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1.
Semin Liver Dis ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788206

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is a major cause of deterioration in all forms of advanced liver disease. It is especially important as a driver of the components of the metabolic syndrome, with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rapidly becoming the dominant cause of liver-related death worldwide. Growing realization of the health benefits of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has captured the interest of persons who desire to improve their health, including those at risk for chronic liver injury. They are increasingly adopting wearable activity trackers to measure the activity that they seek to improve. Improved physical activity is the key lifestyle behavior that can improve cardiorespiratory fitness, which is most accurately measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). CPET is showing promise to identify risk and predict outcomes in transplant hepatology. Team effort among engaged patients, social support networks, and clinicians supported by web-based connectivity is needed to fully exploit the benefits of physical activity tracking.

2.
Transplantation ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) are noninvasive surrogates for hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, respectively, and could help identify extended criteria donors in liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to determine the accuracy of CAP/LSM in deceased donors along with post-LT changes. METHODS: Accuracy of preprocurement CAP/LSM to grade/stage steatosis/fibrosis was determined using liver biopsy as reference. Transplant outcomes, including primary nonfunction (PNF) and early allograft dysfunction (EAD), were recorded. Recipients underwent CAP/LSM as outpatients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and regression models were constructed to analyze data. RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated 160 allografts (138 transplanted). Same-probe paired baseline/post-LT CAP was 231 dB/m (181-277) / 225 (187-261) (p=0.61), and LSM 7.6 kPa (6.3-10.8) / 5.9 (4.6-8.7) (p=0.002), respectively. CAP reading was affected by BMI and LSM by ALT, race and bilirubin. Although CAP did not correlate with steatosis from frozen sections (rho=0.08; p=0.47), it correlated with steatosis from permanent sections (rho=0.32; p<0.001) and with oil red O histomorphometry (rho=0.35, p=0.001). CAP identified moderate-to-severe steatosis with an AUROC curve of 0.79 (0.66-0.91), for a negative predictive value of 100% at a cutoff value of 230 dB/m. LSM correlated with fibrosis staging (rho=0.22, p=0.007) and it identified discarded allografts with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients with no to minimal fibrosis had an LSM of 7.6 (6-10.1) kPa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are proof-of-concept of the utility of CAP/LSM during organ procurement. Establishing the precise role of these noninvasive tools in the organ allocation process mandates confirmatory studies.

3.
JAMA Surg ; 156(3): 256-262, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377947

RESUMO

Importance: Female liver transplant candidates experience higher rates of wait list mortality than male candidates. Frailty is a critical determinant of mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but how frailty differs between women and men is unknown. Objective: To determine whether frailty is associated with the gap between women and men in mortality among patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 1405 adults with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplant without hepatocellular carcinoma seen during 3436 ambulatory clinic visits at 9 US liver transplant centers. Data were collected from January 1, 2012, to October 1, 2019, and analyzed from August 30, 2019, to October 30, 2020. Exposures: At outpatient evaluation, the Liver Frailty Index (LFI) score was calculated (grip strength, chair stands, and balance). Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of wait list mortality was quantified using Cox proportional hazards regression by frailty. Mediation analysis was used to quantify the contribution of frailty to the gap in wait list mortality between women and men. Results: Of 1405 participants, 578 (41%) were women and 827 (59%) were men (median age, 58 [interquartile range (IQR), 50-63] years). Women and men had similar median scores on the laboratory-based Model for End-stage Liver Disease incorporating sodium levels (MELDNa) (women, 18 [IQR, 14-23]; men, 18 [IQR, 15-22]), but baseline LFI was higher in women (mean [SD], 4.12 [0.85] vs 4.00 [0.82]; P = .005). Women displayed worse balance of less than 30 seconds (145 [25%] vs 149 [18%]; P = .003), worse sex-adjusted grip (mean [SD], -0.31 [1.08] vs -0.16 [1.08] kg; P = .01), and fewer chair stands per second (median, 0.35 [IQR, 0.23-0.46] vs 0.37 [IQR, 0.25-0.49]; P = .04). In unadjusted mixed-effects models, LFI was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.06-0.23) units higher in women than men (P = .001). After adjustment for other variables associated with frailty, LFI was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.08-0.23) units higher in women than men (P < .001). In unadjusted regression, women experienced a 34% (95% CI, 3%-74%) increased risk of wait list mortality than men (P = .03). Sequential covariable adjustment did not alter the association between sex and wait list mortality; however, adjustment for LFI attenuated the mortality gap between women and men. In mediation analysis, an estimated 13.0% (IQR, 0.5%-132.0%) of the gender gap in wait list mortality was mediated by frailty. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings demonstrate that women with cirrhosis display worse frailty scores than men despite similar MELDNa scores. The higher risk of wait list mortality that women experienced appeared to be explained in part by frailty.

