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1.
Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019

RESUMO

The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
2.
Adv Mater ; 33(7): e2003855, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448061

RESUMO

The electrosynthesis of value-added multicarbon products from CO2 is a promising strategy to shift chemical production away from fossil fuels. Particularly important is the rational design of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) assemblies to react selectively, at scale, and at high rates. However, the understanding of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in these assemblies is limited for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR): particularly important, but incompletely understood, is how the GDL modulates product distributions of catalysts operating in high current density regimes > 300 mA cm-2 . Here, 3D-printable fluoropolymer GDLs with tunable microporosity and structure are reported and probe the effects of permeance, microstructural porosity, macrostructure, and surface morphology. Under a given choice of applied electrochemical potential and electrolyte, a 100× increase in the C2 H4 :CO ratio due to GDL surface morphology design over a homogeneously porous equivalent and a 1.8× increase in the C2 H4 partial current density due to a pyramidal macrostructure are observed. These findings offer routes to improve CO2 RR GDEs as a platform for 3D catalyst design.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(47)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208366

RESUMO

We demonstrate an additive manufacturing approach to produce gradient refractive index glass optics. Using direct ink writing with an active inline micromixer, we three-dimensionally print multimaterial green bodies with compositional gradients, consisting primarily of silica nanoparticles and varying concentrations of titania as the index-modifying dopant. The green bodies are then consolidated into glass and polished, resulting in optics with tailored spatial profiles of the refractive index. We show that this approach can be used to achieve a variety of conventional and unconventional optical functions in a flat glass component with no surface curvature.

4.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaau6419, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539147

RESUMO

Typically, mechanical metamaterial properties are programmed and set when the architecture is designed and constructed, and do not change in response to shifting environmental conditions or application requirements. We present a new class of architected materials called field responsive mechanical metamaterials (FRMMs) that exhibit dynamic control and on-the-fly tunability enabled by careful design and selection of both material composition and architecture. To demonstrate the FRMM concept, we print complex structures composed of polymeric tubes infilled with magnetorheological fluid suspensions. Modulating remotely applied magnetic fields results in rapid, reversible, and sizable changes of the effective stiffness of our metamaterial motifs.

5.
Nanoscale ; 10(3): 1508-1516, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303206

RESUMO

Dipeptide derivative molecules can self-assemble into space-filling nanofiber networks at low volume fractions (<1%), allowing the formation of molecular gels with tunable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of dipeptide-based molecules is reminiscent of pathological amyloid fibril formation by naturally occurring polypeptides. Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) is the most widely studied such molecule, but the thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena giving rise to Fmoc-FF gel formation remain poorly understood. We have previously presented evidence that the gelation process is a first order phase transition characterized by low energy barriers to nucleation, short induction times, and rapid quasi-one-dimensional crystal growth, stemming from solvent-solute interactions and highly specific molecular packing. Here, we discuss the phase behavior of Fmoc-FF in different solvents. We find that Fmoc-FF gel formation can be induced in apolar solvents, in addition to previously established pathways in aqueous systems. We further show that in certain solvent systems anisotropic crystals (nanofibers) are an initial metastable state, after which macroscopic crystal aggregates with no preferred axis of growth are formed. The molecular conformation is sensitive to solvent composition during assembly, indicating that Fmoc-FF may be a simple model system to study complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena involved in peptide self-assembly.

6.
Adv Mater ; 29(26)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452163

RESUMO

Silica inks are developed, which may be 3D printed and thermally processed to produce optically transparent glass structures with sub-millimeter features in forms ranging from scaffolds to monoliths. The inks are composed of silica powder suspended in a liquid and are printed using direct ink writing. The printed structures are then dried and sintered at temperatures well below the silica melting point to form amorphous, solid, transparent glass structures. This technique enables the mold-free formation of transparent glass structures previously inaccessible using conventional glass fabrication processes.

