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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During a soccer game, the most diversified stimuli occur all the time, the physical condition level plays a determinant role, and there may be variations according to the competitive level. In this sense, the present study aimed to verify differences in body composition, lower limbs power, and anaerobic power, comparing senior soccer players of different competitive levels. METHODS: Participants were 81 players belonging to six soccer teams, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a mean age of 23.14 ± 4.23 years, who were divided into three distinct competitive levels: Elite, Sub-Elite and Non-Elite. The players performed bioimpedance evaluations on a tetrapolarInbody270 scale (body composition), the Countermovement Jump (CMJ) through the ChronoJump (lower limbs power), and Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) (anaerobic power). RESULTS: Based on the competitive level analysis, we verified that the players present body composition values similar to each other regardless of the competitive level in which they play. Concerning the performance evaluations, we verified that the elite players present higher values of highest jump (p = 0.012; d = 0.76, moderate; and p = 0.022; d = 0.71, moderate) and maximum force produced (p = 0.05; d = 0.64, moderate; and p = 0.002; d = 1.00, moderate), together with higher values of anaerobic power (p < 0.001; d = 2.43, very large; and p < 0.001; d = 2.22, very large), compared to the others. CONCLUSIONS: We can thus conclude that there is a homogeneity regarding the body composition of soccer players, regardless of their competitive level; in turn, elite players show better performance indicators in all variables.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 687613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262477

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the arterial and venous diameters of lower limbs in indoor soccer athletes and non-athletes using Doppler ultrasound to identify the differences in the variation of arterial and venous diameters between groups. Additionally, we intended to verify the differences of arterial and venous diameters between the skilled member (right member) and the not skilled member in each group. 74 male volunteers, aged between 19 and 30 years old, were divided in a group of athletes (n = 37, 24 ± 2.7 years, soccer players from national championship), and a group of non-athletes (n = 37, 26 ± 2.83 years). Vascular lower limb was assessed using Doppler ultrasound (Philips HD7 echograph with linear transducer 7-12 MHz). The athletes showed higher diameters of right common femoral artery (p = 0.009; moderate), left common femoral artery (p = 0.005; moderate), right deep femoral artery (p = 0.013; moderate), right popliteal artery (p = 0.003; moderate), and left popliteal artery (p = 0.017; small) than non-athletes. Veins' diameters were also higher in athletes, specifically the right deep femoral vein (p ≤ 0.001; large), left deep femoral vein (p ≤ 0.001; large), right popliteal vein (p ≤ 0.001; large), and left popliteal vein (p ≤ 0.001; large). Differences were found between the skilled and non-skilled leg in athletes in the popliteal vein (7.68 ± 1.44 mm vs. 7.22 ± 1.09 mm, respectively, p < 0.003). It seems that futsal athletes have superior mean diameters of lower limbs arteries and veins of the deep venous system to non-athletes. Moreover, the veins presented greater dilation, namely of the leg of the skilled lower limb.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are few or even rare studies conducted in Cabo Verde that address the issue of physical fitness and body composition in the juvenile population. This investigation aims to study the Physical Fitness in children in Cabo Verde: differences between gender, eutrophic and overweight subjects, between practitioners and non-practitioners of sports. METHODS: The sample consisted of 93 individuals aged between 10 and 15 years, from the 2nd and 3rd cycles and secondary school of the Portuguese College based in Cabo Verde. The instruments used for data collection were the FITescola® test battery, and the questionnaire (QAPACE) (Quantification de l'activite physique en altitude chez les enfants) for assessment of physical activity level. Regarding the statistical analysis using the SPSS 23.0 Software, the first analysis was performed to verify the distribution of the sample (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-wilk). Then, for variables with normal distribution we used the t-test and for the remaining variables with nonnormal distribution we used the Mann-Whitney test, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Gender differences were found, in which the male gender obtained more favorable mean values in the "sit-ups", "push-ups", "horizontal impulsion", "shuttle" and "agility" variables, while the females showed superiority in the variables "sit and reach"; differences between the eutrophic and overweight group where, as expected, more favorable mean values for eutrophics than the overweight group in all PF tests. Finally, differences between practitioners and nonpractitioners of sports, with the best results being attributed to practitioners of sports. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that male subjects have greater proficiency in strength and aerobic fitness tests while female subjects have greater flexibility. High BMI values in overweight children have been found to be associated with increased abdominal fat as well as a reduction in overall PF. As expected, sports practitioners show better results in motor performance on PF tests.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233451