4.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232547

RESUMO

Preserved physical function is key for successful liver transplantation (LT), however, prehabilitation strategies are underdeveloped. We created a smartphone app, EL-FIT (Exercise & Liver FITness), to facilitate exercise training in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). In this feasibility study, we tested EL-FIT app usage, accuracy of physical activity data transfer, and obtained feedback from initial users. Twenty-eight subjects used EL-FIT and wore a physical activity tracker for 38±12 days (age 60±8 years, 57% males, MELDNa 19±5). There was fidelity in data transfer from tracker to EL-FIT. Participants were sedentary (1957 [IQR: 873-4643] steps/day) at baseline. Level of training assigned by EL-FIT agreed with that from a physical therapist in 93% of cases. Participants interacted with all app features (videos, perceived exertion, and gamification/motivational features). We rearranged training data to generate heart rate-validated steps as a marker of performance and showed that 35% of subjects had a significant increase in their physical performance. Participants emphasized their interest in having choices to better engage in exercise and they appreciated the sense of community EL-FIT generated. Conclusion: We showed that ESLD patients are able to use and interact with EL-FIT. This novel smartphone app has the potential of becoming an invaluable tool for home-based prehabilitation in LT candidates.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance rates are suboptimal in clinical practice. We aimed to elicit providers' opinions on the following aspects of HCC surveillance: preferred strategies, barriers and facilitators, and the impact of a patient's HCC risk on the choice of surveillance modality. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey among gastroenterology and hepatology providers (40% faculty physicians, 21% advanced practice providers, 39% fellow-trainees) from 26 U.S. medical centers in 17 states. RESULTS: Of 654 eligible providers, 305 (47%) completed the survey. Nearly all (98.4%) of the providers endorsed semi-annual HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis, with 84.2% recommending ultrasound ± alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and 15.4% recommending computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Barriers to surveillance included limited HCC treatment options, screening test effectiveness to reduce mortality, access to transportation, and high out-of-pocket costs. Facilitators of surveillance included professional society guidelines. Most providers (72.1%) would perform surveillance even if HCC risk was low (≤0.5% per year), while 98.7% would perform surveillance if HCC risk was ≥1% per year. As a patient's HCC risk increased from 1% to 3% to 5% per year, providers reported they would be less likely to order ultrasound ± AFP (83.6% to 68.9% to 57.4%; p<0.001) and more likely to order CT or MRI ± AFP (3.9% to 26.2% to 36.1%; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Providers recommend HCC surveillance even when HCC risk is much lower than the threshold suggested by professional societies. Many appear receptive to risk-based HCC surveillance strategies that depend on patients' estimated HCC risk, instead of our current "one-size-fits all" strategy.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Skeletal muscle index (SMI) from computed tomography (CT) reliably assesses sarcopenia, however, it is expensive and involves serial radiation exposure. Phase angle (PhA) from bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive, low cost, bedside nutritional tool used to monitor changes to nutritional interventions. We aimed to compare the performance of PhA with SMI to assess sarcopenia in cirrhosis. METHODS: Ambispective cohort study. Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and available images from abdominal CT scan were included. Monofrequency BIA was performed within two weeks CT. Spearman´s correlation, ROC curve, and survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier, Cox and competing-risk regression were performed. RESULTS: 136 patients were included with a mean age of 54.5 years (60% female). Most had decompensated disease (66%) with ascites in 47%, and a mean MELD of 14 ± 6. We found positive correlations between SMI and PhA (r=0.58, p<0.001), irrespective of the presence of ascites. The AUROC of PhA-sarcopenia in all patients was 0.702; (0.748 in males,0.677 in females). The best cutoffs of PhA for diagnosing sarcopenia were ≤5.6° in males and ≤5.4° in females. SMI and PhA were significantly associated with survival in Kaplan-Meier curves. In multivariable analyses, SMI was outperformed by age and MELD, whereas PhA remained independently associated with mortality. Considering transplantation as a competing risk, regression analysis showed both SMI and PhA to be independent predictors of mortality (sHR:0.95 [0.90-0.99] and sHR:0.61 [0.42-0.88]). CONCLUSION: PhA moderately correlates with SMI for the identification of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis. However, its prognostic accuracy is comparable to that of SMI, and it is not influenced by ascites.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 989-1002, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618647

