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1.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 34(2): 279-286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The central venousarterial carbon dioxide pressure to arterial-central venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) is frequently used as a surrogate for tissue oxygenation. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature and quality of evidence supporting Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 as a predictor of mortality in critically ill patients compared with lactate. METHODS: We searched several databases for studies measuring Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 in critically ill patients. Independent investigators performed the article screening and data extraction. A random-effects metaanalysis was performed. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) were used to compare the prognostic ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 and lactate. RESULTS: We initially retrieved 172 studies; 17 were included for qualitative description, and 10 were included for quantitative synthesis. The mean Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 was higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (pooled SMD = 0.75; 95%CI 0.34 - 1.17; I2 = 83%), as was the case with lactate levels (pooled SMD = 0.94; 95%CI 0.34 - 1.54; I2 = 92%). Both tests were statistically significant predictors of mortality, albeit with overlapping 95%CIs between them. CONCLUSION: Moderate-quality evidence showed little or no difference in the ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2, compared with lactate, to predict mortality. Nevertheless, our conclusions are limited by the considerable heterogeneity among the studies.PROSPERO registration: CRD42019130387.


OBJETIVO: A proporção entre pressão venosa central menos arterial de dióxido de carbono e conteúdo de oxigênio arterial menos venoso central (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) é frequentemente usada como substituta para a oxigenação tecidual. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e sintetizar a literatura e a qualidade das evidências que suportam a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 como um preditor de mortalidade em comparação com o lactato em pacientes críticos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisamos vários bancos de dados procurando estudos que tivessem medido a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 em pacientes críticos. Pesquisadores independentes realizaram a triagem dos artigos e a extração de dados. Uma metanálise de efeitos aleatórios foi realizada. Diferenças médias padronizadas agrupadas foram usadas para comparar a capacidade prognóstica da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 e do lactato. RESULTADOS: Inicialmente, obtivemos 172 estudos; 17 foram incluídos para descrição qualitativa, e dez foram incluídos para síntese quantitativa. A média de Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 foi maior nos não sobreviventes do que nos sobreviventes (diferença média padronizada agrupada de 0,75; IC95% 0,34 - 1,17; I2 = 83%), assim como os níveis de lactato (diferença média padronizada agrupada = 0,94; IC95% 0,34 - 1,54; I2 = 92%). Ambos os testes foram preditores estatisticamente significativos de mortalidade, embora com sobreposição de IC95% entre eles. CONCLUSÃO: Evidências de qualidade moderada mostraram pouca ou nenhuma diferença na capacidade da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2, em comparação com o lactato, em predizer mortalidade. No entanto, nossas conclusões são limitadas pela considerável heterogeneidade entre os estudos.Registro no PROSPERO: CRD42019130387.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Choque Séptico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Oxigênio
2.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 32(6): 777-783, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinicopathological variables associated with hospital mortality in critically ill cats with compromised hemodynamics and tissue hypoperfusion. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral center. ANIMALS: Fifty-seven critically ill cats with compromised hemodynamics or tissue hypoperfusion. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The electronic medical records were searched for all cats admitted from June 2014 to November 2020. Cats were included in the study if the medical records clearly identified the presence of compromised hemodynamics and tissue hypoperfusion. Blood samples were obtained by percutaneous puncture of the external jugular vein, and blood gases, electrolytes, L-lactate concentration, and glucose were measured by a point-of-care analyzer. A predictive logistic regression model for mortality was performed. A total of 57 cats were ultimately included in the study. Thirty-five cats died. Eighteen of them were euthanized because of the severity of illness, and 17 died naturally. Twenty-two cats were discharged alive from the hospital. After adjusting for the Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation (APPLE) fast score and disease category, jugular venous partial pressure of oxygen (Pvjo2 ) and HCT at admission were independent predictors of hospital mortality (HCT: odds ratio [OR], 0.763, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.625-0.930; P = 0.008; Pjvo2 : OR, 0.858; 95% CI: 0.749-0.984; P = 0.029). The association of these variables with mortality was maintained after conducting a sensitivity analysis and excluding cats that died by euthanasia. CONCLUSIONS: In cats with hemodynamic instability and tissue hypoperfusion, HCT and Pvjo2 behaved as independent predictors of mortality. Both variables seem to reflect the magnitude of oxygen debt and tissue hypoperfusion.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Estado Terminal , Gatos , Animais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Veias Jugulares , Hospitalização , Oxigênio
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 279-286, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394915

