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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate response assessment during neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) poses a clinical challenge. Therefore, a minimally-invasive assessment of tumor response based on cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may be beneficial to guide treatment decisions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We profiled 93 genes in tissue from 193 early breast cancer patients. Patient-specific assays were designed for 145 patients to track ctDNA during NST in plasma. ctDNA presence and levels were correlated with complete pathological response (pCR), residual cancer burden (RCB) as well as clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor to identify potential proxies for ctDNA release. RESULTS: At baseline, ctDNA could be detected in 63/145 (43.4%) patients and persisted in 25/63 (39.7%) patients at mid-therapy (MT) and 15/63 (23.8%) patients at the end of treatment. ctDNA detection at MT was significantly associated with higher RCB (OR 0.062, 95% CI 0.01-0.48, P=0.0077).Out of 31 patients with detectable ctDNA at MT, 30 patients (96.8%) were non-responders (RCB II, n=8; RCB III, n=22) and only one patient responded to the treatment (RCB I). Considering all 145 patients with baseline (BL) plasma, none of the patients with RCB 0 and only 6.7% of patients with RCB I had ctDNA detectable at MT, while 30.6% and 29.6% of patients with RCB II/III, respectively, had a positive ctDNA result. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results demonstrate that the detection and persistence of ctDNA at MT may have the potential to negatively predict response to neoadjuvant treatment and identify patients who will not achieve pCR or be classified with RCB II/III.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 124(11): 1795-1802, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemotherapy containing anthracyclines and taxanes is well established in early-stage breast cancer. Previous studies have suggested that the chemotherapy sequence may matter but definitive evidence is missing. ABCSG trial 34 evaluated the activity of the MUC1 vaccine tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant treatment; the study provided the opportunity for the second randomisation to compare two different anthracycline/taxane sequences. METHODS: HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer patients were recruited to this randomised multicentre Phase 2 study. Patients in the chemotherapy cohort (n = 311) were additionally randomised to a conventional or reversed sequence of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. Residual cancer burden (RCB) with/without tecemotide was defined as primary study endpoint; RCB in the two chemotherapy groups was a key secondary endpoint. RESULTS: No significant differences in terms of RCB 0/I (40.1% vs. 37.2%; P = 0.61) or pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (24.3% vs. 25%, P = 0.89) were observed between conventional or reverse chemotherapy sequence. No new safety signals were reported, and upfront docetaxel did not result in decreased rates of treatment delay or discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Upfront docetaxel did not improve chemotherapy activity or tolerability; these results suggest that upfront neoadjuvant treatment with anthracyclines remains a valid option.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 99-106, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NaCT) and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) can reduce pre-operative tumour burden in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early-stage breast cancer. This prospective translational study assessed the ability of a 12-gene molecular score (MS; EndoPredict®) to predict response to NaCT or NET within the ABCSG-34 trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative samples from patients in the ABCSG-34 randomized phase II trial were selected and EndoPredict testing was performed to generate a 12-gene MS. ABCSG-34 patients were assigned to receive either NaCT or NET based on menopausal status, HR expression, grade and Ki67. Response was measured by residual cancer burden (RCB). RESULTS: Patients selected for NaCT generally had high-risk disease by 12-gene MS (125/134), while slightly more patients treated with NET had low-risk disease (44/83). Low-risk NaCT-treated and high-risk NET-treated tumours responded poorly (NPV 100% [95% CI 66.4%-100%] and NPV 92.3% [95% CI 79.1%-98.4%], respectively]. The 12-gene MS significantly predicted treatment response for NaCT (AUC 0.736 [95% CI 0.63-0.84]) and NET (AUC 0.726 [95% CI 0.60-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: The 12-gene MS predicted RCB after treatment with neoadjuvant therapies for patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer. Tumours with low MS were unlikely to benefit from NaCT, whereas a high MS predicted resistance to NET. This additional biologic information can aid personalized treatment selection in daily practice and builds a strong rationale to use EndoPredict in biomarker-driven studies in the neoadjuvant setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 43-52, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-based strategies represent a promising approach in breast cancer (BC) treatment. The glycoprotein mucin-1 (MUC-1) is overexpressed in more than 90% of BC patients, and is targeted by the cancer vaccine tecemotide. We have investigated the efficacy and safety of tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant standard-of-care (SoC) treatment in early BC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 400 patients with HER2-early BC were recruited into this prospective, multicentre, randomised 2-arm academic phase II trial. Patients received preoperative SoC treatment (chemotherapy or endocrine therapy) with or without tecemotide. Postmenopausal women with oestrogen receptor (ER)+++, or ER++ and Ki67 < 14%, and G1,2 tumours ('luminal A' tumours) received 6 months of letrozole. Postmenopausal patients with triple-negative, ER-/+/++ and Ki67 ≥ 14%, and with G3 tumours, as well as premenopausal patients, received four cycles of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide plus four cycles of docetaxel. Primary end-point was residual cancer burden (RCB; 0/I versus II/III) at surgery. Secondary end-points included pathological complete response (pCR), safety, and quality of life. FINDINGS: We observed no significant difference in RCB 0/I rates between patients with (36.4%) and without (31.9%) tecemotide in the overall study population (p = 0.40) nor in endocrine and chemotherapy-treated subgroups (25.0% versus 13.3%, p = 0.17; 39.6% versus 37.8%, p = 0.75, respectively). The addition of tecemotide did not affect overall pCR rates (22.5% versus 17.4%, p = 0.23), MUC-1 expression, or tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes content. Tecemotide did not increase toxicity when compared to SoC therapy alone. INTERPRETATION: Neoadjuvant tecemotide is safe, but does not improve RCB or pCR rates in patients receiving standard neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
5.
Annu Rev Med ; 67: 1-10, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332000