RESUMO

Management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains challenging from a medical and psychosocial perspective. Members of the International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism recognized 5 key unresolved questions in HE management focused on (i) driving, (ii) ammonia levels in clinical practice, (iii) testing strategies for covert or minimal HE, (iv) therapeutic options, and (v) nutrition and patient-reported outcomes. The consensus document addresses these topical issues with a succinct review of the literature and statements that critically evaluate the current science and practice, laying the groundwork for future investigations.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Amônia/metabolismo , Condução de Veículo , Encefalopatia Hepática/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prognóstico , Sociedades Médicas
8.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frailty, as measured by the Liver Frailty Index (LFI), is associated with liver transplant (LT) waitlist mortality. We sought to identify an optimal LFI cutoff that predicts waitlist mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Adults with cirrhosis awaiting LT without hepatocellular carcinoma at nine LT centers in the United States with LFI assessments were included. Multivariable competing risk analysis assessed the relationship between LFI and waitlist mortality. We identified a single LFI cutoff by evaluating the fit of the competing risk models, searching for the cutoff that gave the best model fit (as judged by the pseudo-log-likelihood). We ascertained the area under the curve (AUC) in an analysis of waitlist mortality to find optimal cutoffs at 3, 6, or 12 months. We used the AUC to compare the discriminative ability of LFI+Model for End Stage Liver Disease-sodium (MELDNa) versus MELDNa alone in 3-month waitlist mortality prediction. Of 1,405 patients, 37 (3%), 82 (6%), and 135 (10%) experienced waitlist mortality at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. LFI was predictive of waitlist mortality across a broad LFI range: 3.7-5.2. We identified an optimal LFI cutoff of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-4.8) for 3-month mortality, 4.2 (95% CI, 4.1-4.4) for 6-month mortality, and 4.2 (95% CI, 4.1-4.4) for 12-month mortality. The AUC for prediction of 3-month mortality for MELDNa was 0.73; the addition of LFI to MELDNa improved the AUC to 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: LFI is predictive of waitlist mortality across a wide spectrum of LFI values. The optimal LFI cutoff for waitlist mortality was 4.4 at 3 months and 4.2 at 6 and 12 months. The discriminative performance of LFI+MELDNa was greater than MELDNa alone. Our data suggest that incorporating LFI with MELDNa can more accurately represent waitlist mortality in LT candidates.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 859-866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Frailty and sarcopenia are known risk factors for adverse liver transplant outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that frailty or sarcopenia could identify the risk for common serious transplant-related adverse respiratory events. METHODS: For 107 patients (74 men, 33 women) transplanted over 1 year, we measured frailty with gait speed, chair stands, and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and sarcopenia with Skeletal Muscle Index on computed tomography at L3. We recorded the stress-tested cardiac double product as an index of cardiac work capacity. Outcomes included days of intubation, aspiration, clinical pneumonia, reintubation/tracheostomy, days to discharge, and survival. We modeled the outcomes using unadjusted regression and multivariable analyses controlled for (i) age, sex, and either Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Na (MELDNa) or Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores, (ii) hepatocellular carcinoma status, and (iii) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking history. Subgroup analysis was performed for living donor liver transplant and deceased donor liver transplant recipients. RESULTS: Gait speed was negatively associated with aspiration and pulmonary infection, both in unadjusted and MELDNa-adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio for aspiration 0.10 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.67] and adjusted odds ratio for pulmonary infection 0.12 [95% CI 0.02-0.75]). Unadjusted and MELDNa-adjusted models for gait speed (coefficient -1.47, 95% CI -2.39 to -0.56) and KPS (coefficient -3.17, 95% CI -5.02 to -1.32) were significantly associated with shorter intubation times. No test was associated with length of stay or need for either reintubation or tracheostomy. DISCUSSION: Slow gait speed, an index of general frailty, indicates significant risk for post-transplant respiratory complications. Intervention to arrest or reverse frailty merits exploration as a potentially modifiable risk factor for improving transplant respiratory outcomes.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aspiração Respiratória/epidemiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Extubação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Tempo de Internação , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traqueostomia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258535

