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1.
Chemistry ; 25(54): 12545-12551, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268197

RESUMO

Purified samples of Ho3 N@C2 (22010)-C78 and Tb3 N@C2 (22010)-C78 have been isolated by two distinct processes from the rich array of fullerenes and endohedral fullerenes present in carbon soot from graphite rods doped with Ho2 O3 or Tb4 O7 . Crystallographic analysis of the endohedral fullerenes as cocrystals with Ni(OEP) (in which OEP is the dianion of octaethylporphyrin) shows that both molecules contain the chiral C2 (22010)-C78 cage. This cage does not obey the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) but has two sites where two pentagons share a common C-C bond. These pentalene units bind two of the metal ions, whereas the third metal resides near a hexagon of the cage. Inside the cages, the Ho3 N or Tb3 N unit is planar. Ho3 N@C2 (22010)-C78 and Tb3 N@C2 (22010)-C78 use the same cage previously found for Gd3 N@C2 (22010)-C78 rather than the IPR-obeying cage found in Sc3 N@D3h -C78 .

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(20): 8487-93, 2012 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22497289

RESUMO

The nanoscale parameters of metal clusters and lattices have a crucial influence on the macroscopic properties of materials. Herein, we provide a detailed study on the size and shape of isolated yttrium carbide clusters in different fullerene cages. A family of diyttrium endohedral metallofullerenes with the general formula of Y(2)C(2n) (n = 40-59) are reported. The high field (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods are employed to examine this yttrium carbide cluster in certain family members, Y(2)C(2)@D(5)(450)-C(100), Y(2)C(2)@D(3)(85)-C(92), Y(2)C(2)@C(84), Y(2)C(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82), and Y(2)C(2)@C(s)(6)-C(82). The results of this study suggest that decreasing the size of a fullerene cage with the same (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster results in nanoscale fullerene compression (NFC) from a nearly linear stretched geometry to a constrained "butterfly" structure. The (13)C NMR chemical shift and scalar (1)J(YC) coupling parameters provide a very sensitive measure of this NFC effect for the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster. The crystal structural parameters of a previously reported metal carbide, Y(2)C(3) are directly compared to the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster in the current metallofullerene study.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(14): 4980-1, 2010 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20307100

RESUMO

In this communication, we describe the successful encapsulation of (177)Lu into the endohedral metallofullerene (177)Lu(x)Lu(3-x)N@C(80) (x = 1-3) starting with (177)LuCl(3) in a modified quartz Kraschmer-Huffman electric generator. We demonstrate that the (177)Lu (beta-emitter) in this fullerene cage is not significantly released for a period of up to at least one-half-life (6.7 days). We also demonstrate that this agent can be conjugated with an interleukin-13 peptide that is designed to target an overexpressed receptor in glioblastoma multiforme tumors. This nanoparticle delivery platform provides flexibility for a wide range of radiotherapeutic and radiodiagnostic multimodal applications.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Interleucina-13/química , Lutécio/química , Radioisótopos/química , Marcação por Isótopo
5.
Inorg Chem ; 47(12): 5234-44, 2008 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18447327

RESUMO

We report an efficient method for the preparation and purification of the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80. Following preparation in a Kratschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator, the Tm3N@C80 isomers were obtained by a chemical separation process followed by a one-stage isomer selective chromatographic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation (pyrenyl, 5PYE column). The HPLC chromatographic retention behavior on a pentabromobenzyl (5PBB) column suggests a charge transfer of approximately 6 electrons; [M3N] 6+@C80(6-) and the chromatographic retention mechanisms of the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80 on both 5PBB and 5PYE columns are discussed. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data demonstrate that the Tm3N cluster has a planar structure but represents a tight fit for trapping the Tm3N cluster inside the I h - and the D 5h -C 80 cages. Specifically, the Tm atoms punch out the cage carbon atoms adjacent to them. The "punched out" effect can be demonstrated by cage radii and pyramidal angles at cage carbon atoms near the Tm atoms. The magnetic susceptibility (chiT) for Tm3N@ Ih -C80 was found to exhibit Curie-Weiss behavior with C = 23.4 emu.K/mol, which is consistent with the calculated value for three uncoupled Tm3+ ions by considering the spin and orbital contributions with no quenching of the orbital angular momentum ( L = 5, S = 1, and J = 6; Ccalcd = 23.3 emu.K/mol). The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that both the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80 have a large electrochemical gap.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Magnetismo , Nitrogênio/química , Túlio/química , Cápsulas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Íons , Isomerismo
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 129(22): 7018-27, 2007 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17497854