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: A proporção entre pressão venosa central menos arterial de dióxido de carbono e conteúdo de oxigênio arterial menos venoso central (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) é frequentemente usada como substituta para a oxigenação tecidual. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e sintetizar a literatura e a qualidade das evidências que suportam a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 como um preditor de mortalidade em comparação com o lactato em pacientes críticos. Métodos: Pesquisamos vários bancos de dados procurando estudos que tivessem medido a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 em pacientes críticos. Pesquisadores independentes realizaram a triagem dos artigos e a extração de dados. Uma metanálise de efeitos aleatórios foi realizada. Diferenças médias padronizadas agrupadas foram usadas para comparar a capacidade prognóstica da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 e do lactato. Resultados: Inicialmente, obtivemos 172 estudos; 17 foram incluídos para descrição qualitativa, e dez foram incluídos para síntese quantitativa. A média de Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 foi maior nos não sobreviventes do que nos sobreviventes (diferença média padronizada agrupada de 0,75; IC95% 0,34 - 1,17; I2 = 83%), assim como os níveis de lactato (diferença média padronizada agrupada = 0,94; IC95% 0,34 - 1,54; I2 = 92%). Ambos os testes foram preditores estatisticamente significativos de mortalidade, embora com sobreposição de IC95% entre eles. Conclusão: Evidências de qualidade moderada mostraram pouca ou nenhuma diferença na capacidade da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2, em comparação com o lactato, em predizer mortalidade. No entanto, nossas conclusões são limitadas pela considerável heterogeneidade entre os estudos. Registro no PROSPERO:CRD42019130387


ABSTRACT Objective: The central venousarterial carbon dioxide pressure to arterial-central venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) is frequently used as a surrogate for tissue oxygenation. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature and quality of evidence supporting Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 as a predictor of mortality in critically ill patients compared with lactate. Methods: We searched several databases for studies measuring Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 in critically ill patients. Independent investigators performed the article screening and data extraction. A random-effects metaanalysis was performed. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) were used to compare the prognostic ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 and lactate. Results: We initially retrieved 172 studies; 17 were included for qualitative description, and 10 were included for quantitative synthesis. The mean Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 was higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (pooled SMD = 0.75; 95%CI 0.34 - 1.17; I2 = 83%), as was the case with lactate levels (pooled SMD = 0.94; 95%CI 0.34 - 1.54; I2 = 92%). Both tests were statistically significant predictors of mortality, albeit with overlapping 95%CIs between them. Conclusion: Moderate-quality evidence showed little or no difference in the ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2, compared with lactate, to predict mortality. Nevertheless, our conclusions are limited by the considerable heterogeneity among the studies. PROSPERO registration:CRD42019130387

4.
J Crit Care ; 70: 154065, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605338

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the incidence, timing, and predictors of augmented renal clearance (ARC) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 61 patients with TBI, creatinine clearance (CrCl) was prospectively measured from urine samples, over seven days. ARC was defined as a CrCl >130 mL/min/1.73 m2 in at least one day. We compared patients with and without ARC. RESULTS: We performed 295 determinations of CrCl. ARC was present in 82% of the patients and arose in the first 2 days in 86% of them. ARC was more frequent in patients with associated injuries (100 vs. 75%, P = 0.02). There was a trend to a more aggressive resuscitation in patients with ARC but young age was the only independent predictor. Hospital length of stay was higher in ARC (15 [8-25] vs. 6 [3-19] days, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ARC is very common and has an early appearance in patients with TBI. Young age is its main determinant.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Insuficiência Renal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Creatinina/urina , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Incidência
5.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154021, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349967

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify determinants of oxygenation over time in patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); and to analyze their characteristics according to Berlin definition categories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study including consecutive mechanically ventilated patients admitted between 3/20/2020-10/31/2020 with ARDS. Epidemiological and clinical data on admission; outcomes; ventilation, respiratory mechanics and oxygenation variables were registered on days 1, 3 and 7 for the entire population and for ARDS categories. RESULTS: 1525 patients aged 61 ± 13, 69% male, met ARDS criteria; most frequent comorbidities were obesity, hypertension, diabetes and respiratory disease. On admission, 331(21%), 849(56%) and 345(23%) patients had mild, moderate and severe ARDS; all received lung-protective ventilation (mean tidal volumes between 6.3 and 6.7 mL/kg PBW) and intermediate PEEP levels (10-11 cmH2O). PaO2/FiO2, plateau pressure, static compliance, driving pressure, ventilation ratio, pH and D-dimer >2 mg/L remained significantly different among the ARDS categories over time. In-hospital mortality was, respectively, 55%, 58% and 70% (p < 0.000). Independent predictors of changes of PaO2/FiO2 over time were BMI; preexistent respiratory disease; D-dimer >2 mg/L; day 1-PEEP, and day 1-ventilatory ratio. CONCLUSION: Hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with comorbidities, deadspace and activated coagulation markers, and disease severity-reflected by the PEEP level required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 35-46, feb. 2022. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365126