RESUMO

Randomized trials have studied bisphosphonates in the adjuvant setting of early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent treatment-induced bone loss. Trial results have also suggested their potential to prevent disease recurrence and metastases. These trials are summarized in this review. A recent patient-level meta-analysis by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) finds convincing evidence that adjuvant antiresorptive treatments provide persistent benefits to breast cancer patients in low-estrogen situations and should be considered an important part of the treatment algorithm.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Medula Óssea , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Lancet ; 386(9992): 433-43, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a significantly delayed time to first clinical fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 0·50 [95% CI 0·39-0·65], p<0·0001). The overall lower number of fractures in the denosumab group (92) than in the placebo group (176) was similar in all patient subgroups, including in patients with a bone mineral density T-score of -1 or higher at baseline (n=1872, HR 0·44 [95% CI 0·31-0·64], p<0·0001) and in those with a bone mineral density T-score of less than -1 already at baseline (n=1548, HR 0·57 [95% CI 0·40-0·82], p=0·002). The patient incidence of adverse events in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug) did not differ between the denosumab group (1366 events, 80%) and the placebo group (1334 events, 79%), nor did the numbers of serious adverse events (521 vs 511 [30% in each group]). The main adverse events were arthralgia and other aromatase-inhibitor related symptoms; no additional toxicity from the study drug was reported. Despite proactive adjudication of every potential osteonecrosis of the jaw by an international expert panel, no cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported. 93 patients (3% of the full analysis set) died during the study, of which one death (in the denosumab group) was thought to be related to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant denosumab 60 mg twice per year reduces the risk of clinical fractures in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors, and can be administered without added toxicity. Since a main side-effect of adjuvant breast cancer treatment can be substantially reduced by the addition of denosumab, this treatment should be considered for clinical practice. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 30(7): 722-8, 2012 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22271481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anastrozole (ANA) alone delivers significant disease-free survival benefits over tamoxifen (TAM) monotherapy in postmenopausal women with early estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The ABCSG-8 (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group 8) study is a large phase III clinical trial addressing the sequence strategy containing ANA in comparison with 5 years of TAM in a low- to intermediate-risk group of postmenopausal patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Endocrine receptor-positive patients with G1 or G2 tumors were eligible. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to 5 years of TAM or 2 years of TAM followed by 3 years of ANA. Adjuvant chemotherapy and G3 and T4 tumors were exclusion criteria. Intention-to-treat and censored analyses of on-treatment recurrence-free survival (RFS) were performed, and exploratory survival end points and toxicity were investigated. RESULTS: Information from 3,714 patients, including 17,563 woman-years, with a median of 60 months of follow-up was available for this analysis. Median age was 63.8 years, 75% were node negative, and 75% had T1 tumors. Sequencing of ANA after identical 2-year treatment with TAM in both arms did not result in a statistically significant improvement of RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.01; P = .06). Exploratory analyses of distant relapse-free survival indicated a 22% improvement (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.00). On-treatment adverse events and serious adverse events were consistent with known toxicity profiles of ANA and TAM treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite a low overall rate of recurrence in a population with breast cancer at limited risk of relapse, the a priori sequence strategy of 2 years of TAM followed by 3 years of ANA led to small outcome and toxicity benefits.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastrozol , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Áustria , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/efeitos adversos
10.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 51(6): 852-7, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18317841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The treatment of high anal fistula using endorectal advancement flaps represents an important technique to attain cure of fistulation and preserve anal continence. The creation of the advancement flap may comprise the rectal mucosa only or involve the full transection of the rectal wall. A comparison between full-thickness flaps and mucosal (partial-thickness) flaps was made to analyze the defining elements of successful fistula treatment: recurrence rates and anal continence. METHODS: A retrospective review of 54 consecutive patients with high anal fistula of cryptoglandular origin was undertaken. Patient risk was categorized according to previous anal surgery. Continence was assessed according to the Vaizey score. Recurrence rates were recorded in a long-term, complete follow-up. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients underwent surgery using a partial-thickness flap; in 20 patients the full-thickness flap was used. There were no major intraoperative or postoperative complications. Continence scores revealed significant incontinence in 11.1 percent of all patients. Full transection of the rectal wall for flap creation did not pose a threat to continence. Twenty-four percent of all patients suffered from a recurrence. Patients with four or more previous anal surgeries were at highest risk for failure. A single patient in the full-thickness flap group (5 percent) as opposed to 12 patients (35.3 percent) in the partial-thickness group suffered from recurrence. CONCLUSION: The comparison of partial-thickness to full-thickness endorectal advancement flaps suggests an improvement of recurrence rates without higher incontinence rates when a full mobilization of the rectal wall is performed.


