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1.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974949

RESUMO

To present knowledge, macrophages are found in all tissues of the human body. They are a cell population with high plasticity which come with a multitude of functions which appear to be adapted to the respective tissue niche and micro-environment in which they reside. Bone harbors multiple macrophage subpopulations, with the osteoclasts as classical representative of a bone resorbing cells and osteomacs as a bone tissue resident macrophage first described by the expression of F4/80. Both subtypes are found throughout all phases in bone healing. In vivo data on bone regeneration have demonstrated their essential role in initiating the healing cascade (inflammatory phase) but also of the later phases of healing (e.g. endochondral and intramembranous bone formation). To participate in such diverse processes macrophages have to be highly plastic in their functionality. Thus, the widely used M1/M2 paradigm to distinguish macrophage subpopulations may not mirror the comprehensive role of the dynamics of macrophage plasticity. From a clinical perspective it is especially relevant to distinguish what drives macrophages in impaired healing scenarios, implant loosening or infections, where their specific role of a misbalanced inflammatory setting is so far only partially known. With this review we aim at illustrating current knowledge and gaps of knowledge on macrophage plasticity and function during the cascades of regeneration and reconstitution of bone tissue. We propose aspects of the known biological mechanisms of macrophages and their specific subsets that might serve as targets to control their function in impaired healing and eventually support a scar-free regeneration. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Macrophages are essential for successful regeneration. In scar-free healing such as in bone, a complete failure of healing was shown if macrophages were depleted; the M1/M2 switch appears to be key to the progression from pro-inflammation to regeneration. However, experimental data illustrate that the classical M1/M2 paradigm does not completely mirror the complexity of observed macrophage functions during bone healing and thus demands a broader perspective. Within this review we discuss the high degree of plasticity of macrophages and the relevant contribution of the different and more specific M2 subtypes (M2a-M2f) during (bone) regeneration. It summarizes the versatile roles of macrophages in skeletal regeneration and thereby highlights potential target points for immunomodulatory approaches to enable or even foster bone repair.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917250

RESUMO

Limiting bone resorption and regenerating bone tissue are treatment goals in myeloma bone disease (MMBD). Physical stimuli such as mechanical loading prevent bone destruction and enhance bone mass in the MOPC315.BM.Luc model of MMBD. It is unknown whether treatment with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor CC-292 (spebrutinib), which regulates osteoclast differentiation and function, augments the anabolic effect of mechanical loading. CC-292 was administered alone and in combination with axial compressive tibial loading in the MOPC315.BM.Luc model for three weeks. However, neither CC-292 alone nor its use in combination with mechanical loading was more effective in reducing osteolytic bone disease or rescuing bone mass than mechanical stimuli alone, as evidenced by microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometric analysis. Further studies are needed to investigate novel anti-myeloma and anti-resorptive strategies in combination with physical stimuli to improve treatment of MMBD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The clinical parameter "morning stiffness" is widely used to assess the status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its accurate quantitative assessment in a clinical setting has not yet been successful. This lack of individual quantification limits both personalized medication and efficacy evaluation in the treatment of RA. METHODS: We have developed a novel technology to assess passive resistance of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) III joint (stiffness) and its Passive Range of Motion (PRoM). Within this pilot study, nineteen female postmenopausal RA patients and nine healthy controls were examined in the evening as well as in the morning of the following day. To verify the specificity of the biomechanical quantification, eleven patients with RA were assessed both prior to and ∼3 h after glucocorticoid therapy. RESULTS: While the healthy controls showed only minor changes between afternoon and morning, in RA patients mean±SD PRoM decreased significantly by 18 ± 22% and stiffness increased significantly by 20 ± 18% in the morning compared with the previous afternoon. We found a significant positive correlation between RA activity and biomechanical measures. Glucocorticoids significantly increased mean PRoM by 16 ± 11% and reduced mean stiffness by 23 ± 22%. CONCLUSION: This technology allowed mechanical stiffness to be quantified in MCP joints, and has demonstrated high sensitivity in respect to disease status as well as medication effect in RA patients. Such non-invasive, low risk, and rapid assessment of biomechanical joint stiffness opens a novel avenue for judging therapy efficacy in patients with RA, and potentially also in other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between in vivo knee load predictions and longitudinal cartilage changes has not been investigated. This study aimed to develop an equation to predict the medial tibiofemoral contact force (MCF) peak during walking in persons with instrumented knee implants, and to apply this equation to determine the relationship between the predicted MCF peak and cartilage loss in persons with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: In adults with knee osteoarthritis [39 women, 8 men; age 61.1 ± 6.8 years], baseline biomechanical gait analyses were performed and annualized change in medial tibial cartilage volume (mm3 /year) over 2.5 years was determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In a separate sample of patients with force-measuring tibial prostheses [3 women, 6 men; age 70.3 ± 5.2 years], gait data plus in vivo knee loads were used to develop an equation to predict the MCF peak using machine learning. This equation was then applied to the knee osteoarthritis sample, and the relationship between the predicted MCF peak and annualized cartilage volume change was determined. RESULTS: The MCF peak was best predicted using gait speed, the knee adduction moment peak and the vertical knee reaction force peak (root mean square error=132.88 N, R2 =0.81, p<0.001). In participants with knee osteoarthritis, the predicted MCF peak was related to cartilage volume change (R2 =0.35, ß=-0.119, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Machine learning was used to develop a novel equation for predicting the MCF peak from external biomechanical parameters. Predicted MCF peak was positively related to medial tibial cartilage volume loss in persons with knee osteoarthritis.