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are becoming the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, significantly impacting public health and healthcare cost. The development of fibrosis is the main factor leading to early mortality and morbidity in NAFLD and ALD. Thus, it is important to timely and reliably evaluate these diseases at early stages, when fibrosis is not advanced or when steatosis predominates. Liver biopsy has been the standard of reference for fibrosis and steatosis, however, its invasiveness precludes its widespread use. There is growing research on non-invasive methods for diagnosing and stratifying fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD and ALD. This review presents clinical evidence on the use of non-invasive assessment of liver disease (blood-based and imaging-based) in patients with NALFD and ALD, and proposes algorithms incorporating these tests into their management.

11.
J Hepatol ; 73(3): 575-581, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To date, studies evaluating the association between frailty and mortality in patients with cirrhosis have been limited to assessments of frailty at a single time point. We aimed to evaluate changes in frailty over time and their association with death/delisting in patients too sick for liver transplantation. METHODS: Adults with cirrhosis, listed for liver transplantation at 8 US centers, underwent ambulatory longitudinal frailty testing using the liver frailty index (LFI). We used multilevel linear mixed-effects regression to model and predict changes in LFI (ΔLFI) per 3 months, based on age, gender, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-Na, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy, categorizing patients by frailty trajectories. Competing risk regression evaluated the subhazard ratio (sHR) of baseline LFI and predicted ΔLFI on death/delisting, with transplantation as the competing risk. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,851 visits from 1,093 outpatients with cirrhosis. Patients with severe worsening of frailty had worse baseline LFI and were more likely to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, or dialysis-dependence. After a median follow-up of 11 months, 223 (20%) of the overall cohort died/were delisted because of sickness. The cumulative incidence of death/delisting increased by worsening ΔLFI group. In competing risk regression adjusted for baseline LFI, age, height, MELD-Na, and albumin, a 0.1 unit change in ΔLFI per 3 months was associated with a 2.04-fold increased risk of death/delisting (95% CI 1.35-3.09). CONCLUSION: Worsening frailty was significantly associated with death/delisting independent of baseline frailty and MELD-Na. Notably, patients who experienced improvements in frailty had a lower risk of death/delisting. Our data support the longitudinal measurement of frailty, using the LFI, in patients with cirrhosis and lay the foundation for interventional work aimed at reversing frailty. LAY SUMMARY: Frailty, as measured at a single time point, is predictive of death in patients with cirrhosis, but whether changes in frailty over time are associated with death is unknown. In a study of over 1,000 patients with cirrhosis who underwent frailty testing, we demonstrate that worsening frailty is strongly linked with mortality, regardless of baseline frailty and liver disease severity. Notably, patients who experienced improvements in frailty over time had a lower risk of death/delisting. Our data support the longitudinal measurement of frailty in patients with cirrhosis and lay the foundation for interventional work aimed at reversing frailty.

