Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 399
Filtrar
1.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 234: 110222, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690056

RESUMO

E2CD154 is a vaccine candidate against classical swine fever (CSF) based on a chimeric protein composed of the E2 glycoprotein fused to porcine CD154 antigen, and formulated in the oil adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 50 V2. This vaccine confers early protection in pigs and prevents vertical transmission in pregnant sows. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety of this immunogen in piglets, to compare several doses of antigen in the formulation, and to study the duration of the immunity provided by this vaccine for up to 9 months. Three trials were conducted by immunizing pigs with a two-dose regime of the vaccine. Challenge experiments were carried out with the highly pathogenic Margarita strain. No local or systemic adverse effects were documented, and neither macroscopic nor microscopic pathological findings were observed in the vaccinated animals. The three antigen doses explored were safe and induced CSF protective neutralizing antibodies. The dose of 50 µg was selected for further development because it provided the best clinical and virological protection. Finally, this protective immunity was sustained for at least 9 months. This study demonstrates that E2CD154 vaccine is safe; defines a vaccine dose of 50 µg antigen, and evidences the capacity of this vaccine to confer long term protection from CSFV infection for up to 9 months post- vaccination. These findings complement previous data on the evaluation of this vaccine candidate, and suggest that E2CD154 is a promising alternative to modified live vaccines in CSF endemic areas.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116730, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652184

RESUMO

Beach litter assessments rely on time inefficient and high human cost protocols, mining the attainment of global beach litter estimates. Here we show the application of an emerging technique, the use of drones for acquisition of high-resolution beach images coupled with machine learning for their automatic processing, aimed at achieving the first national-scale beach litter survey completed by only one operator. The aerial survey had a time efficiency of 570 ± 40 m2 min-1 and the machine learning reached a mean (±SE) detection sensitivity of 59 ± 3% with high resolution images. The resulting mean (±SE) litter density on Saudi Arabian shores of the Red Sea is of 0.12 ± 0.02 litter items m-2, distributed independently of the population density in the area around the sampling station. Instead, accumulation of litter depended on the exposure of the beach to the prevailing wind and litter composition differed between islands and the main shore, where recreational activities are the major source of anthropogenic debris.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145520, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770872

RESUMO

Nearshore biogenic habitats are known to trap sediments, and may therefore also accumulate biofouled, non-buoyant microplastics. Using a current-generating field flume (TiDyFLOW), we experimentally assessed the mechanisms of microplastic trapping of two size classes, 0.5 mm and 2.5 mm particle size, by three contrasting types of biogenic habitats: 1) seagrasses, 2) macroalgae, and 3) scleractinian corals. Results showed that benthic organisms with a complex architecture and rough surface - such as hard corals - trap the highest number of microplastics in their aboveground structure. Sediment was however the major microplastic sink, accumulating 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more microplastics than the benthic structure. Microplastic accumulation in the sediment could be explained by near-bed turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), indicating that this is governed by the same hydrodynamic processes leading to sediment trapping. Thus, the most valuable biogenic habitats in terms of nursery and coastal protection services also have the highest capacity of accumulating microplastics in their sediments. A significantly larger fraction of 0.5 mm particles was trapped in the sediment compared to 2.5 mm particles, because especially the smaller microplastics are entrained into the sediment. Present observations contribute to explaining why especially microplastics smaller than 1 mm are missing in surface waters.

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(9)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637531

RESUMO

Fisheries in waters beyond national jurisdiction ("high seas") are difficult to monitor and manage. Their regulation for sustainability requires critical information on how fishing effort is distributed across fishing and landing areas, including possible border effects at the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) limits. We infer the global network linking harbors supporting fishing vessels to fishing areas in high seas from automatic identification system tracking data in 2014, observing a modular structure, with vessels departing from a given harbor fishing mostly in a single province. The top 16% of these harbors support 84% of fishing effort in high seas, with harbors in low- and middle-income countries ranked among the top supporters. Fishing effort concentrates along narrow strips attached to the boundaries of EEZs with productive fisheries, identifying a free-riding behavior that jeopardizes efforts by nations to sustainably manage their fisheries, perpetuating the tragedy of the commons affecting global fishery resources.