RESUMO

Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor to health. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time and physical fitness components in healthy adults. Methods: Four electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed and Sport Discus) were searched (up to 20 September 2020) to retrieve studies on healthy adults which used observational, cohort and cross-sectional designs. Studies were included if sedentary time was measured objectively and examined associations with the health- or skill-related attributes of physical fitness (e.g., muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance). After applying additional search criteria, 21 papers (11,101 participants) were selected from an initial pool of 5192 identified papers. Results: Significant negative associations were found between total sedentary time with cardiorespiratory fitness (r = -0.164, 95%CI: -0.240, -0.086, p < 0.001), muscular strength (r = -0.147, 95%CI: -0.266, -0.024, p = 0.020) and balance (r = -0.133, 95%CI: -0.255, -0.006, p = 0.040). Conclusions: The evidence found suggests that sedentary time can be associated with poor physical fitness in adults (i.e., muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and balance), so strategies should be created to encourage behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Estudos Transversais , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Aptidão Física
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517120

RESUMO

Sports research has been focused on the assessment of basic needs satisfaction, considering its absence as a representation of needs frustration. However, recent findings have suggested needs satisfaction and frustration as asymmetrical factors leading to differentiated outcomes. An accurate measurement of needs poses itself as a crucial aspect, facilitating coaches' understanding of athlete's motivational processes. This study aimed to examine the psychometric proprieties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) in a sample of Portuguese athletes. A multigroup analysis was conducted of gender, sport type, age, and years of sports practice. Additionally, needs satisfaction and needs frustration were tested as predictors of behavioral regulations examining the nomological validity of the BPNSFS. Data from 594 Portuguese athletes (38.6% female; Mage = 15.21; SD = 0.97) that represent two different sports (football and swimming) were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling procedures were followed to test the factor structure and nomological validity of the scale, respectively. Analyses indicated that the six-factor model provided an adequate fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.947, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.936, Standardized Root Mean Square = 0.039, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.048 (CI 90% = 0.043, 0.054)). Moreover, the multigroup analysis suggested invariance in the observed structure across groups. In addition, findings indicated a strong prediction between needs satisfaction and autonomous forms of motivation, whereas needs frustration predicted significantly controlled forms of motivation. The sport-adapted BPNSFS in a sample of Portuguese athletes seemed to be an adequate measure for the assessment of basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration. Our findings suggested that this scale may be worth testing in future research in the sport context.


Assuntos
Frustração , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485909

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify whether the presence of siblings and the type of delivery had an influence on the motor skills development of children in the first 48 months of life. We developed a quantitative study with a sample of 405 children of both genders, divided according to the studied variables: children with siblings, children without siblings, children born via eutocic delivery, and children born via dystocic delivery. The instrument used in the study was the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2. Overall, the results indicated that children who had siblings had, on average, better outcomes regarding all motor skills (global and fine). Furthermore, those born via eutocic delivery, on average, had better outcomes regarding all motor skills (global and fine) when compared to children born via dystocic delivery. Thus, the presence of siblings in the family context and the type of delivery positively influenced motor development, especially after 24 months of age, showing that the presence of siblings providing cooperative activities through play and challenges improved cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Furthermore, a eutocic delivery, in addition to providing a better recovery from labor and the immediate affective bond between mother and child, also led to better results in terms of global and fine motor skills.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Destreza Motora , Irmãos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549251

