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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261749, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965263

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in the effect that food environments may have on obesity, particularly through mechanisms related to the marketing and consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and sugary beverages. Price promotions, such as temporary price discounts, have been particularly effective in the marketing of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) among consumers. Research has also suggested that the purchasing behavior of consumer groups may be differentially sensitive to price discounts on CSDs, with obese women particularly sensitive. In addition, the intensity of price discount in a person's food environment may also vary across geography and over time. This study examines whether the weight change of obese women, compared to overweight or normal BMI women, is more sensitive to the intensity of price discounts on CSDs in the food environment. This study used longitudinal survey data from 1622 women in the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging (MoNNET-HA) Panel. Women were asked to report their height and weight in 2008, 2010 and 2013 in order to calculate women's BMI in 2008 and their change of weight between 2008 and 2013. Women's exposure to an unhealthy food environment was based on the frequency in which their neighborhood food stores placed price discounts on CSDs in 2008. The price discount frequency on CSDs within women's neighborhoods was calculated from Nielsen point-of sales transaction data in 2008 and geocoded to participant's forward sortation area. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among MoNNET-HA female participants was 18.3% in 2008, 19.9% in 2010 and 20.7% in 2013 respectively. Results showed that among obese women, exposure to unhealthy food environments was associated with a 3.25 kilogram (SE = 1.35, p-value = 0.02) weight gain over the five-year study period. Exposure to price discounts on CSDs may disproportionately affect and reinforce weight gain in women who are already obese.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24094, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916545

RESUMO

The dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acts to modulate behaviours including cognitive control and motivation, and has been implicated in behavioral inhibition and responsivity to food cues. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of habitual eating behaviors and obesity risk, with potential mediation by development of the PFC. We previously found that genetic variations influencing DRD4 function or expression were associated with measures of laboratory and real-world eating behavior in girls and boys. Here we investigated brain responses to high energy-density (ED) and low-ED food cues using an fMRI task conducted in the satiated state. We used the gene-based association method PrediXcan to estimate tissue-specific DRD4 gene expression in prefrontal brain areas from individual genotypes. Among girls, those with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed lesser activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in a distributed network of regions implicated in attention and sensorimotor processing including middle frontal gyrus, and lesser activation to low-ED vs non-food cues in key regions implicated in valuation including orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial PFC. In contrast, males with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed minimal differences in food cue response, namely relatively greater activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in the inferior parietal lobule. Our data suggest sex-specific effects of prefrontal DRD4 on brain food responsiveness in adolescence, with modulation of distributed regions relevant to cognitive control and motivation observable in female adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Alimentos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D4/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 634372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409001

RESUMO

Vegetable consumption remains consistently low despite supportive policy and investments across the world. Vegetables are available in great variety, ranging in their processing level, availability, cost, and arguably, nutritional value. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted in Quebec, Canada to explore pathways of socioeconomic inequity in vegetable expenditure. Data was obtained for consumers who participated in a grocery loyalty program from 2015 to 2017 and linked to the 2016 Canadian census. Vegetable expenditure share (%) was examined as a fraction of the overall food basket and segmented by processing level. Panel random effects and tobit models were used overall and to estimate the stratified analysis by median income split. Consumers allocated 8.35% of their total food expenditure to vegetables, which was mostly allocated to non-processed fresh (6.88%). Vegetable expenditure share was the highest in early winter and lowest in late summer. In the stratified analysis, the low-income group exhibited less seasonal variation, allocated less to fresh vegetables, and spent more on canned and frozen compared to the high-income group. Measures of socioeconomic status were all significant drivers of overall vegetable consumption. Consumers with high post-secondary education in the low-income group spent 2% more on vegetables than those with low education. The complexity of observed expenditure patterns points to a need for more specific vegetable consumption guidelines that include provisions by processing level. Implications for education, marketing, intersectional policies, and the role of government are discussed. Governments can scale present efforts and catalyze health-promoting investments across local, state, national, and global food systems.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Canadá , Gastos em Saúde , Estudos Longitudinais , Pobreza , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 591439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095042