5.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 40, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of antibiotic resistance has become one of the most urgent threats to global health, which is estimated to cause 700,000 deaths each year globally. Its surrogates, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), are highly transmittable between food, water, animal, and human to mitigate the efficacy of antibiotics. Accurately identifying ARGs is thus an indispensable step to understanding the ecology, and transmission of ARGs between environmental and human-associated reservoirs. Unfortunately, the previous computational methods for identifying ARGs are mostly based on sequence alignment, which cannot identify novel ARGs, and their applications are limited by currently incomplete knowledge about ARGs. RESULTS: Here, we propose an end-to-end Hierarchical Multi-task Deep learning framework for ARG annotation (HMD-ARG). Taking raw sequence encoding as input, HMD-ARG can identify, without querying against existing sequence databases, multiple ARG properties simultaneously, including if the input protein sequence is an ARG, and if so, what antibiotic family it is resistant to, what resistant mechanism the ARG takes, and if the ARG is an intrinsic one or acquired one. In addition, if the predicted antibiotic family is beta-lactamase, HMD-ARG further predicts the subclass of beta-lactamase that the ARG is resistant to. Comprehensive experiments, including cross-fold validation, third-party dataset validation in human gut microbiota, wet-experimental functional validation, and structural investigation of predicted conserved sites, demonstrate not only the superior performance of our method over the state-of-art methods, but also the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hierarchical multi-task method, HMD-ARG, which is based on deep learning and can provide detailed annotations of ARGs from three important aspects: resistant antibiotic class, resistant mechanism, and gene mobility. We believe that HMD-ARG can serve as a powerful tool to identify antibiotic resistance genes and, therefore mitigate their global threat. Our method and the constructed database are available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/HMDARG/ . Video abstract (MP4 50984 kb).


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Animais , Humanos , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561229

RESUMO

The gray mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.] is the most widely distributed mangrove species, ranging throughout the Indo-West Pacific. It presents remarkable levels of geographic variation both in phenotypic traits and habitat, often occupying extreme environments at the edges of its distribution. However, subspecific evolutionary relationships and adaptive mechanisms remain understudied, especially across populations of the West Indian Ocean. High-quality genomic resources accounting for such variability are also sparse. Here we report the first chromosome-level assembly of the genome of A. marina. We used a previously release draft assembly and proximity ligation libraries Chicago and Dovetail HiC for scaffolding, producing a 456,526,188-bp long genome. The largest 32 scaffolds (22.4-10.5 Mb) accounted for 98% of the genome assembly, with the remaining 2% distributed among much shorter 3,759 scaffolds (62.4-1 kb). We annotated 45,032 protein-coding genes using tissue-specific RNA-seq data in combination with de novo gene prediction, from which 34,442 were associated to GO terms. Genome assembly and annotated set of genes yield a 96.7% and 95.1% completeness score, respectively, when compared with the eudicots BUSCO dataset. Furthermore, an FST survey based on resequencing data successfully identified a set of candidate genes potentially involved in local adaptation and revealed patterns of adaptive variability correlating with a temperature gradient in Arabian mangrove populations. Our A. marina genomic assembly provides a highly valuable resource for genome evolution analysis, as well as for identifying functional genes involved in adaptive processes and speciation.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145192, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640549