RESUMO

Resumen Durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 hubo un marcado requerimiento de camas de cuidados críticos, insumos y profesionales entrenados para asistir a pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria grave. La Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI) diseñó un estudio para caracterizar estos aspectos en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCIs). Estudio multicéntrico, de cohorte prospectiva; las UCIs participantes completaron un formulario al final del estudio (31/10/2020) sobre características hospitalarias, número de camas de áreas críticas pre- e intra-pandemia, incorporación de profesionales, insumos y recursos tecnológicos, y carga de trabajo. Participaron 58 UCIs; 28(48%) de Provincia de Buenos Aires, 22(38%) de Ciudad Autónoma de Bue nos Aires, 10(17%) de otras; 31(53%) UCIs pertenecían al sector público; 23(47%) al privado-seguridad social. En 35/58(60%) hospitales las camas de cuidados críticos aumentaron de 902 a 1575(75%); 37% en UCI y 63% principalmente en Unidad Coronaria y Emergencias-shock room. En 41/55(75%) UCIs se incorporó personal: 27(49%) médicos/as (70% intensivistas), 36(65%) enfermeros/as, 28(51%) kinesiólogos/as, 20(36%) personal de limpieza, y 1(2%) otros/as; 96% de las UCIS reportaron disponer de respiradores suficientes, y 95%, insumos y EPP suficientes. De todos los pacientes en ventilación mecánica invasiva, 55% [43-64] presentaron COVID-19. Se requirió oxigenoterapia como soporte no invasivo en 14% [8-24] de los ingresos por COVID-19. Se registró una importante expansión de las áreas críticas operativas, secundariamente al aumento de camas, personal, y adecuada disponibilidad de respiradores e insumos esenciales. La carga de la enfermedad crítica por COVID-19 fue intensa, constituyendo más de la mitad de los pacientes en ventilación mecánica.


Abstract During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a marked requirement for critical care beds, supplies and trained professionals to assist patients with severe respiratory failure. The Argentine Society of Intensive Care (SATI) designed a study to characterize these aspects in intensive care units (ICUs). Multicenter, prospective cohort study; the participating ICUs completed a form at the end of the study (31/10/2020) on hospital characteristics, number of beds in pre- and intra-pandemic critical areas, incorporation of professionals, technological resources, and workload. Fifty-eight ICUs participated; 28(48%) were located in Buenos Aires Province, 22(38%) in Buenos Aires Autonomous City and 10 (17%) in other provinces; 31 (53%) of UCIs belonged to the public sector; 23 (47%) to the private-social security. In 35/58 (60%) of the hospitals critical care beds increased from 902 to 1575 (75%), 37% in ICU and 63% mainly in Coronary Care Unit and Emergency-shock room. In 41/55 (75%) UCIs, staff were incorporated: 27(49%) physicians (70% intensivists), 36 (65%) nurses, 28 (51%) respiratory therapists, 20(36%) cleaning staff, and 1(2%) others. A 96% of the ICUS reported having sufficient ventilators and 95% enough sup plies and PPE. Of all patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, 55% [43-64] had COVID-19. Oxygen therapy was required as noninvasive support in 14% [8-24] of COVID-19 admissions. There was a significant expansion of critical operational areas, secondary to the increase in beds, staff, and adequate availability of ventilators and essential supplies. The burden of critical illness from COVID-19 was intense, with more than half of patients on mechanical ventilation.

7.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82(1): 35-46, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037859

RESUMO

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a marked requirement for critical care beds, supplies and trained professionals to assist patients with severe respiratory failure. The Argentine Society of Intensive Care (SATI) designed a study to characterize these aspects in intensive care units (ICUs). Multicenter, prospective cohort study; the participating ICUs completed a form at the end of the study (31/10/2020) on hospital characteristics, number of beds in pre- and intra-pandemic critical areas, incorporation of professionals, technological resources, and workload. Fifty-eight ICUs participated; 28(48%) were located in Buenos Aires Province, 22(38%) in Buenos Aires Autonomous City and 10 (17%) in other provinces; 31 (53%) of UCIs belonged to the public sector; 23 (47%) to the private-social security. In 35/58 (60%) of the hospitals critical care beds increased from 902 to 1575 (75%), 37% in ICU and 63% mainly in Coronary Care Unit and Emergency-shock room. In 41/55 (75%) UCIs, staff were incorporated: 27(49%) physicians (70% intensivists), 36 (65%) nurses, 28 (51%) respiratory therapists, 20(36%) cleaning staff, and 1(2%) others. A 96% of the ICUS reported having sufficient ventilators and 95% enough supplies and PPE. Of all patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, 55% [43-64] had COVID-19. Oxygen therapy was required as noninvasive support in 14% [8-24] of COVID-19 admissions. There was a significant expansion of critical operational areas, secondary to the increase in beds, staff, and adequate availability of ventilators and essential supplies. The burden of critical illness from COVID-19 was intense, with more than half of patients on mechanical ventilation.


Durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 hubo un marcado requerimiento de camas de cuidados críticos, insumos y profesionales entrenados para asistir a pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria grave. La Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI) diseñó un estudio para caracterizar estos aspectos en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCIs). Estudio multicéntrico, de cohorte prospectiva; las UCIs participantes completaron un formulario al final del estudio (31/10/2020) sobre características hospitalarias, número de camas de áreas críticas pre- e intra-pandemia, incorporación de profesionales, insumos y recursos tecnológicos, y carga de trabajo. Participaron 58 UCIs; 28(48%) de Provincia de Buenos Aires, 22(38%) de Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 10(17%) de otras; 31(53%) UCIs pertenecían al sector público; 23(47%) al privado-seguridad social. En 35/58(60%) hospitales las camas de cuidados críticos aumentaron de 902 a 1575(75%); 37% en UCI y 63% principalmente en Unidad Coronaria y Emergencias-shock room. En 41/55(75%) UCIs se incorporó personal: 27(49%) médicos/as (70% intensivistas), 36(65%) enfermeros/as, 28(51%) kinesiólogos/as, 20(36%) personal de limpieza, y 1(2%) otros/as; 96% de las UCIS reportaron disponer de respiradores suficientes, y 95%, insumos y EPP suficientes. De todos los pacientes en ventilación mecánica invasiva, 55% [43-64] presentaron COVID-19. Se requirió oxigenoterapia como soporte no invasivo en 14% [8-24] de los ingresos por COVID-19. Se registró una importante expansión de las áreas críticas operativas, secundariamente al aumento de camas, personal, y adecuada disponibilidad de respiradores e insumos esenciales. La carga de la enfermedad crítica por COVID-19 fue intensa, constituyendo más de la mitad de los pacientes en ventilación mecánica.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Recursos Humanos
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(2): 148-163, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910228