5.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 585799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262976

RESUMO

Large segmental bone defects represent a clinical challenge for which current treatment procedures have many drawbacks. 3D-printed scaffolds may help to support healing, but their design process relies mainly on trial and error due to a lack of understanding of which scaffold features support bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether existing mechano-biological rules of bone regeneration can also explain scaffold-supported bone defect healing. In addition, we examined the distinct roles of bone grafting and scaffold structure on the regeneration process. To that end, scaffold-surface guided migration and tissue deposition as well as bone graft stimulatory effects were included in an in silico model and predictions were compared to in vivo data. We found graft osteoconductive properties and scaffold-surface guided extracellular matrix deposition to be essential features driving bone defect filling in a 3D-printed honeycomb titanium structure. This knowledge paves the way for the design of more effective 3D scaffold structures and their pre-clinical optimization, prior to their application in scaffold-based bone defect regeneration.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305952

RESUMO

When T-cells probe their environment for antigens, the bond between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is put under tension, thereby influencing the antigen discrimination. Yet, the quantification of such forces in the context of T-cell signaling is technically challenging. Here, we developed a traction force microscopy platform which allows for quantifying the pulls and pushes exerted via T-cell microvilli, in both tangential and normal directions, during T-cell activation. We immobilized specific T-cell activating antibodies on the marker beads used to read out the hydrogel deformation. Microvilli targeted the functionalized beads, as confirmed by superresolution microscopy of the local actin organization. Moreover, we found that cellular components, such as actin, TCR, and CD45 reorganize upon interaction with the beads, such that actin forms a vortex-like ring structure around the beads and TCR is enriched at the bead surface, whereas CD45 is excluded from bead-microvilli contacts.

7.
Cartilage ; : 1947603520980157, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly prevalent in the population. In this article, we explore whether such cartilage damage is associated with greater longitudinal change in 3D cartilage thickness and knee function in subjects without (risk factors of) knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Eighty-two knees of Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort participants had baseline and 4-year follow-up MRI and knee function data. Baseline presence of semiquantitatively assessed MRI-based cartilage damage (MOAKS [MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score] ≥ grade 1.0) was recorded by an experienced radiologist. Longitudinal femorotibial cartilage thickness change was determined after segmentation, using location-independent methodology. Knee function was evaluated by patient-reported outcomes and functional performance measures. Statistical comparisons included analysis of covariance adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. RESULTS: Forty-five percent of the participants had cartilage damage in at least one femorotibial subregion; the cartilage thickness change score was 15% greater in participants with than in those without damage (1216 ± 434 vs. 1058 ± 277 µm). This difference reached borderline statistical significance with and without adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index (P = 0.05). No significant differences in the change of patient-reported outcomes of knee function (PASE [physical activity score of the elderly] and WOMAC [Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index]) or chair stand test results were detected. Of those without femorotibial damage, 58% had cartilage damage in at least one femoropatellar subregion; these had a 9% greater femorotibial cartilage change score than those without femoropatellar or femorotibial damage (difference not statistically significant). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of osteoarthritis risk factors, semiquantitatively assessed MRI-based cartilage damage appears to be associated with greater longitudinal location-independent femorotibial cartilage thickness changes, but not with greater functional deteriorations.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22299, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339872