RESUMO

Seaweed farming has been proposed as a strategy for adaptation to ocean acidification, but evidence is largely lacking. Changes of pH and carbon system parameters in surface waters of three seaweed farms along a latitudinal range in China were compared, on the weeks preceding harvesting, with those of the surrounding seawaters. Results confirmed that seaweed farming is efficient in buffering acidification, with Saccharina japonica showing the highest capacity of 0.10 pH increase within the aquaculture area, followed by Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (ΔpH = 0.04) and Porphyra haitanensis (ΔpH = 0.03). The ranges of pH variability within seaweed farms spanned 0.14-0.30 unit during the monitoring, showing intense fluctuations which may also help marine organisms adapt to enhanced pH temporal variations in the future ocean. Deficit in pCO2 in waters in seaweed farms relative to control waters averaged 58.7 ± 15.9 µatm, ranging from 27.3 to 113.9 µatm across farms. However, ΔpH did not significantly differ between day and night. Dissolved oxygen and Ωarag were also elevated in surface waters at all seaweed farms, which are benefit for the survival of calcifying organisms. Seaweed farming, which unlike natural seaweed forests, is scalable and is not dependent on suitable substrate or light availability, could serve as a low-cost adaptation strategy to ocean acidification and deoxygenation and provide important refugia from ocean acidification.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 186(1): 15-24, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611666

RESUMO

AIM: To provide a comprehensive overview of breast cancer in Colombia. METHODS: Data on breast cancer in Colombia are scarce. We present incidence data from population-based cancer registries that represent 4 distinct regions of the country. Other data originate from non-governmental institutions and healthcare providers within Colombia, official sources, expert opinion, Colombian legislation, and the Cancer Mortality Atlas publishes by Colombian National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: In Colombia, the age-standardized incidence rate remained relatively stable between 2012 and 2020 (43.1 to 47.8 cases per 100,000 women-years); Additionally, survival since 1995 has presented a substantial improvement from 65.7 to 72.1. In 33% of cases, the diagnosis of breast cancer was made in advanced stages, stage III or higher. The health demography survey conducted in 2015 showed that the participation in mammography screening in women aged 40 to 69 remains low 48.1%. Some limitations regarding access to early detection and diagnosis include economic strata, health insurance coverage, origin, and accessibility. On average, a 90-day period was reported from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: The first action towards improving outcomes in breast cancer should be to improve stage at diagnosis and timely access to care.

10.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542110

RESUMO

Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals at multiple levels, including their behavior, physiology, and, in extreme cases, survival. This should prompt management actions to deploy existing solutions to reduce noise levels in the ocean, thereby allowing marine animals to reestablish their use of ocean sound as a central ecological trait in a healthy ocean.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Audição , Ruído , Animais , Oceanos e Mares
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(3): 311-321, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432134

RESUMO

Over the past decades, three major challenges to marine life have emerged as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions: ocean warming, acidification and oxygen loss. While most experimental research has targeted the first two stressors, the last remains comparatively neglected. Here, we implemented sequential hierarchical mixed-model meta-analyses (721 control-treatment comparisons) to compare the impacts of oxygen conditions associated with the current and continuously intensifying hypoxic events (1-3.5 O2 mg l-1) with those experimentally yielded by ocean warming (+4 °C) and acidification (-0.4 units) conditions on the basis of IPCC projections (RCP 8.5) for 2100. In contrast to warming and acidification, hypoxic events elicited consistent negative effects relative to control biological performance-survival (-33%), abundance (-65%), development (-51%), metabolism (-33%), growth (-24%) and reproduction (-39%)-across the taxonomic groups (mollusks, crustaceans and fish), ontogenetic stages and climate regions studied. Our findings call for a refocus of global change experimental studies, integrating oxygen concentration drivers as a key factor of ocean change. Given potential combined effects, multistressor designs including gradual and extreme changes are further warranted to fully disclose the future impacts of ocean oxygen loss, warming and acidification.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(1): 202-214, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920909