RESUMO

Clinical and pathophysiological understanding of septic shock has progressed exponentially in the previous decades, translating into a steady decrease in septic shock-related morbidity and mortality. Even though large randomized, controlled trials have addressed fundamental aspects of septic shock resuscitation, many questions still exist. In this review, we will describe the current standards of septic shock resuscitation, but the emphasis will be placed on evolving concepts in different domains such as clinical resuscitation targets, adequate use of fluids and vasoactive drugs, refractory shock, and the use of extracorporeal therapies. Multiple research opportunities remain open, and collaborative endeavors should be performed to fill in these gaps.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Hidratação , Humanos , Ressuscitação
9.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arterial lactate, mixed venous O2 saturation, venous minus arterial CO2 partial pressure (Pv-aCO2) and the ratio between this gradient and the arterial minus venous oxygen content (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) were proposed as markers of tissue hypoperfusion and oxygenation. The main goals were to characterize the determinants of Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2, and the interchangeability of the variables calculated from mixed and central venous samples. METHODS: 35 cardiac surgery patients were included. Variables were measured or calculated: after anesthesia induction (T1), end of surgery (T2), and at 6-8 hours intervals after ICU admission (T3 and T4). RESULTS: Macrohemodynamics was characterized by increased cardiac index and low systemic vascular resistances after surgery (p < 0.05). Hemoglobin, arterial-pH, lactate, and systemic O2 metabolism showed significant changes during the study (p < 0.05). Pv-aCO2 remained high and without changes, Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 was also high and decreased at T4 (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed globally and at each time interval, between Pv-aCO2 or Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 with factors that may affect the CO2 hemoglobin dissociation. A multilevel linear regression model with Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 as outcome variables showed a significant association for Pv-aCO2 with SvO2, and BE (p < 0.05), while Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 was significantly associated with Hb, SvO2, and BE (p < 0.05) but not with cardiac output. Measurements and calculations from mixed and central venous blood were not interchangeable. CONCLUSIONS: Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 could be influenced by different factors that affect the CO2 dissociation curve, these variables should be considered with caution in cardiac surgery patients. Finally, central venous and mixed values were not interchangeable.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 989-998, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has greatly affected many low-income and middle-income countries, detailed information about patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still scarce. Our aim was to examine ventilation characteristics and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in Argentina, an upper middle-income country. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre cohort study (SATICOVID), we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were on invasive mechanical ventilation and admitted to one of 63 ICUs in Argentina. Patient demographics and clinical, laboratory, and general management variables were collected on day 1 (ICU admission); physiological respiratory and ventilation variables were collected on days 1, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All patients were followed until death in hospital or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, identification of independent predictors of mortality, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and patterns of change in physiological respiratory and mechanical ventilation variables. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04611269, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, we enrolled 1909 invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 62 years [IQR 52-70]. 1294 (67·8%) were men, hypertension and obesity were the main comorbidities, and 939 (49·2%) patients required vasopressors. Lung-protective ventilation was widely used and median duration of ventilation was 13 days (IQR 7-22). Median tidal volume was 6·1 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 6·0-7·0) on day 1, and the value increased significantly up to day 7; positive end-expiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O (8-12) on day 1, with a slight but significant decrease to day 7. Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 160 (IQR 111-218), respiratory system compliance 36 mL/cm H2O (29-44), driving pressure 12 cm H2O (10-14), and FiO2 0·60 (0·45-0·80) on day 1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 1672 (87·6%) of patients; 1176 (61·6%) received prone positioning. In-hospital mortality was 57·7% (1101/1909 patients) and ICU mortality was 57·0% (1088/1909 patients); 462 (43·8%) patients died of refractory hypoxaemia, frequently overlapping with septic shock (n=174). Cox regression identified age (hazard ratio 1·02 [95% CI 1·01-1·03]), Charlson score (1·16 [1·11-1·23]), endotracheal intubation outside of the ICU (ie, before ICU admission; 1·37 [1·10-1·71]), vasopressor use on day 1 (1·29 [1·07-1·55]), D-dimer concentration (1·02 [1·01-1·03]), PaO2/FiO2 on day 1 (0·998 [0·997-0·999]), arterial pH on day 1 (1·01 [1·00-1·01]), driving pressure on day 1 (1·05 [1·03-1·08]), acute kidney injury (1·66 [1·36-2·03]), and month of admission (1·10 [1·03-1·18]) as independent predictors of mortality. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation, lung-protective ventilation was widely used but mortality was high. Predictors of mortality in our study broadly agreed with those identified in studies of invasively ventilated patients in high-income countries. The sustained burden of COVID-19 on scarce health-care personnel might have contributed to high mortality over the course of our study in Argentina. These data might help to identify points for improvement in the management of patients in middle-income countries and elsewhere. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 21, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions on critically ill patients with circulatory shock lack consensus. In an international survey, we aimed to evaluate the indications, current practice, and therapeutic goals of inotrope therapy in the treatment of patients with circulatory shock. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of cardiovascular drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 14 questions focused on the profile of respondents, the triggering factors, first-line choice, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatment strategy, and suggested effect of inotropes. In addition, a group of 42 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of inotropes based on 11 questions. RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries responded. Dobutamine was the first-line inotrope in critically ill patients with acute heart failure for 84% of respondents. Two-thirds of respondents (66%) stated to use inotropes when there were persistent clinical signs of hypoperfusion or persistent hyperlactatemia despite a supposed adequate use of fluids and vasopressors, with (44%) or without (22%) the context of low left ventricular ejection fraction. Nearly half (44%) of respondents stated an adequate cardiac output as target for inotropic treatment. The experts agreed on 11 strong recommendations, all of which were based on excellent (> 90%) or good (81-90%) agreement. Recommendations include the indications for inotropes (septic and cardiogenic shock), the choice of drugs (dobutamine, not dopamine), the triggers (low cardiac output and clinical signs of hypoperfusion) and targets (adequate cardiac output) and stopping criteria (adverse effects and clinical improvement). CONCLUSION: Inotrope use in critically ill patients is quite heterogeneous as self-reported by individual caregivers. Eleven strong recommendations on the indications, choice, triggers and targets for the use of inotropes are given by international experts. Future studies should focus on consistent indications for inotrope use and implementation into a guideline for circulatory shock that encompasses individualized targets and outcomes.