RESUMO

Low fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) remains a global health challenge. Fostering subsistence agriculture through the production and home-grown consumption (HGC) of fruits and vegetables are seen as potential strategies for improving overall FVC, in particular, for developing countries like India. In addition, educational strategies targeting FVC health literacy are also used. Little evidence has documented a connection between these two strategies. We examine the single and combined influence of HGC and health literacy with regard to benefits from fruits and vegetable consumption. Data were collected from 427 rural households in the state of Odisha, India. Three outcomes were examined: FVC, as well as fruit and vegetables separately. Linear and Poisson regression were used to examine the association among home-grown consumption (HGC), FVC health literacy, and the FVC outcomes. Findings show that HGC, but not FVC health literacy, was directly associated with FVC (ß = 0.65, SE = 0.10, p = 0.008) and vegetable consumption (ß = 0.57, SE = 0.11, p = 0.02). However, both HGC (ß = 0.58, SE = 0.05, p < 0.01) and FVC health literacy (ß = -0.07, SE = 0.02, p = 0.001) were associated with fruit consumption. In addition, HGC effect is concentrated among participants who reported low FVC health literacy, especially on overall FVC and vegetables alone. Results are discussed in relation to the beneficial role played by HGC in those particularly vulnerable households who perceived little FVC health literacy. Our results provide insights on novel improved FVC consumption across all population segments. Future research should explore the complex interplay between agricultural policies and educational programs in the design of interventions promoting fruit and vegetable production and consumption.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Verduras , Frutas , Humanos , Índia , População Rural
5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 599671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796568

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complex disease resulting from multiscale risk factors including genetics, age, and psychosocial factors (PSFs) such as depression and social isolation. However, previous research has lacked in operationalizing multiscale risk factors to determine individual and interactive associations over the life course. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate individual and interactive associations of multiscale risk factors for CVD outcomes including genetics and PSFs at middle and older-aged stages of the life course. Methods: Baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA; n = 9,892 with genome-wide genotyping data) was used for this investigation. A 39 single nucleotide polymorphism polygenic risk score (PRS) for CVD was constructed. PSFs consisted of: (1) Depressive symptoms categorized into: "none" (Group 1, reference), "current" (Group 2), "clinical depression with no current symptoms" (Group 3), and "potential, recurrent depression" (Group 4); and (2) Social isolation index as a binary variable comprised of marital status, living arrangements, retirement status, contacts, and social participation. Heart-related disorders (HRD: myocardial infarction, angina and heart disease) was the primary outcome of interest and peripheral/vascular-related disorders (PVRD: stroke, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension) was the secondary outcome. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic factors were conducted stratified by age group (middle-aged: 45-69 years, older-aged: ≥70 years). Results: PRS was associated with HRD among middle- and older-aged participants [OR (95% confidence interval)] [1.06 (1.03-1.08), 1.06 (1.03-1.08), respectively]. Most depressive symptoms groups compared to the reference associated with HRD and PVRD, but only Group 4 associated with PVRD among older-aged [1.69 (1.08-2.64)]. Social isolation was associated with only PVRD among middle-aged [1.84 (1.04-3.26)]; however, socially isolated CLSA participants were underrepresented in the genotyped cohort (1.2%). No significant PRS*PSFs interactions were observed. Conclusions: Genetics and PSFs are independently associated with CVD. Varying observations across age groups underscores the need to advance research on multiscale risk factors operating both at a given point in time and over the life course. Future cohort studies may benefit from use of mobile assessment units to enable better reach to socially isolated participants for collection of biospecimens.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 145, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the impact of the food retailing environment on food-related and obesity outcomes remains equivocal, but only a few studies have attempted to identify sub-populations for whom this relationship might be stronger than others. Genetic polymorphisms related to dopamine signalling have been associated with differences in responses to rewards such as food and may be candidate markers to identify such sub-populations. This study sought to investigate whether genetic variation of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR polymorphism) moderated the association between local exposure to food retailers on BMI and diet in a sample of 4 to12-year-old children. METHODS: Data collected from a birth cohort and a community cross-sectional study conducted in Montreal, Canada, were combined to provide DRD4 VNTR polymorphism data in terms of presence of the 7-repeat allele (DRD4-7R) for 322 children aged between 4 and 12 (M (SD): 6.8(2.8) y). Outcomes were Body Mass Index (BMI) for age and energy density derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Food environment was expressed as the proportion of local food retailers classified as healthful within 3 km of participants' residence. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, income, cohort, and geographic clustering were used to test gene*environment interactions. RESULTS: A significant gene*food environment interaction was found for energy density with results indicating that DRD4-7R carriers had more energy dense diets than non-carriers, with this effect being more pronounced in children living in areas with proportionally more unhealthy food retailers. No evidence of main or interactive effects of DRD4 VNTR and food environment was found for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest that a genetic marker related to dopamine pathways can identify children with potentially greater responsiveness to unhealthy local food environment. Future studies should investigate additional elements of the food environment and test whether results hold across different populations.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições Minissatélites , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35127611