RESUMO

Global vegetated coastal habitats (VCHs) represent a large sink for organic carbon (OC) stored within their soils. The regional patterns and causes of spatial variation, however, remain uncertain. The sparsity and regional bias of studies on soil OC stocks from Chinese VCHs have limited the reliable estimation of their capacity as regional and global OC sinks. Here, we use field and published data from 262 sampled soil cores and 181 surface soils to report estimates of soil OC stocks, burial rates and losses of VCHs in China. We find that Chinese mangrove, salt marsh and seagrass habitats have relatively low OC stocks, storing 6.3 ± 0.6, 7.5 ± 0.6, and 1.6 ± 0.6 Tg C (±95% confidence interval) in the top meter of the soil profile with burial rates of 44 ± 17, 159 ± 57, and 6 ± 45 Gg C/year, respectively. The variability in the soil OC stocks is linked to biogeographic factors but is mostly impacted by sedimentary processes and anthropic activities. All habitats have experienced significant losses, resulting in estimated emissions of 94.2-395.4 Tg CO2 e (carbon dioxide equivalent) over the past 70 years. Reversing this trend through conservation and restoration measures has, therefore, great potential in contributing to the mitigation of climate change while providing additional benefits. This assessment, on a national scale from highly sedimentary environments under intensive anthropogenic pressures, provides important insights into blue carbon sink mechanism and sequestration capacities, thus contributing to the synchronous progression of global blue carbon management.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115640, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254658

RESUMO

Microfibers are reported as the most abundant microparticle type in the environment. Their small size and light weight allow easy and fast distribution, but also make it challenging to determine their chemical composition. Vibrational microspectroscopy methods as infrared and spontaneous Raman microscopy have been widely used for the identification of environmental microparticles. However, only few studies report on the identification of microfibers, mainly due to difficulties caused by their small diameter. Here we present the use of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy for fast and reliable classification of microfibers from environmental samples. SRS microscopy features high sensitivity and has the potential to be faster than other vibrational microspectroscopy methods. As a proof of principle, we analyzed fibers extracted from the fish gastrointestinal (GIT) tract, deep-sea and coastal sediments, surface seawater and drinking water. Challenges were faced while measuring fibers from the fish GIT, due to the acidic degradation they undergo. However, the main vibrational peaks were still recognizable and sufficient to determine the natural or synthetic origin of the fibers. Notably, our results are in accordance to other recent studies showing that the majority of the analyzed environmental fibers has a natural origin. Our findings suggest that advanced spectroscopic methods must be used for estimation of the plastic fibers concentration in the environment.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 538476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262740

RESUMO

Aeolian prokaryotic communities (APC) are important components of bioaerosols that are transported freely or attached to dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Terrestrial and marine ecosystems are known to release and receive significant prokaryote loads into and from the surrounded atmospheric air. However, compared to terrestrial systems, there is a lack of microbial characterization of atmospheric dust over marine systems, such as the Red Sea, which receives significant terrestrial dust loads and is centrally located within the Global Dust Belt. Prokaryotic communities are likely to be particularly important in the Global Dust Belt, the area between the west coast of North Africa and Central Asia that supports the highest dust fluxes on the planet. Here we characterize the diversity and richness of the APC over the Red Sea ecosystem, the only sea fully contained within the Global Dust Belt. MiSeq sequencing was used to target 16S ribosomal DNA of two hundred and forty aeolian dust samples. These samples were collected at ∼7.5 m high above the sea level at coastal and offshore sampling sites over a 2-year period (2015-2017). The sequencing outcomes revealed that the APC in the atmospheric dust is dominated by Proteobacteria (42.69%), Firmicutes (41.11%), Actinobacteria, (7.69%), and Bacteroidetes (3.49%). The dust-associated prokaryotes were transported from different geographical sources and found to be more diverse than prokaryotic communities of the Red Sea surface water. Marine and soil originated prokaryotes were detected in APC. Hence, depending on the season, these groups may have traveled from other distant sources during storm events in the Red Sea region, where the APC structure is influenced by the origin and the concentration of aeolian dust particles. Accordingly, further studies of the impact of atmospheric organic aerosols on the recipient environments are required.