12.
Shock ; 55(5): 686-692, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although hypothermia is independently associated with an increased mortality in trauma patients, it might be an effective therapeutic approach for otherwise lethal hemorrhage. The effect of hypothermia on microcirculation, however, has been poorly studied in this setting. Our goal was to characterize the effects of hypothermia on microcirculation in normal conditions and in severe hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: In anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, we measured cardiac output (CO), renal blood flow (RBF), and systemic and renal O2 consumption (VO2). Cortical renal, intestinal villi, and sublingual microcirculation was assessed by IDF-videomicroscopy. After basal measurements, sheep were assigned to hypothermia (n = 12) and normothermia (n = 12) groups. Central temperature was reduced to ∼34°C and maintained at baseline in each group, respectively. Measurements were repeated after 1 h of hemodynamic stable conditions and 1 h of severe hemorrhagic shock. RESULTS: In conditions of hemodynamic stability, the hypothermia group showed lower CO, RBF, and systemic and renal VO2 than the normothermia group. Red blood cell velocity was also lower in renal, villi, and sublingual microvascular beds (836 ±â€Š195 vs. 1,066 ±â€Š162, 916 ±â€Š105 vs. 1051 ±â€Š41, and 970 ±â€Š182 vs. 1,102 ±â€Š49 µm/s, respectively; P < 0.0001 for all). In hemorrhagic shock, most of the microvascular variables were similarly compromised in both the groups. In hypo- and normothermia groups, the percentage of reduction in perfused vascular density was higher in renal than in intestinal and sublingual microcirculation (66 ±â€Š31 vs. 31 ±â€Š23 and 15 ±â€Š15%, and 78 ±â€Š26 vs. 32 ±â€Š37 and 18 ±â€Š21%, P < 0.01 for both). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first experimental study assessing the effect of systemic hypothermia on microcirculation in severe hemorrhagic shock. The main finding was that hypothermia did not hamper additionally the microcirculatory derangements induced by hemorrhagic shock. In addition, renal microcirculation was more susceptible to hemorrhagic shock than villi and sublingual microcirculation.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Hipotermia Induzida , Microcirculação , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ovinos
13.
J Crit Care ; 61: 73-75, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the presence of sublingual microcirculatory and skin perfusion alterations in COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a preliminary report of a prospective observational study performed in four teaching intensive care units. We studied 27 mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed by hand-held videomicroscopy. A software-assisted analysis of videos was performed. We also measured capillary refill time. RESULTS: Patients were hemodynamically stable with normal lactate (1.8 [1.6-2.5] mmol/L) and high D-dimer (1.30 [0.58-2.93] µg/mL). Capillary refill time was prolonged (3.5 [3.0-5.0] s). Compared to previously reported normal values, total and perfused vascular density (21.9 ± 3.9 and 21.0 ± 3.5 mm/mm2) and heterogeneity flow index (0.91 ± 0.24) were high; and the proportion of perfused vessels (0.96 ± 0.03), microvascular flow index (2.79 ± 0.10), and red blood cell velocity (1124 ± 161 µm/s) were reduced. The proportion of perfused vessels was inversely correlated with total vascular density (Pearson r = -0.41, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients showed an altered tissue perfusion. Sublingual microcirculation was characterized by decreases in the proportion of perfused vessel and flow velocity along with high vascular densities. This last finding might be related to enhanced angiogenesis or hypoxia-induced capillary recruitment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Microcirculação , Soalho Bucal/irrigação sanguínea , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Capilares , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipóxia , Masculino , Microscopia de Vídeo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfusão , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Software
14.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(6): 677-686, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the caudal vena cava collapsibility index (CVCCI) as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in hospitalized, critically ill dogs with hemodynamic or tissue perfusion abnormalities. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral center. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven critically ill, spontaneously breathing dogs with compromised hemodynamics or tissue hypoperfusion. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The electronic medical records were searched for dogs admitted for any cause, from August 2016 to December 2017. We included dogs with ultrasound measurements of: CVCCI, performed at baseline; and velocity time integral (VTI) of the subaortic blood flow, carried out before and after a fluid load. CVCCI was estimated as: (maximum diameter-minimum diameter/maximum diameter) × 100. Dogs in which VTI increased ≥15% were considered fluid responders. The CVCCI accurately predicted fluid responsiveness with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.00). The optimal cut-off of CVCCI that better discriminated between fluid responders and nonresponders was 27%, with 100.0% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. At baseline, fluid responders had lower VTI (5.48 [4.26 to 7.40] vs 10.61 [7.38 to 13.23] cm, P = 0.004) than nonresponders. The basal maximum diameter of the caudal vena cava adjusted to body weight was not different between responders and nonresponders (0.050 [0.030 to 0.100] vs 0.079 [0.067 to 0.140] cm/kg, P = 0.339). The increase in VTI was related to basal CVCCI (R = 0.60, P = 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed narrow 95% limits of agreement between measurements of CVCCI and VTI performed by different observers or by the same observer. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this small cohort study suggest that CVCCI can accurately predict fluid responsiveness in critically ill dogs with perfusion abnormalities. Further research is necessary to extrapolate these results to larger populations of hospitalized dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hidratação/veterinária , Choque/veterinária , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiopatologia , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/terapia , Ultrassonografia
15.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(1): 115-122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401981