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in the Sost gene lead to high bone mass phenotypes. Pharmacological inhibition of Sost/sclerostin provides a new drug strategy for treating osteoporosis. Questions remain as to how physical activity may affect bone mass under sclerostin inhibition and if that effect differs between males and females. We previously observed in female Sost knockout (KO) mice an enhanced cortical bone formation response to a moderate level of applied loading (900 µÎµ at the tibial midshaft). The purpose of the present study was to examine cortical bone adaptation to the same strain level applied to male Sost KO mice. Strain-matched in vivo compressive loading was applied to the tibiae of 10-, 26- and 52-week-old male Sost KO and littermate control (LC) mice. The effect of tibial loading on bone (re)modeling was measured by microCT, 3D time-lapse in vivo morphometry, 2D histomorphometry and gene expression analyses. As expected, Sost deficiency led to high cortical bone mass in 10- and 26-week-old male mice as a result of increased bone formation. However, the enhanced bone formation associated with Sost deficiency did not appear to diminish with skeletal maturation. An increase in bone resorption was observed with skeletal maturation in male LC and Sost KO mice. Two weeks of in vivo loading (900 µÎµ at the tibial midshaft) induced only a mild anabolic response in 10- and 26-week-old male mice, independent of Sost deficiency. A decrease in the Wnt inhibitor Dkk1 expression was observed 3 h after loading in 52-week-old Sost KO and LC mice, and an increase in Lef1 expression was observed 8 h after loading in 10-week-old Sost KO mice. The current results suggest that long-term inhibition of sclerostin in male mice does not influence the adaptive response of cortical bone to moderate levels of loading. In contrast with our previous strain-matched study in females showing enhanced bone responses with Sost ablation, these results in males indicate that the influence of Sost deficiency on the cortical bone formation response to a moderate level of loading differs between males and females. Clinical studies examining antibodies to inhibit sclerostin may need to consider that the efficacy of additional physical activity regimens may be sex dependent.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Hiperostose/genética , Osteogênese/genética , Estresse Mecânico , Sindactilia/genética , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Osso Cortical/fisiologia , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Hiperostose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Sindactilia/fisiopatologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Calcitonin gene-related peptide alpha (αCGRP) represents an immunomodulatory neuropeptide implicated in pain perception. αCGRP also functions as a critical regulator of bone formation and is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of αCGRP in experimental RA regarding joint inflammation and bone remodelling. METHODS: Collagen II-antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced in wild type (WT) and αCGRP-deficient (αCGRP-/-) mice. Animals were monitored over 10 and 48 days with daily assessments of the semiquantitative arthritis score and grip strength test. Joint inflammation, cartilage degradation and bone erosions were assessed by histology, gene expression analysis and µCT. RESULTS: CAIA was accompanied by an overexpression of αCGRP in WT joints. αCGRP-/- mice displayed reduced arthritic inflammation and cartilage degradation. Congruently, the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, CD80 and MMP13 was induced in WT, but not αCGRP-/- animals. WT mice displayed an increased bone turnover during the acute inflammatory phase, which was not the case in αCGRP-/- mice. Interestingly, WT mice displayed a full recovery from the inflammatory bone disease, whereas αCGRP-/- mice exhibited substantial bone loss over time. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a proinflammatory and bone protective role of αCGRP in CAIA. Our data indicate that αCGRP not only enhances joint inflammation, but also controls bone remodelling as part of arthritis resolution. As novel αCGRP inhibitors are currently introduced clinically for the treatment of migraine, their potential impact on RA progression warrants further clinical investigation.