RESUMO

Introduction: Consumer food procurement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been understudied. This investigation aimed to longitudinally evaluate food procurement patterns, concern of virus exposure in grocery retailers, and food access challenges over the pandemic among a sample of households in Quebec, Canada. Methods: Online surveys were collected at three time points of the pandemic: first wave in spring 2020 (lockdown period), summer 2020 (deconfinement period), and second wave in winter 2021 (curfew period). Respondents were the household's primary grocery shopper (n = 491). Non-parametric tests and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to compare responses over time and to evaluate characteristics of respondents who regularly used no-contact grocery methods (store pick-up or home delivery). Results: Frequency of in-store grocery shopping was lowest during the lockdown (once per week or less), and significantly increased over time to resemble pre-pandemic frequency. Concern of virus exposure in grocery retailers and disinfection/discarding of food packaging was highest during the lockdown, but significantly decreased over time. At all time points, use of public transit, walking or cycling for grocery shopping was associated with regular use of no-contact grocery methods (curfew odds ratio (OR): 3.13 (95% confidence interval 1.60, 6.14). Age (60 years+) was associated with regular use during the lockdown [OR: 2.27 (1.13, 4.59)]. Conclusion: Among our sample, frequency of in-store grocery shopping was lowest and concern of virus exposure in stores was highest during the lockdown period. No-contact grocery use was associated with transportation mode and potentially with personal risk perception (age).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143186

RESUMO

The role of the retail food environment in obesity risk is unclear, which may be due in part to the lack of consideration of individual differences in the responsivity to food cues. This cross-sectional investigation geo-temporally linked the CARTaGENE biobank (including genetic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data) with in-store retail food environment data to examine interactions between a polygenic risk score (PRS) for obesity and (1) diet quality (n = 6807) and (2) in-store retail food measures (n = 3718). The outcomes included adiposity-related measures and diet quality assessed using the 2010 Canadian-adapted Healthy Eating Index. A vegetable:soft drink ratio was constructed for each retail measure to assess the relative healthfulness of exposures. Generalized linear models adjusted for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic factors were used to evaluate main and interactive effects. Diet quality significantly modified the association between polygenic risk of obesity and body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat percent. A significant interaction was also observed between PRS and frequency of price discount of vegetables in relation to soft drinks on waist circumference. These results replicate previous reports of diet moderating polygenic risk of obesity and suggest that prices of low vs. high-energy density foods are an intervention target to address population obesity rates.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Dieta/normas , Alimentos/economia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
J Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathways underlying the stress-depression relationship in mothers, and the factors that buffer this relationship are not well understood. AIMS: Drawing from the Stress Process model, this study examines (1) if parental stress mediates the association between socioeconomic characteristics and depressive symptoms, and (2) if social support and network capital moderate these pathways. METHOD: Data came from 101 mothers from Montreal. Generalized structural equation models were conducted, with depressive symptoms (CES-D scores) as the outcome, socioeconomic stressors as independent variables, parental stress as the mediator, and social support and network social capital as moderators. RESULTS: Parental stress partially mediated the association between household income and depressive symptoms (indirect effect: ß = -0.09, Bootstrap SE = 0.03, 95% CI = -0.15 to -0.03 p = 0.00). Network diversity moderated the relationship between parental stress and depressive symptoms (ß = -0.25, 95% CI = -0.42 to -0.09, p = 0.00); at high levels of stress, mothers with high compared to low network diversity reported fewer symptoms. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the role that socioeconomic factors play in influencing women's risk of depression and shaping the benefits that ensue from social resources. Addressing these factors requires interventions that target the social determinants of depression.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589693