15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 543322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304871

RESUMO

Uniform CO2 during human evolution (180 to 280 ppm) resulted, because of the role of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer in regulating pH, in rather constant pH (7.35 to 7.45) in human fluids, cells and tissues, determining, in turn, the narrow pH range for optimal functioning of the human proteome. Herein, we hypothesize that chronic exposure to elevated pCO2 with increasing atmospheric CO2 (>400 ppm), and extended time spent in confined, crowded indoor atmospheres (pCO2 up to 5,000 ppm) with urban lifestyles, may be an important, largely overlooked driver of change in human proteome performance. The reduced pH (downregulated from 0.1 to 0.4 units below the optimum pH) of extant humans chronically exposed to elevated CO2 is likely to lead to proteome malfunction. This malfunction is due to protein misfolding, aggregation, charge distribution, and altered interaction with other molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, metals, proteins, and drugs). Such alterations would have systemic effects that help explain the prevalence of syndromes (obesity, diabetes, respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, cancer, and neurological disorders) characteristic of the modern lifestyle. Chronic exposure to elevated CO2 poses risks to human health that are too serious to be ignored and require testing with fit-for-purpose equipment and protocols along with indoor carbon capture technologies to bring CO2 levels down to approach levels (180-280 ppm) under which the human proteome evolved.

16.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225561

RESUMO

The role of the microbiome in sustaining seagrasses has recently been highlighted. However, our understanding of the seagrass microbiome lacks behind that of other organisms. Here, we analyse the endophytic and total bacterial communities of leaves, rhizomes, and roots of six Red Sea seagrass species and their sediments. The structure of seagrass bacterial communities revealed that the 1% most abundant OTUs accounted for 87.9% and 74.8% of the total numbers of reads in sediment and plant tissue samples, respectively. We found taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in vegetated and bare sediments. Yet, our results suggest that lifestyle (i.e. free-living or host-association) is the main driver of bacterial community composition. Seagrass bacterial communities were tissue- and species-specific and differed from those of surrounding sediments. We identified OTUs belonging to genera related to N and S cycles in roots, and members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla as particularly enriched in root endosphere. The finding of highly similar OTUs in well-defined sub-clusters by network analysis suggests the co-occurrence of highly connected key members within Red Sea seagrass bacterial communities. These results provide key information towards the understanding of the role of microorganisms in seagrass ecosystem functioning framed under the seagrass holobiont concept.

17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241657

RESUMO

Global losses over the 20th century placed seagrass ecosystems among the most threatened ecosystems in the world, with eutrophication, and associated deterioration of the submarine light environment identified as the main driver. Growing appreciation of the ecological and societal benefits of healthy seagrass meadows has stimulated efforts to protect and restore them, largely focused on reducing nutrient input to coastal waters. Here we analyze a unique data set spanning 135 years on eelgrass (Zostera marina), the dominant seagrass of the northern hemisphere. We show that meadows in the Western Baltic Sea exhibited major declines relative to historic (1890-1910) reference due to the wasting disease in the 1930s followed by eutrophication peaking in the 1980s, but have only shown modest improvement despite major eutrophication mitigation, halving nitrogen input since the 1980s. Across the past century, we identified generally shallower colonization depths of eelgrass for a given submarine light penetration and, hence, increased apparent light requirements. This suggests that eelgrass recovery is limited by additional stressors. Our study indicates that bottom trawling and intense recent warming (0.5°C per decade, 1985-2018), which impact on deeper and shallower meadows, respectively, suppress eelgrass from fully recovering from eutrophication. Warming is most severe in shallow turbid waters, while clear-water areas offer eelgrass refugia from warming in deeper, cooler waters; but trawling can prevent eelgrass from reaching these refugia. Efforts to reduce nutrient input and thereby improve water clarity have been instrumental in avoiding a catastrophic loss of eelgrass ecosystems. However, local-scale future management must, in addition, reduce bottom trawling to facilitate eelgrass reaching deeper, cooler refugia, and increase resilience toward realized and further warming. Warming needs to be limited by meeting global climate change mitigation goals.