Assuntos
Fístula Retal/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 133(6): 551-5, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17576905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients undergoing salvage surgery after recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: All patients underwent surgery and follow-up evaluations at the Medical University of Vienna. The departments of Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology carried out patient care and analysis of data. PATIENTS: A total of 8 consecutive patients with recurrent hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: An interdisciplinary team of surgeons, including a head and neck surgeon, a reconstructive surgeon, and an abdominal surgeon, performed salvage surgery. After pharyngolaryngectomy and neck dissection, reconstruction using free, autotransplanted jejunum covered by a pectoralis major muscle flap was achieved. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All data concerning the surgical procedure, perioperative morbidity, and functional and oncologic outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: The cohort of patients was heavily pretreated owing to late stages of disease at diagnosis. Mean time to recurrence before salvage surgery was 7.5 months. Mean time after surgery until ability to swallow was regained was 17.2 days, including 1 patient who ultimately underwent interventional dilation owing to stenosis. There were no complications requiring further surgical therapy, and all patients were transferred to outpatient care within 2 months. Three patients, all with advanced nodal involvement, died within months after surgery. Five patients are alive, 4 of whom have shown no evidence of disease 4 years or more after salvage surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Jejunal transfer and pectoralis major muscle flap were carried out in a single, reconstructive procedure after salvage resection in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Potential long-term survival and minor perioperative and postoperative morbidity can be achieved using an interdisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/cirurgia , Jejuno/transplante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Músculos Peitorais/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Terapia de Salvação , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo , Estudos de Coortes , Constrição Patológica/terapia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Laringectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esvaziamento Cervical , Doenças Faríngeas/terapia , Faringectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 364(1-2): 139-47, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16051207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been described as a blockade of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and is thought to selectively influence T- and B-lymphocytes due to their strong dependency on guanine nucleotides synthesized via the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Recent evidence suggests MPA to affect antigen-presenting cells. METHODS: Using CD14+ derived human dendritic cells (DC) we have investigated the effects of MPA on differentiation, maturation and function and studied intracellular nucleotide content and IMPDH activity. RESULTS: GTP content and IMPDH activities of DC were strongly and dose-dependently decreased when MPA was present during the entire culture period or was added after the fifth (immature DC) or the seventh (mature DC) day of culture. Concurrent to low GTP levels, a dose-dependent reduction in the expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54 and CD83 was seen which was accompanied by a decreased capacity of DC to stimulate T-cells. Our data for the first time shows a direct effect of MPA on the maturation and function of human CD14+ derived DC, indicates a role of IMPDH and a dependency on the de novo purine synthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , IMP Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 3(1): 65-72, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12020397

RESUMO

Breast cancer in younger patients appears to be more aggressive than disease occurring in older patients. Even though large population-based studies suggest poorer survival of patients younger than 35 years, data demonstrating the relationship of age and prognosis within premenopausal cohorts are much more scarce and conflicting. In this retrospective analysis of 885 premenopausal patients, the relationship between age, typical prognostic factors, treatment, and patient outcome was investigated. Eight hundred four patients (90.8%) > 35 years and 81 patients (9.2%) = 35 years who had been treated for stage I/II breast cancer were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 71 months. The prevalence of adverse prognostic features such as tumor size, tumor type, tumor grading, pathologic lymph node status, and hormone receptor status were evenly distributed between the two age groups. Age = 35 years proved to be a powerful independent prognostic factor in multivariate analyses of recurrence-free (P < 0.0001; relative risk [RR] = 2.5) and overall survival (P < 0.0039, RR = 2.2). Thus, in the face of evenly distributed risk factors in this strictly premenopausal, homogeneous population, young age was seen as the second most powerful risk factor after lymph node status. According to these findings, patients diagnosed with breast cancer at = 35 years of age have a worse prognosis compared to premenopausal women above this age. Future studies should focus on unveiling the young age surrogate in order to improve treatment and prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
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