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to review the evolutionary tendencies of research regarding to the study of male Rink-Hockey players´ and game performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases according to PRISMA method. The initial search identified 815 titles, resulting in 19 articles being included within the review. Original papers (English language) contained relevant data regarding rink hockey players' performance or morphological/physiological demands, anthropometry/body composition characteristics were eligible. Studies were classified into categories: (1) Physiological Demands, (2) Anthropometry and Body Composition, (3) Game Characterization/Patterns, (4) Injuries. Results indicated that Rink hockey requires high intensity effort which demands both short and long duration efforts requirements from players. Body composition analysis shows to be an important monitoring tool which complements the understanding of the athlete's cardiac adaptation. Game patterns shows a combination of specific game momentums with different outcomes according to the game zone. The intense short-term movements, collision and contact between players, in addition to the weight and speed of the hard ball and the stick, can considerably increase the risk of moderate and severe injuries. Lack of literature in Rink-Hockey is remarkable, and research is mainly focused on children and adolescents' players. Furthermore, the existing research with adult elite athletes was assessed with a small sample size.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Hóquei , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(4): 501-509, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warm-up is considered essential to optimize running performance, but little is known about the effect of specific warm-up tasks, specifically in the real competitive context. The current study aimed to verify the acute effects of a warm-up including ballistic exercises in 30m running performance. In addition, a second 30m trial was assessed to better understand the warm-up effects in training/competition. METHODS: Twenty-two men (19.32±1.43 years-old) randomly completed the time-trials on separate days and after a typical warm-up (WU), a WU complemented with ballistic exercises (postactivation potentiation [PAP]) or no warm-up (NWU). Biomechanical, physiological and psychophysiological variables were assessed. RESULTS: The participants were 1.9% faster in the first 30m sprint after WU compared with NWU, mainly increased performance in the first 15m (P=0.03, ES=0.48). WU resulted in greater stride length in the last 15m of the first sprint. PAP did not differ from NWU and WU, despite eight participants performed better after this warm-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the positive effects of warm-up for sprinting, despite failed to evidence positive effects when ballistic exercises are included. In addition, the influence of warm-up in the running technique was highlighted by the changes in the running kinematics and a need for individualization of warm-up procedures.


Assuntos
Corrida/fisiologia , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963123

RESUMO

Background: Sports athletes, namely high-intensity practitioners, suffer from vascular remodeling overtime. The purpose of this study was to analyze the systolic and diastolic velocities' variation between non-athletes and futsal athletes by means of arterial lower limb doppler ultrasound. Additionally, we intended to verify if the velocity variations occur primarily at the systolic or the diastolic level and in which arteries. Methods: Seventy-six young males (mean ± SD: 24.9 ± 2.8 years old) volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study and were divided into two groups: a futsal athletes group (n = 38; 24 ± 2.78 years) in the central region of Portugal playing on the 2nd national league with the same level of practice (16 ± 2.4 years of practice) and a non-athletes group (n = 38: 26 ± 1.8 years) who did not practice sports regularly and were not federated in any sport. All the subjects agreed to participate in the study with the aim of assessing the arterial lower limb through doppler ultrasound (Philips HD7 echograph with linear transducer 7-12 MHz). Results: Differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05) in the systolic velocity of the left deep femoral artery (p = 0.022; d = 0.546, small) and in the right superficial femoral artery (p = 0.028; d = -0.515, small) were found. We also found differences in the diastolic velocity: in the left common femoral artery (p = 0.002; d = -0.748, moderate), in the right deep femoral artery (p = 0.028; d = -0.521, small), in the right superficial femoral artery (p = 0.026; d = -0.522, small), in the right popliteal artery (p = 0.002; d = -0.763, moderate), and in the left popliteal artery (p = 0.007; d = -0.655, moderate). Moreover, the athletes' group presented the highest mean values, with the exception of the systolic velocity of the left deep femoral artery. In intragroup analysis of variance referring to systolic and diastolic velocities in arterial levels in the right and left arteries, differences were found in all analyses (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that futsal athletes of our sample go through a process of changes such as increased blood flow velocity in systolic and diastolic cardiac phase in all studied lower limb arteries, showing that the remodeling occurs regardless of vessel radius. Our results reinforce the existence of vascular remodeling that may vary with the sport and its intensity.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Futebol , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(1): 75-85, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-194670

