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1.
Environ Pollut ; 343: 123272, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160777

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic infection affecting ruminants and other species worldwide. Information on the ecological factors that increase infection risk at the livestock-wildlife-environment interface remains scarce. Thus, this work aimed at determining which factors modulate the exposure of a mammal community within a Mediterranean agro-forestry farmstead to MAP. Through field, molecular and ecological modeling approaches, MAP prevalence, distribution and spatial risk at the livestock-wildlife-environment was estimated in the study area by screening 436 samples (cattle, n = 150; wildlife, n = 206; soil, n = 80). Using molecular detection of IS900 as proxy, MAP was identified in ten wild mammal species. Being a central prey of mesocarnivores in Portugal, the high prevalence of MAP in the wild rabbit (19%) may be related with red fox's (22%). MAP was also detected in cattle managed in the farmstead (animal and herd prevalence, 54% and 100%) and in soil (44%), which may perpetuate intraspecies and interspecies transmission. Wildlife diversity showed a positive influence on MAP presence in wild mammals, while wildlife abundance showed a negative effect. Land use variables exerted distinct degrees of impact upon MAP detection in specific groups of mammals: mixed forest cover showed positive influence on carnivores, and shrubland showed positive effect on wild rabbits. The prevalence of MAP in cattle showed a negative influence on the detection of MAP in lagomorph, which may stem from wild rabbit lower density and avoidance of cattle areas. Based on explanatory variables, the spatial prediction of MAP occurrence in wildlife indicated two hotspots with increased exposure risk but future studies are needed to confirm this projection. This work represents the most comprehensive molecular survey of MAP occurrence and determinants in Mediterranean agroecosystems leveraging the principles and tools of community ecology, debating potential biological and ecological effects underlying MAP transmission.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Coelhos , Animais Selvagens , Gado , Agricultura Florestal , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Mamíferos , Solo , Fezes/microbiologia
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 757-761, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420626

RESUMO

Abstract Background The traditional infusion of "yerba mate" is widely consumed in South America and exported to countries around the world. Although generally considered a "clear fluid", there is no data to date on the gastric emptying time of yerba mate and safe preoperative fasting intervals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time of a standardized infusion of yerba mate using bedside ultrasound and compare it with the time confirm of hot and cold tea. Methods This was a prospective, randomized crossover experimental study. Thirty healthy volunteers were evaluated after 8 hours of fasting for both fluids and solids. Gastric antral area and gastric volume were evaluated at baseline and every 20 minutes after drinking 300 mL of randomly assigned infusion of "yerba mate", hot tea, or cold tea. Results The mean gastric emptying time was: 69.7 ± 22.1 min, 63.1 ± 14.5 min, and 64.3 ± 23.5 min for the mate, hot tea, and cold tea respectively. No significant differences were found in emptying time among the infusion groups (p-value = 0.043). When same time measures were compared, the only significant difference detected was between hot teas and mate infusion at 20 minutes (p-value = 0.012) Conclusion Yerba mate infusion has a similar gastric emptying time to that of tea. All subject's gastric volume returned to baseline values by 100 minutes. It is reasonable to recommend a similar fasting period of 2 hours for mate infusion prior to elective surgery.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ilex paraguariensis , Chá , Estudos Prospectivos , Jejum , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
3.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 72(6): 757-761, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional infusion of "yerba mate" is widely consumed in South America and exported to countries around the world. Although generally considered a "clear fluid", there is no data to date on the gastric emptying time of yerba mate and safe preoperative fasting intervals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time of a standardized infusion of yerba mate using bedside ultrasound and compare it with the time confirm of hot and cold tea. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized crossover experimental study. Thirty healthy volunteers were evaluated after 8 hours of fasting for both fluids and solids. Gastric antral area and gastric volume were evaluated at baseline and every 20 minutes after drinking 300 mL of randomly assigned infusion of "yerba mate", hot tea, or cold tea. RESULTS: The mean gastric emptying time was: 69.7 ± 22.1 min, 63.1 ± 14.5 min, and 64.3 ± 23.5 min for the mate, hot tea, and cold tea respectively. No significant differences were found in emptying time among the infusion groups (p-value = 0.043). When same time measures were compared, the only significant difference detected was between hot teas and mate infusion at 20 minutes (p-value = 0.012) CONCLUSION: Yerba mate infusion has a similar gastric emptying time to that of tea. All subject's gastric volume returned to baseline values by 100 minutes. It is reasonable to recommend a similar fasting period of 2 hours for mate infusion prior to elective surgery.


