumoniae e Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 13% das culturas relatadas. O tempo médio de permanência foi de 29,7 dias e a ventilação mecâ-nica 18. A probabilidade de apresentar esse tipo de pneumonia foi 3,3 vezes maior quando se sofre uma doença imunossupressora e 3,2 vezes maior nos homens, que foi refletido no teste qui-quadrado (p = 0,02) Conclusões. A incidência de pneumonia associada à assistência respiratória está em aumento afe-tando negativamente os pacientes que precisam de suporte respiratório em unidades de cuidados intensivos, e aumenta a mortalidade, os dias da assistência respiratória, o tempo de permanência no hospital e até mesmo despesas do sistema de saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Antibacterianos
11.
Rev. MED ; 21(2): 34-42, jul.-dic. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-706617

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es adaptar transculturalmente, para el uso en Colombia, el cuestionario para calidad de vida en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal, KDQOL-SF-36 Kidney Disease Quality of Life (instrumento mixto). Al realizar esta adaptación, se busca que el significado y semántica de las preguntas sean consistentes para ser aplicados en población Colombiana. Método: para la realización de todo el proceso de adaptación se tomaron en cuenta las recomendaciones dadas por la Organización Europea para la Investigación y el Tratamiento del Cáncer (EORTC), la aplicación del cuestionario en los grupos pilotos se llevo a cabo mediante entrevista, autoadministración y entrevista en grupos focales. Resultados: durante el proceso de adaptación se realizaron diversos cambios en el cuestionario, la mayoría de ellos en la fase de traducción desde los lineamientos seguidos en la metodología. Conclusiones: en este momento en Colombia se cuenta con la versión adaptada de la escala KDQOL-SF-36, para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal.


The aim of this work is to obtain a Colombian transcultural adaptation version of the instrument 'kidney disease quality of life' KDQOL - SF - 36 (mixed instrument) in subjects with end stage renal disease. By doing this work it is intended that the meaning and context of the questions be consistent to be applied in Colombian population. Method: For the accomplishment of the whole process of adjustment, the recommendations given by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were taken in account; the application of the questionnaire in the pilot groups was carried out by interview, self administration and focal group interviews. Results: during the process of adjustment, several changes were made to the questionnaire, most of them in the translation phase from the standards followed in the methodology. Conclusions: Currently in Colombia the adapted version of the KDQOL-SF-36 scale is being used for subjects with end stage renal disease.


O objetivo destetrabalho é adaptar transculturalmente para o uso na Colômbia o questionário para qualidade de vida em pacientes com doença renal crônica terminal KDQOL-SF-36 KidneyDisease- QualityofLife (instrumento misto). Ao realizar esta adaptação procura-se que o significado e semântica das perguntas sejam consistentes para ser aplicados em população Colombiana. Método: para a realização de todo o processo de adaptação se tiveram em conta as recomendações dadas pela Organização Europeia para a Pesquisae o Tratamento do Câncer (EORTC), a aplicação do questionário nos grupos pilotos, se levou a cabo mediante entrevista, autoadministração e entrevista em grupos focais. Resultados: durante o processo de adaptação se realizaram diversos câmbios ao questionário a maioria de eles na fase de tradução desde os lineamentos seguidos na metodologia. Conclusões: em este momento na Colômbia se conta com a versão adaptada da escala KDQOL-SF-36 para pacientes com doença renal crônica terminal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Diálise Renal
12.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 14(3): 138-146, jul.-sept. 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-90422

RESUMO

Objetivos: Revisar la evidencia disponible sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones que buscan reducir la ocurrenciade trastornos musculoesqueléticos de extremidad superior o sus factores de riesgo en el ámbito laboral.Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en OVID, Cochrane y EBSCO Host de artículos publicados en revistas científicasentre 1990 y 2008. Se excluyeron aquellos estudios donde las intervenciones no se llevaron a cabo en ambientes laborales.Dos pares académicos seleccionaron y revisaron los artículos. Los resultados se generaron a partir de la cantidad y calidadde artículos con conclusiones similares en relación a diversos tipos de intervención.Resultados: Cincuenta y un estudios fueron seleccionados en esta revisión. Todos ellos describen distintas intervencionespreventivas en los lugares de trabajo y sobre los trabajadores, principalmente entre usuarios de pantallas de visualizaciónde datos (PVDs). Solo doce estudios fueron considerados de alta calidad. Se encontró evidencia moderada del beneficio decambios integrales en el puesto de trabajo, de actividades formativas sobre los trabajadores y del uso de algunos teclados yratones alternativos que permiten adoptar posturas más apropiadas de la extremidad superior.Conclusiones: La heterogeneidad y frecuente debilidad metodológica de los estudios encontrados impide que se puedaconcluir sobre la efectividad de la mayoría de las intervenciones descritas en la literatura. Se hacen especialmente necesariasevaluaciones de intervenciones sobre puestos de trabajo con riesgos diferentes de los derivados del uso de PVDs (AU)