RESUMO

O presente estudo sobre o desenvolvimento Motor da criança nos primeiros meses de vida, teve como objetivo verificar a relação entre as Habilidades Motoras Globais, as Habilidades Motoras Finas e a Idade das crianças. Estudo transversal, com uma amostra de 405 crianças com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 46 meses, de ambos os géneros. Os instrumentos usados no estudo foram as Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Em termos globais os resultados indicam que existe uma tendência para correlações positivas entre as variáveis Idade, Habilidades Motoras Globais e Habilidades Motoras Finas, salientando a correlação positiva moderada (p≤0.05; r2=0.265; 0.5≤ r ≤0.7) entre a Idade e a Motricidade Fina, e uma correlação positiva pequena (p≤0.05; r2=0.217; 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) entre a Idade e a Motricidade Global. Podemos assim constatar, uma melhoria destas habilidades à medida que as crianças vão crescendo, evidenciando melhores resultados na Motricidade Fina. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a importância da relação entre a idade e as habilidades motoras, focando a necessidade de desenvolver com mais ênfase as Habilidades Motoras Globais


El presente estudio sobre el desarrollo Motor del niño en los primeros meses de vida, tuvo como objetivo verificar la relación entre las Habilidades Motoras Globales, las Habilidades Motoras Finas y la Edad de los niños. Para ello, desarrollamos un estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, con una muestra de 405 niños de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 46 meses, de ambos géneros. Los instrumentos utilizados en el estudio fueron las Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). En términos globales los resultados indican que existe una tendencia a correlaciones positivas entre las variables Edad, Habilidades Motoras Globales y Habilidades Motoras Finas, resaltando la correlación positiva moderada (p≤0.05, r2=0.265, 0.5≤ r ≤ 0.7) entre la Edad y la Motricidad Fina a su vez una pequeña correlación positiva (p≤0.05, r2=0.217, 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) entre la Edad y la Motricidad Global. Podemos así constatar, una mejora de esas habilidades a medida que los niños crecen, evidenciando mejores resultados en la Motricidad Fina. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la importancia de la relación entre la edad y las habilidades motoras, enfocando la necesidad de desarrollar con más énfasis las Habilidades Motoras Globales


The present study on motor development of the child in the first months of life, at verifying the relationship between Global Motor Skills, Fine Motor Skills and the Age of children. For this purpose, we developed a quantitative study, with a sample of 405 children between the ages of 12 and 46 months of both genders. The instruments used in the study were the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Overall, the results indicate that there is a tendency for positive correlations between the variables Age, Global Motor Skills and Fine Motor Skills, emphasizing the moderate positive correlation (p≤0.05; r2=0.265; 0.5≤ r ≤ 0.7) between Age and Fine Motricity in turn a small positive correlation (p≤0.05; r2=0.217; 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) between Age and Global Motricity. We can thus see an improvement of these abilities as children grow, evidencing better results in Fine Motor. The results suggest the importance of the relationship between age and motor skills, focusing on the need to develop with more emphasis the Global Motor Skills


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing is a life-long process characterized by a progressive loss of physical fitness compromising strength, flexibility, and agility. The purpose of this study was to use accelerometry to examine the relationship between sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the elderly's physical fitness. Additionally, we aimed to examine the association between the aforementioned variables on older adults who fulfilled global recommendations on physical activity for health and on those who did not fulfil these recommendations. METHODS: Eighty-three elderly (mean ± SD: 72.14 ± 5.61 years old) of both genders volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study, being divided into an active group (n = 53; 71.02 ± 5.27 years old) and an inactive group (n = 30; 74.13 ± 5.72 years old) according to the established guidelines. Sedentary and physical activity times were assessed using an ActiGraph® GT1M accelerometer, whereas physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test. RESULTS: MVPA time was correlated with lower body mass index (BMI) ((rs = -0.218; p = 0.048; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)) and shorter time to complete the agility test ((rs = -0.367; p = 0.001; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). Moreover, MVPA time was positively correlated with aerobic endurance ((rs = 0.397; p = 0.000; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)) and strength ((rs = 0.243; p = 0.027; 0.3 < r ≤ 0.1 (small)). In the inactive group, MVPA time was positively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((rs = 0.400; p = 0.028; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)); moreover, sedentary time was negatively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((r = -0.443; p = 0.014; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and LPA time was negatively correlated with BMI ((r = -0.423; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). In the active group, MVPA time was correlated with lower BMI ((rs = -0.320; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and shorter time to complete agility test ((rs = -0.296; p = 0.031; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)). CONCLUSIONS: Our results reinforce the importance of promoting MVPA practice among the elderly, thereby allowing physical fitness maintenance or improvement.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120973