Assuntos
Ilex paraguariensis , Humanos , Jejum , Estudos Prospectivos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Chá
4.
Waste Manag ; 102: 838-846, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835061

RESUMO

There is a growing search for alternative raw materials to obtain collagen and hydrolysates and processes that do not threaten the environment or human health. Thus, sheep slaughter residue, which doesn't yet have an adequate and sustainable destination, is an excellent source of study. The objective of this study was to investigate the technological properties of collagen extracted from sheep slaughter by-products. It was possible to produce and characterize collagens extracted from sheep slaughter by-products. The yield of collagen was 18.0% and 12.5% for lamb and sheep by-products, respectively, on a dry basis. Lamb and sheep collagens showed similar FTIR and digestibility spectra and increased solubility at acidic pH-value. Higher foaming capacity was found for lamb collagen, while the sheep collagen presented higher viscosity. The emulsifying power of the collagens was 59.1 and 69.6 m2/g for lamb and sheep by-products, respectively. The collagens presented bands corresponding to α1, α2, and ß chains, characteristic of collagen type I and a molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) between 100 and 5 kDa. The collagens of this study showed potential for application in food products, both for the technological improvement and nutrient enrichment, adding value and giving a sustainable destination to sheep slaughter by-products.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Pepsina A , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Ovinos , Solubilidade
5.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682196

RESUMO

There is a growing consensus that future technological developments of aquaculture systems should account for the structure and function of microbial communities in the whole system and not only in fish guts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the composition of bacterioplankton communities of a hatchery recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) used for the production of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. To this end, we used a 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analyses to characterize the bacterioplankton communities of the RAS and its water supply. Overall, the most abundant orders were Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, Oceanospirillales, Vibrionales, Flavobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Thiotrichales, Burkholderiales and Bdellovibrionales. Although we found a clear distinction between the RAS and the water supply bacterioplankton communities, most of the abundant OTUs (≥50 sequences) in the hatchery RAS were also present in the water supply. These included OTUs related to Pseudoalteromonas genus and the Roseobacter clade, which are known to comprise bacterial members with activity against Vibrio fish pathogens. Overall, in contrast to previous findings for sole grow-out RAS, our results suggest that the water supply may influence the bacterioplankton community structure of sole hatchery RAS. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of aquaculture practices on RAS bacterioplankton communities and identification of the key drivers of their structure and diversity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Aquicultura , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água/química , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Rev chil anest ; 48(5): 465-469, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | UY-BNMED, BNUY, LILACS | ID: biblio-1370907

RESUMO

La patología coronaria no es frecuente dentro de la población joven. El diagnóstico en la paciente obstétrica no es fácil dado los cambios fisiológicos que esta población presenta. La disección espontánea de una arteria coronaria es una afección muy poco frecuente que puede ser causa de isquemia miocárdica y asociarse a un síndrome coronario agudo. Se trata del caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 38 años cursando 33 semanas de gestación, la cual presentó un síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del segmento ST, por una disección coronaria, desprendimiento prematuro de placenta normo inserta (DPPNI) y óbito fetal.