RESUMO

Body weight is substantially determined by eating behaviors, which are themselves driven by biological factors interacting with the environment. Previous studies in young children suggest that genetic influences on dopamine function may confer differential susceptibility to the environment in such a way that increases behavioral obesity risk in a lower socioeconomic status (SES) environment but decreases it in a higher SES environment. We aimed to test if this pattern of effect could also be observed in adolescence, another critical period for development in brain and behavior, using a novel measure of predicted expression of the dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) gene in prefrontal cortex. In a sample of 76 adolescents (37 boys and 39 girls from Baltimore, Maryland/US, aged 14-18y), we estimated individual levels of DRD4 gene expression (PredDRD4) in prefrontal cortex from individual genomic data using PrediXcan, and tested interactions with a composite SES score derived from their annual household income, maternal education, food insecurity, perceived resource availability, and receipt of public assistance. Primary outcomes were snack intake during a multi-item ad libitum meal test, and food-related impulsivity assessed using a food-adapted go/no-go task. A linear regression model adjusted for sex, BMI z-score, and genetic ethnicity demonstrated a PredDRD4 by composite SES score interaction for snack intake (p = 0.009), such that adolescents who had lower PredDRD4 levels exhibited greater snack intake in the lower SES group, but lesser snack intake in the higher SES group. Exploratory analysis revealed a similar pattern for scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (p = 0.001) such that the low PredDRD4 group reported higher stress in the lower SES group, but less stress in the higher SES group, suggesting that PredDRD4 may act in part by affecting perceptions of the environment. These results are consistent with a differential susceptibility model in which genes influencing environmental responsiveness interact with environments varying in obesogenicity to confer behavioral obesity risk in a less favorable environment, but behavioral obesity protection in a favorable one.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Lanches , Adolescente , Baltimore , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos , Receptores de Dopamina D4/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
11.
Appetite ; 148: 104594, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927071

RESUMO

Genetic differential susceptibility states that individuals may vary both by exhibiting poor responses when exposed to adverse environments, and disproportionally benefiting from positive settings. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) may be particularly implicated in these effects, including disturbed eating behaviors that might lead to obesity. Here, we explore differential susceptibility to positive environments according to the predicted genetically regulated gene expression of prefrontal cortex DRD4 gene. Using MAVAN as the discovery cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment) and GUSTO as the replication cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes), we analyzed the interaction between a) a Positive postnatal environmental score, that accounts for positive outcomes in the postnatal period and b) the genetically regulated gene expression of prefrontal DRD4, computed using a machine learning prediction method (PrediXcan). The outcome measures were the pro-intake domains (Emotional over-eating, Food Responsiveness, Food Enjoyment and Desire to Drink) from the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire at 48 months of age (MAVAN) and 60 months of age (GUSTO). The interaction between the positive environment and the predicted prefrontal DRD4 gene expression was significant for emotional over-eating in MAVAN (ß = -0.403, p < 0.02), in which the high gene expression group had more or less emotional eating according to the exposure to lower or higher positive environment respectively, showing evidence of differential susceptibility criteria. In the replication cohort, a similar result was found with the pro-intake domain Desire to drink (ß = -0.583, p < 0.05). These results provide further evidence for the genetic differential susceptibility, accounting for the benefit of positive environments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Meio Social , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Conflito Familiar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Singapura
12.
Psychometrika ; 85(1): 75-100, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758389

