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1.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000714, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the cardiovascular risk profile in a representative cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively characterized in detail 2492 consecutive men (mean age 68 years) with prostate cancer (newly diagnosed or with a plan to prescribe ADT for the first time) from 16 Canadian sites. Cardiovascular risk was estimated by calculating Framingham risk scores. RESULTS: Most (92%) had new prostate cancer (intermediate-risk in 41%; high-risk in 50%). The highest level of education achieved was primary school in 12%. Most (58%) were current or former smokers; 22% had known cardiovascular disease; 16% diabetes; 45% hypertension; 31% body-mass index ≥30kg/m2; 24% had low levels of physical activity; the mean handgrip strength was 37.3kg; 69% had a Framingham risk score consistent with high cardiovascular risk. Participants in whom ADT was planned had higher Framingham risk scores than those not intending to receive ADT; this risk was abolished after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of men with prostate cancer is at high cardiovascular risk. There is a positive association between a plan to use ADT and baseline cardiovascular risk factors; however, this association is explained by confounding factors.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

3.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(11): 1338-1346, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to determine the incidence and predictors of myocardial injury and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We included 267 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR at two tertiary centres in Canada and Poland. The primary outcome was myocardial injury during hospital stay after EVAR defined as a troponin elevation (ultra-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 19 ng·L-1, non-high-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 0.01 µg·L-1, high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 20 ng·L-1, non-high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 0.03 ng·mL-1). The secondary outcome was AKI defined using the stage 1 of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. RESULTS: Myocardial injury occurred in 78/267 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.1 to 34.9) and with AKI occurring in 25/267 (9.4%; 95% CI, 6.4 to 13.5). In a multivariable analysis, the following variables were associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.65 per ten-year increase; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.49), Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥3 (aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.26 to 6.41), The American Society of Anesthesiology physical status score 4 (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.47), duration of surgery (aOR, 1.27 per each hour; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.61), and perioperative drop in hemoglobin (aOR, 3.35 per 10 g·dL-1 decrease; 95% CI, 1.00 to 11.3). Predictors of AKI were duration of surgery (aOR, 1.72 per hour; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.17), a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 mL·min-1 (aOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.42 to 10.3), and an eGFR < 30 mL·min-1 (aOR, 37.0; 95% CI, 7.1 to 193.8). CONCLUSION: Myocardial injury and AKI are frequent during hospital stay after EVAR and warrant further investigation in prospective studies.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 130(5): 756-766, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypotension is associated with cardiovascular events in patients having noncardiac surgery. It is unknown if the severity of preexisting coronary artery disease determines susceptibility to the cardiovascular risks of perioperative hypotension. METHODS: In this retrospective exploratory analysis of a substudy of an international prospective blinded cohort study, 955 patients 45 yr of age or older with history or risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography before elective inpatient noncardiac surgery. The authors evaluated the potential interaction between angiographic findings and perioperative hypotension (defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg for a total of 10 min or more during surgery or for any duration after surgery and for which intervention was initiated) on the composite outcome of time to myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death up to 30 days after surgery. Angiography assessors were blinded to study outcomes; patients, treating clinicians, and outcome assessors were blinded to angiography findings. RESULTS: Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 30 days after surgery) occurred in 7.7% of patients (74/955), including in 2.7% (8/293) without obstructive coronary disease or hypotension compared to 6.7% (21/314) with obstructive coronary disease but no hypotension (hazard ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.11 to 5.66; P = 0.027), 8.8% (14/159) in patients with hypotension but without obstructive coronary disease (hazard ratio, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.62 to 9.19; P = 0.002), and 16.4% (31/189) with obstructive coronary disease and hypotension (hazard ratio, 7.34; 95% CI, 3.37 to 15.96; P < 0.001). Hypotension was independently associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.99 to 5.06; P < 0.001). This association remained in patients without obstructive disease and did not differ significantly across degrees of coronary disease (P value for interaction, 0.599). CONCLUSIONS: In patients having noncardiac surgery, perioperative hypotension was associated with cardiovascular events regardless of the degree of coronary artery disease on preoperative coronary computed tomographic angiography.