Coronary disease is infrequent among young population. Diagnosis in the obstetric population is not easy, due to the physiological changes that this population presents. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection, not a frequent medical condition, can be a cause of myocardial ischemia and be associated with and acute coronary syndrome. We present the case of a 38-year-old female patient, at 33 weeks gestation, who presented an acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation, caused by coronary artery dissection. This syndrome was accompanied with abruptio placentae and fetal death.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Morte Fetal , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Emergências , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Food Prot ; 78(5): 983-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951394

RESUMO

Dry-salted codfish and pollock are commercially important food products with a relatively long shelf life. To date, bacterial assemblages present in these products that are relevant for food safety have been monitored using only classical molecular and/or cultivation methods. The present study employed a rapid and accurate identification method involving PCR with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial assemblages in the skin of three closely related fishes: Gadus morhua, Gadus macrocephalus, and Theragra chalcogramma. This methodology can be crucial for timely identification of food spoilage, hazard analysis, and monitoring of critical control points during food production. Although all specimens were processed in the same factory, there were significant compositional differences in their skin bacterial communities. In general, the bacterial community was dominated by gram-negative species of the Gammaproteobacteria. Pyrosequencing yielded 90, 69, and 245 operational taxonomic units associated with G. morhua, G. macrocephalus, and T. chalcogramma, respectively. The most dominant operational taxonomic units were assigned in order to Pseudomonas sp., Serratia marcescens, Salinisphaera sp., and Psychrobacter pulmonis. Spoilage and pathogenic bacterial groups were detected in all the studied salted gadoid samples.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Gadiformes/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Sódio
8.
Microb Ecol ; 67(3): 553-67, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24477923

RESUMO

Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems in the world. Most research has, however, focused on eukaryotes such as corals and fishes. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the composition of prokaryotes, particularly those inhabiting corals and sponges, but these have mainly focused on bacteria. There have been very few studies of coral reef Archaea, despite the fact that Archaea have been shown to play crucial roles in nutrient dynamics, including nitrification and methanogenesis, of oligotrophic environments such as coral reefs. Here, we present the first study to assess Archaea in four different coral reef biotopes (seawater, sediment, and two sponge species, Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria). The archaeal community of both sponge species and sediment was dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained more than 72% of the variation in archaeal composition. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was highest in sediment and seawater biotopes and substantially lower in both sponge hosts. No "sponge-specific" archaeal OTUs were found, i.e., OTUs found in both sponge species but absent from nonhost biotopes. Despite both sponge species hosting phylogenetically distinct microbial assemblages, there were only minor differences in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional pathways. In contrast, most functional pathways differed significantly between microbiomes from sponges and nonhost biotopes including all energy metabolic pathways. With the exception of the methane and nitrogen metabolic pathway, all energy metabolic pathways were enriched in sponges when compared to nonhost biotopes.


Assuntos
Archaea/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Poríferos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Indonésia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 20(2,n.esp): 708-713, dez. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-727464

RESUMO

O uso de medicamentos na gestação requer atenção especial, pois, dependendo do seu emprego, o efeito pode ser deletério para o feto. Assim, o objetivo foi conhecer e compreender as representações sobre o uso de medicamentos em 11 gestantes de baixo risco assistidas na atenção básica em saúde de município de Dourados-MS. Pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória, realizada em 2010, que se utilizou da entrevista-narrativa, e cujo aporte teórico foram as concepções de representação de Stuart Hall. As representações de medo e responsabilidade evidenciadas parecem ancoradas no sentido de proteção ao feto, levando à autorregulação de suas ações. Os significados negativos dos medicamentos foram reforçados, levando ao cumprimento mais criterioso das prescrições medicamentosas e ao abandono da automedicação, incluindo o uso de chás e de plantas medicinais.


Drug utilization during pregnancy requires special attention because of possible deleterious effects to thefetus. The objective of the study (2010) was to assess, via narrative-interview, representations of drug utilization by 11(eleven) low risk pregnant women assisted in primary health care at Dourados, MS, Brazil. Qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory research, on the basis of Stuart Hall’s theoretical framework of representations. Representations of fear and ofresponsibility identified seem anchored in fetus protection, leading to self-regulation of women’s actions. Negative meanings of medicine have been enhanced, leading to compliance with the most judicious use of drug prescriptions and to discontinuationof self-medication practices, including the use of teas and herbal.