10.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 579511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195140

RESUMO

Though gait asymmetry is used as a metric of functional recovery in clinical rehabilitation, there is no consensus on an ideal method for its evaluation. Various methods have been proposed to analyze single bilateral signals but are limited in scope, as they can often use only positive signals or discrete values extracted from time-scale data as input. By defining five symmetry axioms, a framework for benchmarking existing methods was established and a new method was described here for the first time: the weighted universal symmetry index (wUSI), which overcomes limitations of other methods. Both existing methods and the wUSI were mathematically compared to each other and in respect to their ability to fulfill the proposed symmetry axioms. Eligible methods that fulfilled these axioms were then applied using both discrete and continuous approaches to ground reaction force (GRF) data collected from healthy gait, both with and without artificially induced asymmetry using a single instrumented elbow crutch. The wUSI with a continuous approach was the only symmetry method capable of identifying GRF asymmetry differences in different walking conditions in all three planes of motion. When used with a continuous approach, the wUSI method was able to detect asymmetries while avoiding artificial inflation, a common problem reported in other methods. In conclusion, the wUSI is proposed as a universal method to quantify three-dimensional GRF asymmetries, which may also be expanded to other biomechanical signals.

12.
Acta Biomater ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130307

RESUMO

Bone continually adapts to changing external loading conditions via (re)modeling (modeling and remodeling) processes. While physical activity is known to beneficially enhance bone mass in healthy individuals, little is known in how physical stimuli affect osteolytic bone destruction in patients suffering from multiple myeloma bone disease. Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, shifting the balance in bone remodeling towards massive resorption. We hypothesized that in vivo tibial mechanical loading has anabolic effects in mice with locally injected MOPC315.BM.Luc cells. Conventional microCT analysis revealed enhanced cortical bone mass and microstructure in loaded compared to nonloaded mice. State-of-the-art time-lapse microCT based image analysis demonstrated bone (re)modeling processes at the endosteal and periosteal surfaces as the underlying causes of increased bone mass. Loading prevented the progression and development of osteolytic destruction. Physical stimuli also diminished local MM cell growth and dissemination evidenced by quantification of MM cell-specific immunoglobulin A levels in the serum of mice and by bioluminescence analysis. These data indicate that mechanical loading not only rescues the bone phenotype, but also exerts cell-extrinsic anti-myeloma effects in the MOPC315.BM.Luc model. In conclusion, the use of physical stimuli should be further investigated as an anabolic treatment for osteolytic bone destruction in patients with MM.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(20): 2000412, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101844

RESUMO

Metallic implants are frequently used in medicine to support and replace degenerated tissues. Implant loosening due to particle exposure remains a major cause for revision arthroplasty. The exact role of metal debris in sterile peri-implant inflammation is controversial, as it remains unclear whether and how metals chemically alter and potentially accumulate behind an insulating peri-implant membrane, in the adjacent bone and bone marrow (BM). An intensively focused and bright synchrotron X-ray beam allows for spatially resolving the multi-elemental composition of peri-implant tissues from patients undergoing revision surgery. In peri-implant BM, particulate cobalt (Co) is exclusively co-localized with chromium (Cr), non-particulate Cr accumulates in the BM matrix. Particles consisting of Co and Cr contain less Co than bulk alloy, which indicates a pronounced dissolution capacity. Particulate titanium (Ti) is abundant in the BM and analyzed Ti nanoparticles predominantly consist of titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal phase. Co and Cr but not Ti integrate into peri-implant bone trabeculae. The characteristic of Cr to accumulate in the intertrabecular matrix and trabecular bone is reproducible in a human 3D in vitro model. This study illustrates the importance of updating the view on long-term consequences of biomaterial usage and reveals toxicokinetics within highly sensitive organs.