RESUMO

Ansari et al. (Psychometrika 67:49-77, 2002) applied a multilevel heterogeneous model for confirmatory factor analysis to repeated measurements on individuals. While the mean and factor loadings in this model vary across individuals, its factor structure is invariant. Allowing the individual-level residuals to be correlated is an important means to alleviate the restriction imposed by configural invariance. We relax the diagonality assumption of residual covariance matrix and estimate it using a formal Bayesian Lasso method. The approach improves goodness of fit and avoids ad hoc one-at-a-time manipulation of entries in the covariance matrix via modification indexes. We illustrate the approach using simulation studies and real data from an ecological momentary assessment.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Análise Multinível/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Lifestyle Genom ; 13(2): 74-83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gene-environment interactions may be relevant for nutrition outcomes. This study assessed the interaction between DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype and exposures to in-store retail food environment on diet quality. METHODS: CARTaGENE biobank data (n = 3,532) were linked to provincial food retail data. The Canadian adaptation of the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-C) was calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Generalized linear models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, anthropometrics, and energy intake were used to assess interactions between the Taq1A variant and retail food measures. RESULTS: A significant inverse interaction was observed between Taq1A and ice cream store displays on HEI-C score (estimate: -15.46 [95% confidence interval (CI): -24.83, -6.10], p = 0.0012) where, among allele carriers, increasing exposure to ice cream displays was associated with a lower HEI-C score as compared to allele carriers with a lower exposure. A significant positive interaction between Taq1A and price of vegetables was also observed, where, among allele carriers, increasing exposure to a higher price was associated with a higher HEI-C score compared to allele carriers with exposure to a lower price (estimate: 2.46 [95% CI: 0.78, 4.14], p = 0.0041). The opposite pattern was observed among non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A is associated with adaptive responses to ice cream displays and vegetable prices, suggesting a differential susceptibility to retail environment food cues.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/metabolismo , Dieta , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Geografia , Humanos , Sorvetes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Quebeque , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 257: 112082, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587397

RESUMO

Parental stress has been shown associated with children's eating behaviors. The stress-buffering hypothesis suggests that social resources, i.e., resources accessed via one's social networks, may prevent or attenuate the impact of stress on health. Prior research on the stress-buffering hypothesis has found evidence for the protective effects of social support (emotional, instrumental, or informational resources available in a person's life); less is known about social capital (resources available through one's social networks) as a stress buffer. Further, these studies have often examined the association between a person's direct access to social resources and their health; less research has examined whether the benefits of social resources may extend two degrees from parents to their children. Using data from a community-based birth cohort of mother-child dyads, this study examined whether mother's social capital moderated the association between maternal stress and children's emotional overeating (EO). Mothers completed health questionnaires on an annual basis and a one-time social network questionnaire in 2011-2012. EO was measured using the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Maternal stress was measured using the 18-item Parental Stress Scale. Social capital was measured using a position generator and based on the number of occupations to which a mother had access. Poisson regression analysis was used. Results showed that mother's social capital moderated the positive association between greater maternal stress and children's EO, such that maternal stress was associated with children's EO in only those mothers with low social capital. This study suggests that social capital may disrupt the transmission of maternal stress from parent to child, thereby playing a potential role in the production and reproduction of health inequalities.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia , Capital Social , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Pais
15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789933