El uso de medicamentos durante el embarazore quiere una atención especial, ya que dependiendo del efecto de su uso puede ser perjudicial para el feto. El objetivo fue conocer y comprender las representaciones sobre el uso de medicamentos en 11 gestantes de bajo riesgo en la asistencia primaria de salud de Dourados, MS-Brasil. Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria, realizada en 2010, que utilizó la entrevista narrativa, y cuyo aporte teórico fueron das concepciones de representación de Stuart Hall. Las representaciones de miedo y responsabilidad evidenciadas parecen ancladas en el fin de proteger al feto, lo que lleva a la autorregulación de sus acciones. Los significados negativos de los medicamentos se han incrementado, lo que lleva al cumplimiento de un uso más racional de los medicamentos y alabandono de la automedicación, incluyendo el uso de infusiones y de hierbas medicinales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Automedicação , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Uso de Medicamentos , Epidemiologia Descritiva
10.
Motriz rev. educ. fís. (Impr.) ; 16(2): 292-299, abr.-jun. 2010.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-558440

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como assunto a Educação Física inserida na área de Humanidades e mais especificamente considerada como linguagem. O objetivo deste é refletir acerca da classificação da Educação Física como uma linguagem de acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Mais, a consequente mudança nos seus referenciais teóricos e suas implicações nos modos de observar os fenômenos do corpo. Para isso recorreu-se a uma bibliografia própria das Ciências Humanas. A conclusão é que os movimentos e os gestos corporais possuem uma dimensão simbólica significativa.


This article has as issue the Physical Education inserted in Humanity study area and more specifically considered as language. The aim of this article is to ponder over the Physical Education as a language like proposed in the ‘Parâmetro Curriculares Mais’, the following changes in theorical referencials and its implications in the way of observing bodies phenomenals. Thus so resorted to a bibliography belonging to Human Sciences. The conclusion is that the body movements and gestures has a significative symbolic dimension.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento/classificação , Cinésica
11.
Ciênc. rural ; 35(1)jan.-fev. 2005. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-392578

RESUMO

A diversidade genética de três microssatélites (ILSTS027, MBO22, BM4325) mapeados no cromossomo bovino 15 e ligados ao gene do hormônio folículo estimulante, cadeia b (FSHbeta) foi investigada em fêmeas de um rebanho bovino Brangus Ibagé. Além de estimar a variabilidade genética do rebanho, avaliou-se a eficiência destes marcadores para a identificação individual e controle de paternidade. Verificaram-se também possíveis associações entre os marcadores e o desempenho reprodutivo. Seis alelos foram detectados em BM4325 e ILSTS027 e 12 foram observados em MB022, os mais freqüentes sendo, BM4325*101, BM4325*103, ILSTS027*169 e MB022*229. O conteúdo de informação polimórfica variou entre 0,58 a 0,88 enquanto a heterozigosidade esperada oscilou entre 65% e 89%, sendo o valor médio de 77%. Embora apenas três marcadores tenham sido investigados, os valores combinados indicam alto poder de exclusão de um falso progenitor (94%) e de identificação individual (3,8 x 10-4). As análises de associação baseadas nos parâmetros estatísticos [MB022 (n=104, CI=545,3±127,0, WFC=349,9±53,4), BM4325(n=106, CI=542,2±124,9, WFC=350,5±54,4) e ILSTS027(n=105, CI=543,4±124,5, WFC=350,1±54,5)] não indicaram associação positiva entre os microssatélites e o peso da vaca ao parto. O intervalo entre partos também não parece ser influenciado pelos marcadores ILSTS027 ou MB022. No entanto, portadores de pelo menos um alelo BM4325*101 apresentaram intervalo entre partos 54 dias mais curto que os demais animais (p=0,04; n=106). Este marcador pode ser útil para seleção assistida por marcadores, permitindo a melhoria do desempenho reprodutivo, pelo menos no rebanho Brangus Ibagé.

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