RESUMO

The study of intermolecular collisions and bonding interactions in solutions is of critical importance in understanding and predicting solute/solvent properties. Previous work has established that stable paramagnetic nitroxide molecules are excellent probes of intermolecular interactions for hydrogen bonding in polar solvents. In this study, 1H, 2H, 13C, 15N NMR and liquid/liquid intermolecular transfer dynamic nuclear polarization (L2IT DNP) results are obtained for the paramagnetic probe molecule, TEMPO, interacting with the common aprotic and protic polar solvents, CH3CN and CH3CONH2, yielding a profile of both dipolar and scalar interactions. A significant scalar contact hyperfine is observed for the N-O...H-C interaction (13CH3 hyperfine, a/h=0.66 MHz) in the CH3CN/TEMPO system, whereas the N-O...H-C and N-O...H-N interactions for the TEMPO/CH3CONH2 system yield 13CH3 and 15N hyperfine couplings of a/h=0.16 and -0.50 MHz, respectively. The distance and attitude of the scalar interaction for the nitroxide hydrogen bonding at the methyl group in CH3CN and the amino group in CH3CONH2 are computed using density functional theory (DFT), yielding good agreement with the experimental results. These results show that the hyperfine coupling provides a sensitive probe of weak hydrogen-bonding interactions in solution.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 129(7): 2035-43, 2007 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17256857

RESUMO

The recent finding that isomer 2 of Tb(3)N@C(84) uses one of the 51,568 possible nonisolated pentagon rule (non-IPR) structures for the C(84) cage rather than one of the 24 cage isomers that do obey the IPR suggests that further experimental work on the structure of larger endohedrals is needed to observe the utility of the IPR rule in this uncharted territory. The structures of the newly synthesized endohedral fullerenes--Tb(3)N@C(88), Tb(3)N@C(86), and the Ih and D(5)(h) isomers of Tb(3)N@C(80)--have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction on samples cocrystallized with NiII(octaethylporphyrin). In contrast to the situation for isomer 2 of Tb(3)N@C(84), the structures of Tb(3)N@C(88) and Tb(3)N@C(86) do conform to the IPR. Both Tb(3)N@C(88) and Tb(3)N@C(86) have chiral structures with D(2) symmetry for Tb(3)N@C(880 and D(3) symmetry for Tb(3)N@C(86). Within this group of endohedrals, the size of the carbon cage affects the Tb-N and Tb-C distances, the orientations of the carbon cage with respect to the porphyrin plane, the locations of the metal ions and their orientations relative to the porphyrin plane, and the degree of pyramidalization of the Tb(3)N unit.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Térbio/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fulerenos/isolamento & purificação , Isomerismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(35): 11352-3, 2006 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16939248

RESUMO

The structure of isomer 2 of Tb3N@C84 has been determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction on Tb3N@C84.NiII(OEP).2(C6H6). The carbon cage has a distinct egg shape due to the presence of a single pair of fused pentagons at one apex of the molecule. Thus, although 24 IPR structures are available to the C84 cage, Nature utilizes one of the 51 568 isomeric structures that do not conform to the IPR for this unusual molecule. The Tb3N portion of isomer 2 of Tb3N@C84 is strictly planar. One Tb atom is nestled within the fold of the fused pentagons, while the other Tb atoms are disordered over four pairs of sites.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Nitrogênio/química , Térbio/química , Catálise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(27): 8884-9, 2006 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16819883

RESUMO

Herein, we report the preparation, purification, and characterization of a mixed trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene, CeSc(2)N@C(80). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that CeSc(2)N@C(80) consists of a four-atom asymmetric top (CeSc(2)N) inside a C(80) (I(h)()) carbon cage. Unlike the situation in most endohedrals of the M(3)N@C(2)(n)() type, the nitride ion is not located at the center of the carbon cage but is offset by 0.36 A in order to accommodate the large Ce(III) ion. The cage carbon atoms near the endohedral Ce and Sc atoms exhibit significantly larger pyramidal angles than the other carbon atoms on the C(80) cage. Surprisingly, at ambient temperature, the (13)C NMR spectrum exhibits isotropic motional averaging yielding only two signals (3 to 1 intensity ratio) for the icosahedral C(80) cage carbons. At the same temperature, the (45)Sc NMR exhibits a relatively narrow, symmetric signal (2700 Hz) with a small temperature-dependent Curie shift. A rotation energy barrier (E(a) = 79 meV) was derived from the (45)Sc NMR line-width analysis. Finally, the XPS spectrum for CeSc(2)N@C(80) confirms a +3 oxidation state for cerium, Ce(3+)(4f(1)5d(0)). This oxidation state and the Curie shift are consistent with a weakly paramagnetic system with a single buried f electron spin.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Fulerenos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Escândio/química , Cério/isolamento & purificação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Elétrons , Fulerenos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Moleculares , Escândio/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Análise Espectral , Raios X
10.
Radiology ; 240(3): 756-64, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16837672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a functionalized trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene nanoparticle as a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proton relaxation agent and to follow its distribution for in vitro agarose gel infusions and in vivo infusions in rat brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal study was approved by the animal care and use committee. Gd(3)N@C(80) was functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) units, and the carbon cage was hydroxylated to provide improved water solubility and biodistribution. Relaxation rate measurements (R1 = 1/T1 and R2 = 1/T2) of water solutions of this contrast agent were conducted at 0.35-, 2.4-, and 9.4-T MR imaging. Images of contrast agent distributions were produced following infusions in six agarose gel samples at 2.4 T and from direct brain infusions into normal and tumor-bearing rat brain at 2.4 T. The relaxivity of a control functionalized lutetium agent, Lu(3)N@C(80), was also determined. RESULTS: Water hydrogen MR imaging relaxivity (r1) for this metallofullerene nanoparticle was markedly higher than that for commercial agents (eg, gadodiamide); r1 values of 102, 143, and 32 L . mmol(-1) . sec(-1) were measured at 0.35, 2.4, and 9.4 T, respectively. In studies of in vitro agarose gel infusion, the use of functionalized Gd(3)N@C(80) at concentrations an order of magnitude lower resulted in equivalent visualization in comparison with commercial agents. Comparable contrast enhancement was obtained with direct infusions of 0.013 mmol/L of Gd(3)N@C(80) and 0.50 mmol/L of gadodiamide in live normal rat brain. Elapsed-time studies demonstrated lower diffusion rates for Gd(3)N@C(80) relative to gadodiamide in live normal rat brain tissue. Functionalized metallofullerenes directly infused into a tumor-bearing brain provided an improved tumor delineation in comparison with the intravenously injected conventional Gd(3+) chelate. A control lutetium functionalized Lu(3)N@C(80) nanoparticle exhibited very low MR imaging relaxivity. CONCLUSION: The new functionalized trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene species Gd(3)N@C(80)[DiPEG5000(OH)(x)] is an effective proton relaxation agent, as demonstrated with in vitro relaxivity and MR imaging studies, in infusion experiments with agarose gel and in vivo rat brain studies simulating clinical conditions of direct intraparenchymal drug delivery for the treatment of brain tumors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Fulerenos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 127(46): 16292-8, 2005 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16287323