7.
Soft Matter ; 11(38): 7663-73, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26295906

RESUMO

We explore the gel transition of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). The addition of water to a solution of Fmoc-FF in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) results in increased attractions leading to self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into a space-filling fibrous network. We provide evidence that gel formation is associated with a first order phase transition resulting in nucleation and growth of strongly anisotropic crystals with high aspect ratios. The strength of attraction between Fmoc-FF molecules as a function of water concentration is estimated from long-time self-diffusion measurements using (1)H NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY). The resulting phase behavior follows that observed for a wide range of other crystallizing nanoparticles and small molecules - a result consistent with the short-range nature of the intermolecular attractions. Furthermore, we use NMR to measure the rate of increase in the fraction of bound Fmoc-FF molecules after water is suddenly mixed into the system. We observe a lag time in the formation of the new phase indicative of the existence of a free energy barrier to the formation of a crystal nucleus of critical size. The application of classical nucleation theory for a cylindrical nucleus indicates that one-dimensional crystal growth is driven by an imbalance of the surface energies of the ends and sides of the fiber.


Assuntos
Fluorenos/química , Géis/química , Transição de Fase , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Cristalização , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenilalanina/química , Água/química
8.
J Chem Phys ; 141(16): 164905, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362339

RESUMO

Solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide produce fibrous gels when mixed with water. We study the evolution of density fluctuations of this three-component system using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and compare these results to the macroscopic rheology of the gels and optical observations of the microstructure evolution. At the investigated scattering angles, the intensity autocorrelation functions do not follow behavior expected for simple diffusion of individual Fmoc-FF molecules localized within cages of nearest neighbors. Instead, the dynamics are associated with density fluctuations on length scales of ~10-100 nm arising from disaggregation and reformation of fibers, leading to an increasingly uniform network. This process is correlated with the growth of the elastic modulus, which saturates at long times. Autocorrelation functions and relaxation times acquired from XPCS measurements are consistent with relaxation rates of structures at dynamic equilibrium. This study provides further support to the concept of exploring peptide-based gelators as valence-limited patchy particles capable of forming equilibrium gels.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Fluorenos/química , Géis , Fenilalanina/química , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Reologia
9.
Soft Matter ; 10(39): 7849-56, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155031

RESUMO

We explore the formation and structure of gels produced from solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mixing these solutions with water results in the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into space-filling fibrous networks, exhibiting mechanical properties characteristic of gels. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observe the gel transition in situ and find that, upon the addition of water, the solution undergoes a rapid transition to a non-equilibrium state forming ∼ 2 µm spheres, followed by the formation of fibers 5-10 nm in diameter, nucleating at a sphere surface and expanding into the solution as the remaining spheres dissolve, extending the network. The gel aging process is associated with the network becoming increasingly uniform through apparent redissolution/reaggregation of the Fmoc-FF molecules, corresponding to the observed increase in the elastic modulus to a plateau value. We demonstrate that this increase in uniformity and elastic modulus can be expedited by controlling the temperature of the system, as well as that these gels are thermally reversible, further indicating that the system is in equilibrium in its fibrous network state. X-ray scattering information suggests that the packing of the molecules within a fiber is based on π-π stacking of ß-sheets, consistent with models proposed in the literature for similar systems, implying that each particle (molecule) possesses a limited number of interaction sites. These observations provide experimental evidence that these low molecular weight gelator molecules can be considered valence-limited "patchy" particles, which associate at low enough temperature to form equilibrium gels.

10.
Langmuir ; 30(15): 4493-500, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24684510

RESUMO

We explore the phase diagram and mechanical properties of molecular gels produced from mixing water with a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of the aromatic dipeptide derivative fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Highly soluble in DMSO, Fmoc-FF assembles into fibrous networks that form gels upon addition of water. At high water concentrations, rigid gels can be formed at Fmoc-FF concentrations as low as 0.01 wt %. The conditions are established defining the Fmoc-FF and water concentrations at which gels are formed. Below the gel boundary, the solutions are clear and colorless and have long-term stability. Above the gel boundary, gels are formed with increasing rapidity with increasing water or Fmoc-FF concentrations. A systematic characterization of the effect of Fmoc-FF and water concentrations on the mechanical properties of the gels is presented, demonstrating that the elastic behavior of the gels follows a specific, robust scaling with Fmoc-FF volume fraction. Furthermore, we characterize the kinetics of gelation and demonstrate that these gels are reversible in the sense that they can be disrupted mechanically and rebuild strength over time.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dipeptídeos , Fluorenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fenilalanina/química
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