RESUMO

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is amongst motivational frameworks the most popular and contemporary approach to human motivation, being applied in the last decades in several domains, including sport, exercise and physical education (PE). Additionally, Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) has presented evidence of how contextual factors may influence student's behavior in this particular context. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational climate created by the teacher in the classroom, students' satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs (BPN), and how their behavioral regulation could explain PE grades and intention to practice sports in the future. METHOD: A total of 618 students (290 female; 328 male) from the 6th to the 9th school level, aged between 10 and 18 years (M = 13.3; SD = 1.7) participated in this study. The following surveys were used for the proposed variables: Learning and Performance Orientations in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire (LAPOPECQ); the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNESp); and the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOCp). Intentions to practice sport/physical activity in the future were assessed through a single item. Students' PE grade was obtained through his/her teacher final assessment. Structural Equation Analysis was performed via AMOS 23.0. RESULTS: After analyzing modification indices and model adjustment, the final model emerged: learning climate > BPN > autonomous motivation > intentions/PE grade. Results interpretation seems to indicate that i) the satisfaction of BPN are influenced by motivational climate (i.e., learning climate), ii) the individuals' motivation is influenced by the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs (i.e., particularly competence), and iii) the motivational regulations have direct and significant effects with intention to practice sports outside school in the future and PE grades. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The main results showed that a climate oriented for learning has a positive impact on basic psychological needs satisfaction of students. However, only competence satisfaction had a significant positive relationship with students' autonomous motivation, which in turn had a significant positive relation with PE grade, as well as for intentions for leisure-time sport/physical activity practice.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Motivação/fisiologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos
13.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1575, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210403

RESUMO

This study examined the motivational determinants of athletes perceived effort in football considering the four-stage motivational sequence at the contextual level proposed by Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: task-involving climate, basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation (SDM), and perceived effort. Additionally, SEM multi-group analysis across different age-groups (U15, U17, U19, and U21 years) and serial mediation of basic psychological needs (BPNs) and SDM on the task-involving motivational climate and the perceived effort were also analyzed. Two independent samples of male football athletes (N = 403, N = 403), aged 13-20 years were enrolled in this study. The results support the adequacy of the structural model in explaining the perceived effort of football atheltes in all samples under analysis, and was invariant across U17, U19, and U21. However, it was not invariant across U15 and U17, U19 and U21. Furthermore, results from the serial mediation showed significant indirect effects in all samples, supporting self-determination theoretical assumptions, reinforcing the importance of BPNs satisfaction and behavioral regulation in the relation in analysis. The results show that when coaches promote a task-involving climate, the BPNs satisfaction of athletes improves. This climate will facilitate the regulation of their behaviors toward more autonomous forms of motivation, with positive outcomes in the athletes perceived effort.