14.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The apparently physiological kinematics of the bicruciate-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (BCS TKA) systems have been attributed to the anterior and posterior post-cam mechanism. Although comparisons between TKA designs with either a retained or a sacrificed cruciate ligament have been conducted, we are not aware of any analyses of 2 implants with identical bearing geometry but different cruciate-ligament strategies under equal loading conditions. Knowledge about the kinematic effect of the different cruciate ligament strategies would potentially be valuable to facilitate preoperative planning and decision-making with regard to selecting the most appropriate implant for a patient. METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 patients: 10 treated with a BCS and 10 treated with a cruciate retaining (CR) TKA. Fluoroscopic analyses during high-flexion activities (unloaded flexion-extension and loaded lunge) were conducted at 24 months postsurgery. All patients completed the Knee Society Score, Forgotten Joint Score, and High-Flexion Knee Score questionnaires preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: The BCS cohort showed greater femoral lateral rollback as well as a medial pivot in both activities. In contrast, the CR cohort showed a significant increase in anterior translation on the medial compartment as well as almost absent femoral lateral rollback. Higher clinical scores were observed in the BCS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: At 24 months postsurgery, despite equal bearing geometry, retention of the posterior cruciate ligament in the CR cohort apparently was insufficient to reduce anterior shift. The BCS cohort showed expected knee joint kinematics; however, the kinematics in this cohort could eventually benefit from a smooth transition between the interchanging surfaces. Further investigation should be focused on the surgical technique and its interaction with the TKA design. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

15.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872353

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a known key mediator of physiological bone regeneration and is clinically approved for selected musculoskeletal interventions. Yet, broad usage of this growth factor is impeded due to side effects that are majorly evoked by high dosages and burst release kinetics. In this study, mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGs), produced by an aerosol-assisted spray-drying scalable process, were loaded with BMP-2 resulting in prolonged, low-dose BMP-2 release without affecting the material characteristics. In vitro, MBGs were found to be cytocompatible and to induce a pro-osteogenic response in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In a pre-clinical rodent model, BMP-2 loaded MBGs significantly enhanced bone formation and influenced the microarchitecture of newly formed bone. The MBG carriers alone performed equal to the untreated (empty) control in most parameters tested, while additionally exerting mild pro-angiogenic effects. Using MBGs as a biocompatible, pro-regenerative carrier for local and sustained low dose BMP-2 release could limit side effects, thus enabling a safer usage of BMP-2 as a potent pro-osteogenic growth factor.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15057, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929099

RESUMO

Systemic and local posttraumatic responses are often monitored on mRNA expression level using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which requires normalisation to adjust for confounding sources of variability. Normalisation requests reference (housekeeping) genes stable throughout time and divergent experimental conditions in the tissue of interest, which are crucial for a reliable and reproducible gene expression analysis. Although previous animal studies analysed reference genes following isolated trauma, this multiple-trauma gene expression analysis provides a notable study analysing reference genes in primarily affected (i.e. bone/fracture callus and hypothalamus) and secondarily affected organs (i.e. white adipose tissue, liver, muscle and spleen), following experimental long bone fracture and traumatic brain injury. We considered tissue-specific and commonly used top-ranked reference candidates from different functional groups that were evaluated applying the established expression stability analysis tools NormFinder, GeNorm, BestKeeper and RefFinder. In conclusion, reference gene expression in primary organs is highly time point as well as tissue-specific, and therefore requires careful evaluation for qRT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, the general application of Ppia, particularly in combination with a second reference gene, is strongly recommended for the analysis of systemic effects in the case of indirect trauma affecting secondary organs through local and systemic pathophysiological responses.

17.
Front Physiol ; 11: 746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792966

RESUMO

Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) results in long-term functional and structural deficits, characterized by reduced ankle mobility and plantarflexor muscle atrophy. However, it remains unclear how such functional impairments develop after surgical repair. While it is known that this injury negatively affects the tendon's function, to date, limited work has focused on the short-term effect of ATR on the structure of the muscles in series. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in medial gastrocnemius architecture and its response to passive lengthening during the post-surgical rehabilitative period following ATR. Both injured and contralateral limbs from 10 subjects (1 female, BMI: 27.2 ± 3.9 kg/m2; age: 46 ± 10 years) with acute, unilateral ATR were assessed at 8, 12, and 16 weeks after percutaneous surgical repair. To characterize the component tissues of the muscle-tendon unit, resting medial gastrocnemius muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle were determined from ultrasound images with the ankle in both maximal plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. The ankle range of motion (ROM) was determined using motion capture; combined ultrasound and motion capture determined the relative displacement of the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) of the AT with the medial gastrocnemius. The ATR-injured gastrocnemius muscle consistently exhibited lower thickness, regardless of time point and ankle angle. Maximal ankle plantarflexion angles and corresponding fascicle lengths were lower on the injured ankle compared to the contralateral throughout rehabilitation. When normalized to the overall ankle ROM, both injured fascicles and MTJ displacement exhibited a comparably lower change in length when the ankle was passively rotated. These results indicate that when both ankles are passively exposed to the same ROM following ATR surgery, both ipsilateral Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle fascicles exhibit limited lengthening compared to the contralateral MTU tissues. This appears to be consistent throughout the rehabilitation of gait, suggesting that current post-operative rehabilitative exercises do not appear to induce muscle adaptations in the affected MTU.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 115: 185-196, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736118