12.
Liver Transpl ; 26(5): 702-708, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128971

RESUMO

Robust physical activity after liver transplantation is an important determinant of longterm health, similar in its importance to the value of pretransplant activity for withstanding the immediate stress of transplantation. Although transplantation normally enables rapid recovery of liver synthetic and metabolic functions, the recovery of physical capacity and performance to normal levels is delayed and often incomplete. Anatomic measurements of sarcopenia and the physical performance indicators of frailty both tend to improve slowly, and they may, in fact, decrease further in the posttransplant period, especially when the common extrahepatic drivers of muscle loss, such as the elements of the metabolic syndrome, persist or intensify after transplantation. Posttransplant exercise improves fitness, which is a conclusion based on 2 observational studies and 3 randomized trials that assessed endpoints of strength testing, energy expenditure in metabolic equivalents, and peak or maximal oxygen uptake. Importantly, 1 controlled trial found that exercise also improved quality of life (QOL) measured by the Short Form 36 survey, consistent with multiple reports of the value of social support and engagement in sports activity for improving posttransplant QOL. Developing evidence-based standards for post-liver transplant physical activity baseline testing and sustainment of intensity and quality is a key unmet need in transplant hepatology. At present, it is reasonable for transplant teams to assess fitness and design a tailored exercise program when a recipient is first discharged, to record and reinforce progress at all posttransplant visits, and to set realistic longterm performance goals that will often achieve recommended standards for the healthy general population.

14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(13): 3008-3016.e2, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis are growing older. The overlap between minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and predementia mild cognitive impairment (MCI) could affect quality of life (QOL). We investigated the performance of elderly patients with cirrhosis on tests for MHE and MCI and their effects on QOL. METHODS: We recruited outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 109) and without cirrhosis (controls, n = 100), 65 years or older, at 4 centers (derivation cohort). All study participants were assessed for psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), EncephalApp score, and QOL. MCI was tested in patients with cirrhosis using the repeatable battery for assessment of neuropsychological status and assigned to the following groups: unimpaired, MCI only, MHE only, and MCI+MHE. We created adjusted norms to detect MHE using PHES and EncephalApp scores from the controls. Findings were validated using data from a separate cohort of 77 patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 69.49 ± 4.36 y; 72% men) at the same study sites. RESULTS: Controls were older but were more educated, performed better cognitively, and had better QOL. Among patients with cirrhosis, age, education, model for end-stage liver disease score, EncephalApp score, and QOL were similar, but PHES and repeatable battery for assessment of neuropsychological status differed among sites. In the derivation cohort, the presence of MHE, with or without MCI, was associated with poor QOL, which was lowest in the MCI+MHE group. When we adjusted for age, sex, and education, 49% of patients with cirrhosis had MHE based on the EncephalApp and 8% had MHE based on the PHES. A similar pattern (49% MHE based on EncephalApp and 6% MHE based on PHES) was found in a validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter study of patients with cirrhosis (>65 y) and controls, the presence of MHE, regardless of MCI, was associated with poor cognition and QOL. We created adjusted norms that defined the high sensitivity of EncephalApp for the detection of MHE in older individuals and validated it in a separate cohort.