Objectives: To study the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at reducing the occurrence of upper-extremitymusculoskeletal disorders or their related risk factors.Methods: Articles published between 1990 and 2008 were searched in OVID, Cochrane, y EBSCO Host databases.Interventions not conducted at the workplace were excluded. Two peers selected and reviewed the articles. The results are based on the quantity and quality of articles providing similar conclusions regarding different types of interventions. Results: Fifty-one studies were included in this review, all describing a variety of preventive interventions in workplacesand on workers, mainly among visual display unit (VDUs) users. Only twelve studies in the review were considered of highquality. We found moderate evidence for the benefits of comprehensive changes in workplaces, educational interventionsin workers and use of alternative computer input devices intended to achieve more adequate upper-extremity postures.Conclusions: The heterogeneity and frequent methodological flaws of reviewed studies do not allow us to reach conclusiveresults on the effectiveness of the most reviewed interventions. Evaluation studies of interventions for risks other thancomputer-related ones are greatly needed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Riscos Ocupacionais , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas
13.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 1(1): 03-10, 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1017749

RESUMO

Las técnicas de reparacion sin sutura de tejidos, libres de tensión, ha significado un descenso de los índices de recurrencia a cifras inferiores al 1%. Todas ellas tienen en común el uso de material biocompatible de prolipopileno y son procedimientos que tienen una curva de aprendizaje corta. La HSTDP es una técnica sencilla, reproducible y con resultados satisfactorios. La técnica consistió en situar un cono plug de malla de prolipopileno sobre el defecto original de la hernia, según propuesta Rutkow y Robbins y posteriormente colocar la malla de polipropileno sobre la pared posterior del conducto inguinal y rodeando las estructuras del cordón espermático, fijándola según la técnica de Lichtenstein. La doble situación de la prótesis, en el defecto original y con un refuerzo anterior, permite tratar de forma más fisiológica y segura el defecto original y a la vez supone un refuerzo de las estructuras anatómicas de la región inguinal...


Introduction: the introduction of tension-free tissue-free repair techniques has meant a decrease in recurrence rates to figures below 1%. All of them have in common the use of biocompatible polypropylene material and are procedures that have a short learning curve. They are applied in almost any hospital, they have a lower frequency of early complications, their results are reproducible by any surgeon (provided they practice it as the authors describe it). Objective: to analyze the applicability and preliminary results of tensionless hernioplasty using double prostheses (plug plus mesh) (HSTDP). Patients and Methods: a descriptive observational study of a transverse section, partially retrospective, which included 165 adult patients with inguinal hernia admitted to the General Surgery Service of the Itauguá National Hospital from January 2006 to July 2008, according to the selection protocol and of preset jobs. The technique consisted of placing a polypropylene mesh cone or plug over the original hernia defect, as proposed by Rutkow and Robbins, and subsequently placing a polypropylene mesón the posterior wall of the inguinal canal and surrounding the spermatic cord structures, fixing it according to the Lichtenstein technique. Results: there was a predominance of indirect hernias and Gilbert's operative classification III. The median postoperative stay was 25,5 hours. The most frequent postoperative complication has been the presence of seromas in 4 cases (2,2 %) and infection in 7 cases (4 %). No case of prosthetic intolerance was evidenced. The median follow-up has been 14 months, with no recurrences. Conclusions: HSTDP is a simple, reproducible technique with satisfactory results. The double situation of the prosthesis, in the original defect and with a previous reinforcement, allows to treat the original defect in a more physiological and safe way and at the same time it supposes a reinforcement of the anatomical structures of the inguinal region.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Próteses e Implantes , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos sem Sutura , Canal Inguinal , Hérnia/cirurgia , Paraguai , Recidiva , Curva de Aprendizado
14.
Appl Opt ; 41(15): 2973-7, 2002 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12027187

RESUMO

A laser-isotope-separation study of lithium has been performed with two-step excitation involving UV laser radiation and a visible tunable-diode laser. The method yields a high degree of selectivity by tuning the narrow-linewidth diode laser to the D1 or D2 levels of the lithium atom. Selective laser excitation is simplified by the use of the tunable diode laser and the overall approach benefits from the application of a compact mass selector that includes a precision magnetic sector and an ion beam that is designed specifically for light atoms such as lithium.

15.
BOGOTA; s.n; abr; nov. 1998. 123 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-237775
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