18.
Ecology ; : e03226, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067806

RESUMO

Shifts from coral to algal dominance are expected to increase in tropical coral reefs as a result of anthropogenic disturbances. The consequences for key ecosystem functions such as primary productivity, calcification, and nutrient recycling are poorly understood, particularly under changing environmental conditions. We used a novel in situ incubation approach to compare functions of coral- and algae-dominated communities in the central Red Sea bi-monthly over an entire year. In situ gross and net community primary productivity, calcification, dissolved organic carbon fluxes, dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, and their respective activation energies were quantified to describe the effects of seasonal changes. Overall, coral-dominated communities exhibited 30% lower net productivity and 10 times higher calcification than algae-dominated communities. Estimated activation energies indicated a higher thermal sensitivity of coral-dominated communities. In these communities, net productivity and calcification were negatively correlated with temperature (>40% and >65% reduction, respectively, with +5°C increase from winter to summer), while carbon losses via respiration and dissolved organic carbon release were more than doubled at higher temperatures. In contrast, algae-dominated communities doubled net productivity in summer, while calcification and dissolved organic carbon fluxes were unaffected. These results suggest pronounced changes in community functioning associated with phase shifts. Algae-dominated communities may outcompete coral-dominated communities due to their higher productivity and carbon retention to support fast biomass accumulation while compromising the formation of important reef framework structures. Higher temperatures likely amplify these functional differences, indicating a high vulnerability of ecosystem functions of coral-dominated communities to temperatures even below coral bleaching thresholds. Our results suggest that ocean warming may not only cause but also amplify coral-algal phase shifts in coral reefs.

19.
mSystems ; 5(5)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082281

RESUMO

Mangrove ecosystems provide important ecological benefits and ecosystem services, including carbon storage and coastline stabilization, but they also suffer great anthropogenic pressures. Microorganisms associated with mangrove sediments and the rhizosphere play key roles in this ecosystem and make essential contributions to its productivity and carbon budget. Understanding this nexus and moving from descriptive studies of microbial taxonomy to hypothesis-driven field and lab studies will facilitate a mechanistic understanding of mangrove ecosystem interaction webs and open opportunities for microorganism-mediated approaches to mangrove protection and rehabilitation. Such an effort calls for a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach, involving chemists, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, microbiologists, oceanographers, plant scientists, conservation biologists, and stakeholders, and it requires standardized methods to support reproducible experiments. Here, we outline the Mangrove Microbiome Initiative, which is focused around three urgent priorities and three approaches for advancing mangrove microbiome research.

20.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104990, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907728

RESUMO

The study of a Posidonia sinuosa sedimentary archive has delivered a millenary record of environmental change in Cockburn Sound (Western Australia). Ecosystem change is a major environmental problem challenging sustainable coastal development worldwide, and this study shows baseline trends and shifts in ecological processes in coastal ecosystems under environmental stress. The concentrations and fluxes of biogeochemical elements over the last 3,500 years indicate that important changes in ecosystem dynamics occurred over the last 1,000 years, in particular after ~1900's, probably related to establishment of seagrass meadows in the area and to local and regional human activities (industry and coastal development), respectively. The establishment of seagrasses ~1,000 years ago in the area of study is supported by the appearance of Posidonia fibres from ~40 cm soil depth until the core top, higher δ13C values indicating a larger contribution of seagrass-matter to the soil organic carbon pool, and increased concentration of fine sediments driven by the effect of seagrass canopy in enhancing sedimentation. The comparison of organic carbon, nutrients and metal concentrations and fluxes between pre- and post-establishment of seagrasses shows that seagrass establishment resulted in up to 9-fold increase in the soil biogeochemical sink. In ~1900's, shifts in the concentrations of metals, carbonates, organic carbon, sediment grain size, and δ13C and δ15N values of the organic matter were detected, demonstrating an alteration in seagrass ecosystem functioning following the onset of European settlement. Anthropogenic activities, and in particular the construction of a causeway in 1970's, enhanced seagrass soil organic carbon and metal accumulation rates by 36- and 39-fold, respectively, showing that human-made structures can enhance the biogeochemical sink capacity of seagrasses. Here we reconstruct the impact of human activities on seagrass ecosystem dynamics and blue carbon, which can inform local management of Cockburn Sound and seagrass conservation for climate change mitigation and adaptation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Carbono , Solo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...