RESUMO

Hydrogels with patterned biophysical and biochemical properties have found increasing attention in the biomaterials community. In this work, we explore alginate-based materials with two orthogonal crosslinking mechanisms: the spontaneous Diels-Alder reaction and the ultraviolet light-initiated thiol-ene reaction. Combining these mechanisms in one material and spatially restricting the location of the latter using photomasks, enables the formation of dual-crosslinked hydrogels with patterns in stiffness, biomolecule presentation and degradation, granting local control over cell behavior. Patterns in stiffness are characterized morphologically by confocal microscopy and mechanically by uniaxial compression and microindentation measurement. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts seeded on stiffness-patterned substrates attach preferably and attain a spread morphology on stiff compared to soft regions. Human mesenchymal stem cells demonstrate preferential adipogenic differentiation on soft surfaces and osteogenic differentiation on stiff surfaces. Patterns in biomolecule presentation reveal favored attachment of mouse pre-osteoblasts on stripe regions, where thiolated cell-adhesive biomolecules have been coupled. Patterns in degradation are visualized by microindentation measurement following collagenase exposure. Patterned tissue infiltration into degradable regions on the surface is discernible in n=5/12 samples, when these materials are implanted subcutaneously into the backs of mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that our hydrogel system with patterns in biophysical and biochemical properties enables the study of how environmental cues affect multiple cell behaviors in vitro and could be applied to guide endogenous tissue growth in diverse healing scenarios in vivo. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrogels with patterns in biophysical and biochemical properties have been explored in the biomaterials community in order to spatially control or guide cell behavior. In our alginate-based system, we demonstrate the effect of local substrate stiffness and biomolecule presentation on the in vitro cell attachment, morphology, migration and differentiation behavior of two different mouse cell lines and human primary cells. Additionally, the effect of degradation patterns on the in vivo tissue infiltration is analyzed following subcutaneous implantation into a mouse model. The achievement of patterned tissue infiltration following the hydrogel template represents an important step towards guiding endogenous healing responses, thus inviting application in various tissue engineering contexts.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102970, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired fracture healing represents an ongoing clinical challenge, as treatment options remain limited. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide targeted by emerging anti-migraine drugs, is also expressed in sensory nerve fibres innervating bone tissue. METHOD: Bone healing following a femoral osteotomy stabilized with an external fixator was analysed over 21 days in αCGRP-deficient and WT mice. Bone regeneration was evaluated by serum analysis, µCT analysis, histomorphometry and genome-wide expression analysis. Bone-marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as the CGRP antagonist olcegepant were employed for mechanistic studies. FINDINGS: WT mice with a femoral fracture display increased CGRP serum levels. αCGRP mRNA expression after skeletal injury is exclusively induced in callus tissue, but not in other organs. On protein level, CGRP and its receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) complexing with RAMP1, are differentially expressed in the callus during bone regeneration. On the other hand, αCGRP-deficient mice display profoundly impaired bone regeneration characterised by a striking reduction in the number of bone-forming osteoblasts and a high rate of incomplete callus bridging and non-union. As assessed by genome-wide expression analysis, CGRP induces the expression of specific genes linked to ossification, bone remodeling and adipogenesis. This suggests that CGRP receptor-dependent PPARγ signaling plays a central role in fracture healing. INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates an essential role of αCGRP in orchestrating callus formation and identifies CGRP receptor agonism as a potential approach to stimulate bone regeneration. Moreover, as novel agents blocking CGRP or its receptor CRLR are currently introduced clinically for the treatment of migraine disorders, their potential negative impact on bone regeneration warrants clinical investigation. FUNDING: This work was funded by grants from the Else-Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH).

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