RESUMO

A major hurdle hampering the development of fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes, and nanotubes has been the difficulty of obtaining high purity samples. Soots prepared in the usual manner via a Krätschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator consist of mixtures of insoluble carbonaceous materials and soluble fullerenes: C60, C70, C76, C78, C84, etc. When metals are introduced as endohedral species the complexity of the resultant soot is even greater because of the presence of multiple isomers of both the empty fullerenes and the endohedral metallofullerenes. Here, for the first time, we report that lanthanide trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes, A3N@C80 (A = lanthanide atom, e.g., Er, Gd, Ho, Lu, Sc, Tb, Tm, Y), can be obtained in pure form directly from as-prepared soots in a single facile step by taking advantage of their extraordinary kinetic chemical stability with respect to the other fullerenes in Diels-Alder reactions with a cyclopentadiene-functionalized resin. We show that careful control of conditions (stoichiometry, time, temperature) allows separation of fullerenes with different cage sizes, as well as isomeric species. Furthermore, the Diels-Alder reaction is thermally reversible, and we demonstrated that the bound empty-cage fullerenes and classical endohedral metallofullerenes can be recovered by displacement with maleic anhydride.

12.
J Org Chem ; 69(4): 1086-96, 2004 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14961656

RESUMO

The MPW1PW91/6-311+G(2d,p) and MP2/6-311+G(2d,p) GIAO nuclear shieldings for a series of monosubstituted acetylenes have been calculated using the MP2/6-311G(2d,p) geometries. Axially symmetric substituents such as fluorine may lead to large changes in the isotropic shielding but have little effect on the tensor component (zz) about the C[triple bond]C bond axis. On the other hand, substituents such as vinyl and aldehyde groups lead to essentially no difference in the isotropic shielding but are calculated to give a large zz paramagnetic shift to the terminal carbon of the acetylene group, without having much effect on the inner carbon. The tensor components of the chemical shifts for trimethylsilylacetylene, methoxyacetylene, and propiolaldehyde have been measured and are in reasonable agreement with the calculations. The downfield shift at the terminal carbon of propiolaldehyde along with a small upfield shift at the adjacent carbon has been found to result from the coupling of the in-plane pi MO of the acetylene with the pi* orbital that has a node near the central carbon. The tensor components for acetonitrile also have been measured, and the shielding of cyano and acetylenic carbons are compared.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 124(14): 3494-5, 2002 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11929224

RESUMO

The structure of Sc3N@C80-C10H12O2, a Diels-Alder cycloadduct of Sc3N@C80, has been determined. The crystallographic data shows that cycloaddition occurs at a C-C bond of 6:5 ring junction, and that the fullerene C1-C2 bond is elongated and pulled out from the fullerene. The Sc3N unit is well-ordered within the C80 cage and positioned away from the site of addition. The proximity of the Sc atoms to the cage carbon atoms causes those carbon atoms to protrude slightly from the surface of the fullerene cage.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 124(4): 524-5, 2002 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11804475

RESUMO

The reaction of Sc3N@C80 with 6,7-dimethoxyisochroman-3-one (13C labeled) provides the first functionalized derivative of the trimetallic nitride template (TNT) endohedral metallofullerene family. The reaction mixture is dominated by a single 13C labeled monoadduct product that was purified by HPLC. The 13C labeled monoadduct was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The proposed structure for this novel symmetric monoadduct is consistent with derivatization at the [5,6] ring juncture on the Sc3N@C80 cage.

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