15.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089834

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis is the severest clinical presentation of alcoholic liver disease. Lacking an effective pharmacologic treatment, alcoholic hepatitis is associated with a poor prognosis and its recovery relies mostly on abstinence. With alcohol use disorder being universally on the rise, the impact of alcoholic hepatitis on society and health-care costs is expected to increase significantly. Prognostic factors and liver biopsy can help with timely diagnosis, to determine eligibility and response to corticosteroids, and for prognostication and transplant referral. Although recent discoveries in the pathophysiology of alcoholic hepatitis are encouraging and could pave the way for novel treatment modalities, a multidisciplinary approach considering timely identification and treatment of liver-related complications, infectious and metabolic disease, malnutrition, and addiction counseling should be emphasized. Apart from proper selection of candidates, transplant programs should provide adequate post-transplant addiction support in order to make of early liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis the ultimate sobering experience in the next decade.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Transplante de Fígado , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Humanos
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(11): 3350-3359, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A decline in physical function is highly prevalent and a poor prognostic factor in cirrhosis. We assessed the benefits of a home-based physical activity program (HB-PAP) in patients with cirrhosis with a randomized pilot trial. METHODS: All participants received a personal activity tracker to monitor daily activities and were given 12 g/day of an essential amino acid supplement. The HB-PAP intervention consisted of biweekly counseling sessions to increase physical activity for 12 weeks. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) assessed changes in aerobic fitness. Different anthropometric measuring tools were used for skeletal muscle and adiposity assessment. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (60% male; 29% nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/cryptogenic, 29% hepatitis C, 24% alcohol, 18% other) were randomized, 9 to HB-PAP group. There were no significant differences in MELD-sodium between HB-PAP and controls at baseline or after the 12-week intervention. By the end of study, there was a significant between-group difference in daily step count favoring the active group (2627 [992-4262], p = 0.001), with less sedentary patients in the active group (33-17% vs. 25-43%, p = 0.003). The 6MWT improved in the HB-PAP group (423 ± 26 m vs. 482 ± 35 m), while the controls had a nonsignificant drop (418 ± 26 m vs. 327 ± 74 m) with a significant between-group difference. CPET did not change. Other than an improvement in psoas muscle index, there were no differences in anthropometry, or in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: HB-PAP maintained physical performance and improved aerobic fitness according to 6MWT but not CPET, supporting the use of personal activity trackers to monitor/guide home-based prehabilitation programs in cirrhosis.

20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(4): 974-983, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are effective against hepatitis C virus and sustained virologic response is associated with reduced incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is controversy over the use of DAAs in patients with active or treated HCC and uncertainty about optimal management of these patients. We aimed to characterize attitudes and practice patterns of hepatology practitioners in the United States regarding the use of DAAs in patients with HCC. METHODS: We conducted a survey of hepatology providers at 47 tertiary care centers in 25 states. Surveys were sent to 476 providers and we received 279 responses (58.6%). RESULTS: Provider beliefs about risk of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy varied: 48% responded that DAAs reduce risk, 36% responded that DAAs do not change risk, and 16% responded that DAAs increase risk of HCC recurrence. However, most providers believed DAAs to be beneficial to and reduce mortality of patients with complete response to HCC treatment. Accordingly, nearly all providers (94.9%) reported recommending DAA therapy to patients with early-stage HCC who received curative treatment. However, fewer providers recommended DAA therapy for patients with intermediate (72.9%) or advanced (57.5%) HCC undergoing palliative therapies. Timing of DAA initiation varied among providers based on HCC treatment modality: 49.1% of providers reported they would initiate DAA therapy within 3 months of surgical resection whereas 45.9% and 5.0% would delay DAA initiation for 3-12 months and >1 year post-surgery, respectively. For patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), 42.0% of providers would provide DAAs within 3 months of the procedure, 46.7% would delay DAAs until 3-12 months afterward, and 11.3% would delay DAAs more than 1 year after TACE. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a survey sent to hepatology providers, there is variation in provider attitudes and practice patterns regarding use and timing of DAAs for patients with HCC. Further studies are needed to characterize the risks and benefits of DAA therapy in this patient population.

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