7.
Lancet ; 393(10168): 228, 2019 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663594
8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(10): e10491, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative morbidity following gastrointestinal tract major surgery ranges between 40% and 60%. Malnutrition, poor protein intake, and surgery-related impairment of the immune system and its function have been associated with postoperative infections. Supplemental perioperative nutrition may improve nutrition by increasing protein intake to influence cell-mediated immunity, thereby reducing the rate of postoperative infectious complications. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of our trial is to determine the proportion of eligible patients randomized in an 18-month period. The primary feasibility outcome will be to (1) stop, main study not feasible: estimated proportion of randomized patients <40.0% (40/100); (2) continue with protocol modifications: estimated proportion of randomized patients 40.0% (40/100) to 59.0% (50/100); or (3) continue without modification: estimated proportion of randomized patients ≥60.0% (60/100). The secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with the nutritional supplements and to estimate differences in postoperative complications, global health-related quality of life (QoL), and median length of hospital stay between the groups. METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled feasibility trial. The intervention comprises three nutritional supplements: a protein isolate powder (ISOlution); immunomodulation (INergy-FLD), formulated liquid diet; and carbohydrate loading (PreCovery). Patients will consume 1 serving of the protein supplement per day from the randomization time up to 6 days before surgery (30 days in total). The immunomodulation, a solution that contains arginine, protein isolate, omega-6 fatty acids, and RNA, aims to attenuate excessive inflammatory responses and to replenish nutrients. This solution will be consumed as 3 doses per day for 5 days before and after surgery. Carbohydrate loading helps to reduce the stress from surgery by decreasing insulin resistance. Patients will have 2 servings the evening before surgery and 1 serving 2-3 hours before surgery. To be eligible, patients must have a resectable gastrointestinal cancer for which an elective operation is planned. Patients will be stratified according to nutritional status. The operation should occur within 4 weeks from enrollment. RESULTS: We expect to screen 165 eligible patients; 60.6% (100/165) of them will be randomized to either intervention or placebo. Assuming a two-sided alpha of .05, this will give us a 95% CI around the estimate of 53%-68%. A sample size of 50 per group will enable us to estimate the treatment effect and corresponding variance of the complication rate and QoL measures with adequate precision. The success is defined as the proportion of eligible patients randomized as ≥60.0% (60/100). Patients' compliance is defined as an intake of at least 70% (41/58) sachets of the intervention volume. CONCLUSIONS: The results will help to determine the feasibility of a larger randomized controlled trial to implement a perioperative nutritional supplement program for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery for cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03445260; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03445260 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72CAmMzgP). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/10491.

9.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 850-862, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960614

RESUMO

Worldwide, more than 230 million adults have major noncardiac surgery each year. Although surgery can improve quality and duration of life, it can also precipitate major complications. Moreover, a substantial proportion of deaths occur after discharge. Current systems for monitoring patients postoperatively, on surgical wards and after transition to home, are inadequate. On the surgical ward, vital signs evaluation usually occurs only every 4-8 hours. Reduced in-hospital ward monitoring, followed by no vital signs monitoring at home, leads to thousands of cases of undetected/delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise. In this article we review work to date on postoperative remote automated monitoring on surgical wards and strategy for advancing this field. Key considerations for overcoming current barriers to implementing remote automated monitoring in Canada are also presented.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Telemedicina/métodos , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia , Humanos
10.
Lancet ; 391(10137): 2325-2334, 2018 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths, which anticoagulation therapy could prevent. Dabigatran prevents perioperative venous thromboembolism, but whether this drug can prevent a broader range of vascular complications in patients with MINS is unknown. The MANAGE trial assessed the potential of dabigatran to prevent major vascular complications among such patients. METHODS: In this international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients from 84 hospitals in 19 countries. Eligible patients were aged at least 45 years, had undergone non-cardiac surgery, and were within 35 days of MINS. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive dabigatran 110 mg orally twice daily or matched placebo for a maximum of 2 years or until termination of the trial and, using a partial 2-by-2 factorial design, patients not taking a proton-pump inhibitor were also randomly assigned (1:1) to omeprazole 20 mg once daily, for which results will be reported elsewhere, or matched placebo to measure its effect on major upper gastrointestinal complications. Research personnel randomised patients through a central 24 h computerised randomisation system using block randomisation, stratified by centre. Patients, health-care providers, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of a major vascular complication, a composite of vascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral arterial thrombosis, amputation, and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The primary safety outcome was a composite of life-threatening, major, and critical organ bleeding. Analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01661101. FINDINGS: Between Jan 10, 2013, and July 17, 2017, we randomly assigned 1754 patients to receive dabigatran (n=877) or placebo (n=877); 556 patients were also randomised in the omeprazole partial factorial component. Study drug was permanently discontinued in 401 (46%) of 877 patients allocated to dabigatran and 380 (43%) of 877 patients allocated to placebo. The composite primary efficacy outcome occurred in fewer patients randomised to dabigatran than placebo (97 [11%] of 877 patients assigned to dabigatran vs 133 [15%] of 877 patients assigned to placebo; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·55-0·93; p=0·0115). The primary safety composite outcome occurred in 29 patients (3%) randomised to dabigatran and 31 patients (4%) randomised to placebo (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·55-1·53; p=0·76). INTERPRETATION: Among patients who had MINS, dabigatran 110 mg twice daily lowered the risk of major vascular complications, with no significant increase in major bleeding. Patients with MINS have a poor prognosis; dabigatran 110 mg twice daily has the potential to help many of the 8 million adults globally who have MINS to reduce their risk of a major vascular complication [corrected]. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Hemorragia/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/prevenção & controle , Efeito Placebo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/efeitos dos fármacos , Troponina/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 67(6): 1872-1880.e1, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent after major vascular surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether the administration of combined oral antihypertensive medications on the day of surgery can increase the risk of postoperative AKI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hypertensive patients undergoing elective major vascular surgery to determine the association between the number of antihypertensive medications continued on the morning of surgery and AKI at 48 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients who had undergone suprainguinal vascular surgery were included, and 10.3% suffered postoperative AKI. In multivariable analysis, the number of antihypertensive medications taken on the morning of surgery was independently associated with AKI (P = .026). Compared with patients who took no medication, taking one medication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-3.75) and taking two or more medications (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.13-6.44) were associated with a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of postoperative AKI, respectively. Other predictors of AKI were suprarenal surgery (aOR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.53-7.44), age (aOR, 2.29 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.40-3.74), length of surgery (aOR, 1.40 per 1 hour; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76), hemoglobin drop (aOR, 1.37 per 10 g/L; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74), and history of coronary artery disease (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.08-5.00). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing major vascular surgery who are treated with chronic antihypertensive therapy, the administration of antihypertensive drugs on the morning of surgery is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Medição de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(3): 295-302, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide approximately 200 million adults undergo major surgery annually, of whom 8 million are estimated to suffer a myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). There is currently no trial data informing the management of MINS. Antithrombotic agents such as direct oral anticoagulants might prevent major vascular complications in patients with MINS. METHODS: The Management of Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery (MANAGE) trial is a large international blinded randomized controlled trial of dabigatran vs placebo in patients who suffered MINS. We used a partial factorial design to also determine the effect of omeprazole vs placebo in reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding and complications. Both study drugs were initiated in eligible patients within 35 days of suffering MINS and continued for a maximum of 2 years. The primary outcome is a composite of major vascular complications for the dabigatran trial and a composite of upper gastrointestinal complications for the omeprazole trial. We present the rationale and design of the trial and baseline characteristics of enrolled patients. RESULTS: The trial randomized 1754 patients between January 2013 and July 2017. Patients' mean age was 69.9 years, 51.1% were male, 14.3% had a history of peripheral artery disease, 6.6% had a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, 12.9% had a previous myocardial infarction, and 26.0% had diabetes. The diagnosis of MINS was on the basis of an isolated ischemic troponin elevation in 80.4% of participants. CONCLUSION: MANAGE is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate a potential treatment of patients who suffered MINS.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Anesthesiology ; 128(2): 317-327, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods. RESULTS: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
JAMA ; 317(16): 1642-1651, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444280