RESUMO

The central venous minus arterial carbon dioxide pressure to arterial minus central venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) has been proposed as a surrogate for respiratory quotient and an indicator of tissue oxygenation. Some small observational studies have found that a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 > 1.4 was associated with hyperlactatemia, oxygen supply dependency, and increased mortality. Moreover, Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 has been incorporated into algorithms for tissue oxygenation evaluation and resuscitation. However, the evidence for these recommendations is quite limited and of low quality. The goal of this narrative review was to analyze the methodological bases, the pathophysiologic foundations, and the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 as a surrogate for respiratory quotient. Physiologically, the increase in respiratory quotient secondary to critical reductions in oxygen transport is a life-threatening and dramatic event. Nevertheless, this event is easily noticeable and probably does not require further monitoring. Since the beginning of anaerobic metabolism is indicated by the sudden increase in respiratory quotient and the normal range of respiratory quotient is wide, the use of a defined cutoff of 1.4 for Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is meaningless. Experimental studies have shown that Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is more dependent on factors that modify the dissociation of carbon dioxide from hemoglobin than on respiratory quotient and that respiratory quotient and Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 may have distinct behaviors. Studies performed in critically ill patients have shown controversial results regarding the ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 to predict outcome, hyperlactatemia, microvascular abnormalities, and oxygen supply dependency. A randomized controlled trial also showed that Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is useless as a goal of resuscitation. Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 should be carefully interpreted in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Artérias , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Veias , Gasometria , Humanos , Pressão
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 40, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitation of septic patients regarding goals, monitoring aspects and therapy is highly variable. Our aim was to characterize cardiovascular and fluid management of sepsis in Argentina, a low and middle-income country (LMIC). Furthermore, we sought to test whether the utilization of dynamic tests of fluid responsiveness, as a guide for fluid therapy after initial resuscitation in patients with persistent or recurrent hypoperfusion, was associated with decreased mortality. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a national, multicenter prospective cohort study (n = 787) fulfilling Sepsis-3 definitions. Epidemiological characteristics, hemodynamic management data, type of fluids and vasopressors administered, physiological variables denoting hypoperfusion, use of tests of fluid responsiveness, and outcomes, were registered. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, 584 of 787 patients (74%) had mean arterial pressure (MAP) < 65 mm Hg and/or signs of hypoperfusion and received 30 mL/kg of fluids, mostly normal saline (53%) and Ringer lactate (35%). Vasopressors and/or inotropes were administered in 514 (65%) patients, mainly norepinephrine (100%) and dobutamine (9%); in 22%, vasopressors were administered before ending the fluid load. After this, 413 patients (53%) presented persisting or recurrent hypotension and/or hypoperfusion, which prompted administration of additional fluid, based on: lactate levels (66%), urine output (62%), heart rate (54%), central venous O2 saturation (39%), central venous-arterial PCO2 difference (38%), MAP (31%), dynamic tests of fluid responsiveness (30%), capillary-refill time (28%), mottling (26%), central venous pressure (24%), cardiac index (13%) and/or pulmonary wedge pressure (3%). Independent predictors of mortality were SOFA and Charlson scores, lactate, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and utilization of dynamic tests of fluid responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective observational study assessing the characteristics of resuscitation of septic patients in Argentina, a LMIC, the prevalent use of initial fluid bolus with normal saline and Ringer lactate and the use of norepinephrine as the most frequent vasopressor, reflect current worldwide practices. After initial resuscitation with 30 mL/kg of fluids and vasopressors, 413 patients developed persistent or recurrent hypoperfusion, which required further volume expansion. In this setting, the assessment of fluid responsiveness with dynamic tests to guide fluid resuscitation was independently associated with decreased mortality.