14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 64(4): 330-338, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study was aimed to examine intra-individual variation on indicators of bone health in addition to whole-body plus appendicular tissue measurements using two concurrent assessments based on pencil beam and fan beam dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems in adult athletes from several sports. METHOD: Thirty-two male participants (27.6±10.1 years) were measured on anthropometry including multifrequency bioelectric impedance and air-displacement plethysmography. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, fat and lean soft tissue were derived using pencil beam (Lunar DPX-MD+) and fan beam (Lunar iDXA) absorptiometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained for the femoral neck, trochanter and triangle of ward. Finally, the right thigh was defined as a region of interest (ROI). Analyses comprised intra-class correlation (ICC), Effect size (d) from mean differences of repeated measurements, coefficient of variation (CV). RESULTS: ICC were >0.900 for all measurements. Intra-individual differences were large for BMC (d=1,312; CV=2,7%), bone area (d=1,761; CV=2,7%), fat tissue (d=1,612; CV=11%) and all indicators of appendicular lean soft tissue (d=1,237-1687; CV=2,0-4,1%). A very large difference (d=4,014; CV=8.4%) was diagnosed for lean soft tissue of the ROI. CONCLUSION: Although differences among concurrent instruments for BMC and bone area, the effect size of mean differences was negligible for BMD. Fat and lean soft tissue derived from DXA should be interpreted as reference values (not criterion) due to equipment-related variation, more apparently in the ROI values.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Atletas , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(4): 330-338, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-956459

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The current study was aimed to examine intra-individual variation on indicators of bone health in addition to whole-body plus appendicular tissue measurements using two concurrent assessments based on pencil beam and fan beam dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems in adult athletes from several sports. METHOD: Thirty-two male participants (27.6±10.1 years) were measured on anthropometry including multifrequency bioelectric impedance and air-displacement plethysmography. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, fat and lean soft tissue were derived using pencil beam (Lunar DPX-MD+) and fan beam (Lunar iDXA) absorptiometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained for the femoral neck, trochanter and triangle of ward. Finally, the right thigh was defined as a region of interest (ROI). Analyses comprised intra-class correlation (ICC), Effect size (d) from mean differences of repeated measurements, coefficient of variation (CV) RESULTS: ICC were >0.900 for all measurements. Intra-individual differences were large for BMC (d=1,312; CV=2,7%), bone area (d=1,761; CV=2,7%), fat tissue (d=1,612; CV=11%) and all indicators of appendicular lean soft tissue (d=1,237-1687; CV=2,0-4,1%). A very large difference (d=4,014; CV=8.4%) was diagnosed for lean soft tissue of the ROI. CONCLUSION: Although differences among concurrent instruments for BMC and bone area, the effect size of mean differences was negligible for BMD. Fat and lean soft tissue derived from DXA should be interpreted as reference values (not criterion) due to equipment-related variation, more apparently in the ROI values.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: O presente estudo examinou a concordância entre os indicadores de saúde óssea e composição tecidual resultantes da aplicação de equipamentos concorrentes de absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia (DXA). MÉTODO: A amostra (n = 32), com 27,6 ± 10,1 anos de idade avaliados antropometricamente, inclui impedância bioelétrica com multifrequência e pletismografia de ar deslocado. O conteúdo mineral ósseo (CMO), a área de tecido ósseo, o tecido magro e o tecido gordo de corpo inteiro foram obtidos considerando o modo pencil beam (Lunar DPX-MD+) e o fan beam (Lunar iDXA). Para cada um dos equipamentos, foi efetuado um scanner proximal do fêmur, sendo produzida informação sobre a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) do colo, nomeadamente triângulo de Ward, trocanter e haste. Na fase de processamento, foi definida uma região de interesse (ROI; coxa direita). As análises compreenderam a diferença de médias de medidas repetidas com cálculo da magnitude de efeitos (d), coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI), coeficiente de variação (CV). RESULTADOS: Foram obtidos CCI>0,900 para todas as medidas, com diferenças intraindividuais largas apenas para CMO (d = 1,312; CV = 2,7%), área de tecido ósseo (d = 1,761; CV = 2,7%), tecido gordo total (d = 1,612; CV = 11%) e tecido magro em todos os segmentos (d = 1,237-1,687; CV = 2,0-41%). A massa magra da ROI apresentou uma variaçāo intraindividual muito larga (d = 4,014; CV = 8,4%). CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças negligenciáveis para a DMO de corpo todo. As medidas de massa gorda e massa magra obtidas por DXA nāo devem ser tidas como critério, mas antes como referenda, muito especialmente quando se delimita uma ROI.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Composição Corporal , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Densidade Óssea , Atletas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Impedância Elétrica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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