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
Anesthesiology ; 126(1): 16-27, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27775997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect on cardiovascular outcomes of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in chronic users before noncardiac surgery is unknown. METHODS: In this international prospective cohort study, the authors analyzed data from 14,687 patients (including 4,802 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users) at least 45 yr old who had in-patient noncardiac surgery from 2007 to 2011. Using multivariable regression models, the authors studied the relationship between withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and a primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery at 30 days, with intraoperative and postoperative clinically important hypotension as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Compared to patients who continued their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, the 1,245 (26%) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users who withheld their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the 24 h before surgery were less likely to suffer the primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury (150/1,245 [12.0%] vs. 459/3,557 [12.9%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = 0.01) and intraoperative hypotension (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.93; P < 0.001). The risk of postoperative hypotension was similar between the two groups (adjusted relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10; P = 0.36). Results were consistent across the range of preoperative blood pressures. The practice of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers was only modestly correlated with patient characteristics and the type and timing of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers before major noncardiac surgery was associated with a lower risk of death and postoperative vascular events. A large randomized trial is needed to confirm this finding. In the interim, clinicians should consider recommending that patients withhold angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers 24 h before surgery.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(1): 17-32, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27865641

RESUMO

The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or ß-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Canadá , Humanos , Período Perioperatório
18.
Anesthesiology ; 125(6): 1121-1129, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial compared aspirin with placebo after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors randomly assigned 10,010 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive 200 mg aspirin or placebo 2 to 4 h before surgery and then 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo daily for up to 30 days after surgery. Herein, the authors report the effect of aspirin on venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as an updated pooled analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for VTE prevention in noncardiac surgery patients. RESULTS: Six thousand five hundred forty-eight patients (65.4%) received anticoagulant prophylaxis. VTE occurred in 53 patients (1.1%) allocated to aspirin and in 60 patients (1.2%) allocated to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.28). Major or life-threatening bleeding occurred in 312 patients (6.3%) allocated to aspirin and in 256 patients (5.1%) allocated to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.44). Concomitant use of anticoagulant prophylaxis did not modify the effect of aspirin on VTE or bleeding. Pooled analysis of the POISE-2 and Pulmonary Embolism Prevention trials demonstrated that symptomatic VTE occurred in 173 (1.3%) of 13,724 patients allocated to aspirin and in 246 (1.8%) of 13,730 patients allocated to placebo (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89; heterogeneity P = 0.27; I = 17%); the impact of aspirin was very similar in those who did and did not receive pharmacologic prophylaxis. Pooled estimates for symptomatic VTE were similar to the pooled estimates for any deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism from the POISE-2 trial, Pulmonary Embolism Prevention trial, and the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin in the POISE-2 trial did not reduce VTE, but two thirds of patients received anticoagulant prophylaxis, there were few VTE events, and results were consistent with a wide range of aspirin effects. A pooled analysis of the randomized trials demonstrates evidence for the efficacy of aspirin for VTE prevention in hospitalized surgical patients.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
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