17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 115-122, jan.-mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138462

RESUMO

RESUMO A proporção entre pressão venosa central menos arterial de dióxido de carbono e conteúdo de oxigênio arterial menos venoso central (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) foi proposta como marcador substituto para quociente respiratório e indicador de oxigenação tissular. Alguns pequenos estudos observacionais identificaram que Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 acima de 1,4 se associa com hiperlactatemia, dependência de suprimento de oxigênio e maior mortalidade. Mais ainda, a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 foi incorporada a algoritmos para avaliação da oxigenação tissular e ressuscitação. Contudo, a evidência para estas recomendações é bastante limitada e de baixa qualidade. O objetivo desta revisão narrativa foi analisar as bases metodológicas, os fundamentos fisiopatológicos e a evidência experimental e clínica para dar suporte à utilização da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 como marcador substituto para quociente respiratório. De um ponto de vista fisiopatológico, o aumento do quociente respiratório secundariamente a reduções críticas no transporte de oxigênio é um evento dramático e com risco à vida. Entretanto, este evento é facilmente observável e provavelmente não demandaria maiores monitoramentos. Visto que o início do metabolismo anaeróbico é indicado pelo aumento súbito do quociente respiratório e que a faixa normal do quociente respiratório é ampla, o uso do ponto de corte definido como 1,4 para Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 não faz sentido. Estudos experimentais demonstraram que a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 é mais dependente de fatores que modificam a dissociação do dióxido de carbono da hemoglobina do que do quociente respiratório, e o quociente respiratório e Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 podem ter comportamentos distintos. Estudos conduzidos em pacientes críticos demonstraram resultados controvertidos com relação à capacidade da Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 para predizer o desfecho, hiperlactatemia, anomalias microvasculares e dependência de suprimento de oxigênio. Um estudo randomizado controlado também demonstrou que a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 é inútil como alvo para ressuscitação. A Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 deve ser interpretada com cautela em pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT The central venous minus arterial carbon dioxide pressure to arterial minus central venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2) has been proposed as a surrogate for respiratory quotient and an indicator of tissue oxygenation. Some small observational studies have found that a Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 > 1.4 was associated with hyperlactatemia, oxygen supply dependency, and increased mortality. Moreover, Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 has been incorporated into algorithms for tissue oxygenation evaluation and resuscitation. However, the evidence for these recommendations is quite limited and of low quality. The goal of this narrative review was to analyze the methodological bases, the pathophysiologic foundations, and the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 as a surrogate for respiratory quotient. Physiologically, the increase in respiratory quotient secondary to critical reductions in oxygen transport is a life-threatening and dramatic event. Nevertheless, this event is easily noticeable and probably does not require further monitoring. Since the beginning of anaerobic metabolism is indicated by the sudden increase in respiratory quotient and the normal range of respiratory quotient is wide, the use of a defined cutoff of 1.4 for Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is meaningless. Experimental studies have shown that Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is more dependent on factors that modify the dissociation of carbon dioxide from hemoglobin than on respiratory quotient and that respiratory quotient and Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 may have distinct behaviors. Studies performed in critically ill patients have shown controversial results regarding the ability of Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 to predict outcome, hyperlactatemia, microvascular abnormalities, and oxygen supply dependency. A randomized controlled trial also showed that Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 is useless as a goal of resuscitation. Pcv-aCO2/Ca-cvO2 should be carefully interpreted in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Artérias , Veias , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Pressão , Gasometria
20.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 577-589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408477

RESUMO

Microcirculation is a particular organ of the cardiovascular system. The goal of this narrative review is a critical reappraisal of the present knowledge of microcirculation monitoring, mainly focused on the videomicroscopic evaluation of sublingual microcirculation in critically ill patients. We discuss the technological developments in handheld videomicroscopy, which have resulted in adequate tools for the bedside monitoring of microcirculation. By means of these techniques, a large body of evidence has been acquired about the role of microcirculation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of shock, especially septic shock. We review the characteristics of sublingual microcirculation in septic shock, which mainly consist in a decrease in the perfused vascular density secondary to a reduction in the proportion of perfused vessels along with a high heterogeneity in perfusion. Even in patients with high cardiac output, red blood cell velocity is decreased. Thus, hyperdynamic flow is absent in the septic microcirculation. We also discuss the dissociation between microcirculation and systemic hemodynamics, particularly after shock resuscitation, and the different behavior among microvascular beds. In addition, we briefly comment the effects of some treatments on microcirculation. Despite the fact that sublingual microcirculation arises as a valuable goal for the resuscitation in critically ill patients, significant barriers remain present for its clinical application. Most of them are related to difficulties in video acquisition and analysis. We comprehensively analyzed these shortcomings. Unfortunately, a simpler approach, such as the central venous minus arterial PCO2 difference, is a misleading surrogate for sublingual microcirculation. As conclusion, the monitoring of sublingual microcirculation is an appealing method for monitoring critically ill patients. Nevertheless, the lack of controlled studies showing benefits in terms of outcome, as well as technical limitations for its clinical implementation, render this technique mainly as a research tool.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Hemodinâmica , Microcirculação , Microscopia de Vídeo , Boca/irrigação sanguínea , Sepse/diagnóstico , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Sepse/terapia
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