RESUMO

Evidence shows that extremes of birth weight (BW) carry a common increased risk for the development of adiposity and related cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the role of obesogenic behaviors in this process. Moreover, no one has empirically examined whether the relationship between BW, obesogenic behaviors and BMI along the full low-to-high birthweight continuum reflects the U-shape pattern expected from common risk at both BW extremes. Our objective was to characterize physical activity, screen time, and eating behavior and their relationship to BMI as a function of BW among school-aged boys and girls. In this cross-sectional study, 460 children aged 6 to 12 years (50% boys) from Montreal, Canada provided information on sleeping time, screen time, physical activity levels, eating behavior (emotional, external and restrained eating) and anthropometrics (height, weight, BW) through parent reported questionnaires. BMI was normalized using WHO Standards (zBMI), and BW expressed as ratio using Canadian population standards (BW for gestational age and sex). Analyses were conducted using generalized linear models with linear and quadratic terms for BW, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, ethnicity and household income. In boys, physical activity and screen time showed U-shaped associations with BW, while physical activity had an inverted U-shaped in girls. Emotional and restrained eating had positive linear relations with BW in boys and girls. Sleep time and external eating were not associated with BW. A U-shaped relationship between BW and zBMI was found in boys but no association was found in girls. Only sleep (in boys and girls), and emotional eating (girls only) were related to zBMI and mediation of the BW-zBMI relationship was only supported for emotional eating. In conclusion, BW relates to obesogenic behaviors and BMI in both non-linear and linear ways, and these associations differed by sex.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Comportamento Infantil , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Sono , Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 4(4): e66, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate administrative health data, suboptimal public health infrastructure, rapid and unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation, and poor penetration of information technology make the tracking of health and well-being of populations and their social determinants in the developing countries challenging. Technology-integrated comprehensive surveillance platforms have the potential to overcome these gaps. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides methodological insights into establishing a geographic information system (GIS)-integrated, comprehensive surveillance platform in rural North India, a resource-constrained setting. METHODS: The International Clinical Epidemiology Network Trust International established a comprehensive SOMAARTH Demographic, Development, and Environmental Surveillance Site (DDESS) in rural Palwal, a district in Haryana, North India. The surveillance platform evolved by adopting four major steps: (1) site preparation, (2) data construction, (3) data quality assurance, and (4) data update and maintenance system. Arc GIS 10.3 and QGIS 2.14 software were employed for geospatial data construction. Surveillance data architecture was built upon the geospatial land parcel datasets. Dedicated software (SOMAARTH-1) was developed for handling high volume of longitudinal datasets. The built infrastructure data pertaining to land use, water bodies, roads, railways, community trails, landmarks, water, sanitation and food environment, weather and air quality, and demographic characteristics were constructed in a relational manner. RESULTS: The comprehensive surveillance platform encompassed a population of 0.2 million individuals residing in 51 villages over a land mass of 251.7 sq km having 32,662 households and 19,260 nonresidential features (cattle shed, shops, health, education, banking, religious institutions, etc). All land parcels were assigned georeferenced location identification numbers to enable space and time monitoring. Subdivision of villages into sectors helped identify socially homogenous community clusters (418/676, 61.8%, sectors). Water and hygiene parameters of the whole area were mapped on the GIS platform and quantified. Risk of physical exposure to harmful environment (poor water and sanitation indicators) was significantly associated with the caste of individual household (P=.001), and the path was mediated through the socioeconomic status and density of waste spots (liquid and solid) of the sector in which these households were located. Ground-truthing for ascertaining the land parcel level accuracies, community involvement in mapping exercise, and identification of small habitations not recorded in the administrative data were key learnings. CONCLUSIONS: The SOMAARTH DDESS experience allowed us to document and explore dynamic relationships, associations, and pathways across multiple levels of the system (ie, individual, household, neighborhood, and village) through a geospatial interface. This could be used for characterization and monitoring of a wide range of proximal and distal determinants of health.

17.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 7(6): 485-490, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935125

RESUMO

Effective approaches to non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention require intersectoral action targeting health and engaging government, industry, and society. There is an ongoing vigorous exploration of the most effective and appropriate role of government in intersectoral partnerships. This debate is particularly pronounced with regards to the role of government in controlling unhealthy foods and promoting healthy food environments. Given that food environments are a key determinant of health, and the commercial sector is a key player in shaping such environments (eg, restaurants, grocery stores), the relationship between government and the commercial sector is of primary relevance. The principal controversy at the heart of this relationship pertains to the potential influence of commercial enterprises on public institutions. We propose that a clear distinction between the regulatory and catalyst roles of government is necessary when considering the nature of the relationship between government and the commercial food sector. We introduce a typology of three catalyst roles for government to foster healthy food environments with the commercial sector and suggest that a richer understanding of the contrasting roles of government is needed when considering approaches NCD prevention via healthy food environments.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústria Alimentícia , Governo , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Dieta Saudável , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Restaurantes
18.
Br J Nutr ; 119(11): 1295-1302, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770761

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that both high and low birth weight children have increased the risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Previously we have found altered feeding behaviour and food preferences in pre-school children and adults born with low birth weight. In this study, we investigated if birth weight was associated with different intake of fat, carbohydrate and/or protein at 6-12 years of age. This is a cross-sectional study where 255 guardians answered online and telephone questions including anthropometrics and demographic data, parental family food rules (food control, encouragement and restriction) and a complete web-based FFQ for their children (130 boys and 125 girls). Baseline demographic and parental food rules characteristics did not differ accordingly to sex. Linear regression models were conducted separately for each sex, adjusted for income, age and maternal age. There were no differences in total energy intake, but energy density (ED, energy content/g) was negatively associated with birth weight in boys. Macronutrient analysis showed that ED intake was from a greater intake of fat. Birth weight was not a significant predictor of protein and carbohydrate intake in boys. In girls, we saw a positive correlation between fat intake and cholesterol intake v. birth weight, but no association with ED intake (results did not remain after adjustment). The study shows that low birth weight is associated with altered fat intake in childhood in a sex-specific manner. It is likely that biological factors such as fetal programming of homoeostatic and/or hedonic pathways influencing food preferences are involved in this process.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Prev Med ; 111: 366-370, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197528

RESUMO

Curbing the worldwide increase in obesity requires upstream social interventions that modify the environment in which obesity emerges. Recent studies have suggested that social capital and networks may influence a person's risk of obesity. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed whether social capital and networks reduce obesity risk in adult populations. In this study, the data come from three waves (2008, 2010, and 2013) of the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging Panel (N=2606). Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) with obesity defined as a BMI>30. Name and position generator instruments captured network measures of social capital, including: (1) upper reachability, (2) range, (3) diversity and (4) the number of kin ties. Questions on generalized trust and participation were used to assess cognitive and structural dimensions of social capital. Separate random effects logistic regression was used to examine the association among social network characteristics, social capital, and obesity. We found the greater the number of kin ties in a person's network, the greater the risk of obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.62). Adults with higher network diversity (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.96) and high generalized trust (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77) were at a lower the risk of obesity. The current study confirmed that higher network capital and trust were protective against obesity, while having kin ties was not. Disentangling the multidimensional role that social capital plays can lead to more effective interventions to reduce obesity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Obesidade , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Rede Social , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Quebeque , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
20.
Appetite ; 123: 410-438, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183700

RESUMO

Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity-failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others-systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population. Data from 70 studies and 19,470 participants were converted into r effect sizes and analysed. Results showed that higher attachment insecurity (r = 0.266), anxiety (r = 0.271), avoidance (r = 0.119), and fearfulness (r = 0.184) was significantly associated with more unhealthy eating behaviors, ps = 0.000; conversely, higher attachment security correlated with lower unhealthy eating behaviors (r = -0.184, p = 0.000). This relationship did not vary across type of unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., binge eating, bulimic symptoms, dieting, emotional eating, and unhealthy food consumption). The little exploratory evidence concerning healthy eating and attachment was inconclusive with one exception-healthy eating was associated with lower attachment avoidance (r = -0.211, p = 0.000). Our results extend previous meta-analytic findings to show that lack of trusting and reliable relationships does not only set apart eating disordered individuals from controls, but also characterizes unhealthy eating behaviors in the general population. More evidence is needed to determine how attachment and healthy eating are linked and assess potential mechanisms influencing the attachment-eating relationship.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Emoções , Características da Família , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Relações Pais-Filho , Meio Social
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