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1.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 36(1): 24-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464148

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of rare orphan disorders caused by mutations in seven different enzymes that impair cortisol biosynthesis. The 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is one of the less common forms of CAH, corresponding to approximately 1% of the cases, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns. Cases description - two phenotypically female Ecuadorian sisters, both with primary amenorrhea, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, and osteoporosis. High blood pressure was present in the older sister. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism profile was observed: decreased cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and normal levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, extremely high deoxycorticosterone (DOC) levels, and a tomography showed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in both sisters. Consanguinity was evident in their ancestors. Furthermore, in the exon 7, the variant c.1216T > C, p.Trp406Arg was detected in homozygosis in the CYP17A1 gene of both sisters. We report a homozygous missense mutation in the CYP17A1 gene causing 17OHD in two sisters from Loja, Ecuador. According to the authors, this is the first time such deficiency and mutation are described in two members of the same family in Ecuador.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 15(8): 801-810, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early cognitive intervention is the only routine therapeutic approach used for amelioration of intellectual deficits in individuals with Down's syndrome, but its effects are limited. We hypothesised that administration of a green tea extract containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) would improve the effects of non-pharmacological cognitive rehabilitation in young adults with Down's syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled adults (aged 16-34 years) with Down's syndrome from outpatient settings in Catalonia, Spain, with any of the Down's syndrome genetic variations (trisomy 21, partial trisomy, mosaic, or translocation) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2, single centre trial (TESDAD). Participants were randomly assigned at the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute to receive EGCG (9 mg/kg per day) or placebo and cognitive training for 12 months. We followed up participants for 6 months after treatment discontinuation. We randomly assigned participants using random-number tables and balanced allocation by sex and intellectual quotient. Participants, families, and researchers assessing the participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was cognitive improvement assessed by neuropsychologists with a battery of cognitive tests for episodic memory, executive function, and functional measurements. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01699711. FINDINGS: The study was done between June 5, 2012, and June 6, 2014. 84 of 87 participants with Down's syndrome were included in the intention-to-treat analysis at 12 months (43 in the EGCG and cognitive training group and 41 in the placebo and cognitive training group). Differences between the groups were not significant on 13 of 15 tests in the TESDAD battery and eight of nine adaptive skills in the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II (ABAS-II). At 12 months, participants treated with EGCG and cognitive training had significantly higher scores in visual recognition memory (Pattern Recognition Memory test immediate recall, adjusted mean difference: 6·23 percentage points [95% CI 0·31 to 12·14], p=0·039; d 0·4 [0·05 to 0·84]), inhibitory control (Cats and Dogs total score, adjusted mean difference: 0·48 [0·02 to 0·93], p=0·041; d 0·28 [0·19 to 0·74]; Cats and Dogs total response time, adjusted mean difference: -4·58 s [-8·54 to -0·62], p=0·024; d -0·27 [-0·72 to -0·20]), and adaptive behaviour (ABAS-II functional academics score, adjusted mean difference: 5·49 [2·13 to 8·86], p=0·002; d 0·39 [-0·06 to 0·84]). No differences were noted in adverse effects between the two treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: EGCG and cognitive training for 12 months was significantly more effective than placebo and cognitive training at improving visual recognition memory, inhibitory control, and adaptive behaviour. Phase 3 trials with a larger population of individuals with Down's syndrome will be needed to assess and confirm the long-term efficacy of EGCG and cognitive training. FUNDING: Jérôme Lejeune Foundation, Instituto de Salud Carlos III FEDER, MINECO, Generalitat de Catalunya.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Transtornos Cognitivos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adaptação Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Método Duplo-Cego , Síndrome de Down/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Down/reabilitação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of anxiety and depression in the physical activity (PA) of patients with COPD is controversial. We prospectively assessed the effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression on PA in COPD patients. METHODS: We evaluated anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), PA (Dynaport(®) accelerometer), and other relevant characteristics in 220 COPD patients from five European countries at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. HADS score was categorized as: no symptoms (score 0-7), suggested (8-10), and probable (>11) anxiety or depression. We estimated the association between anxiety and depression at t (baseline and 6 months) and PA at t+1 (6 and 12 months) using regression models with a repeated measures approach. RESULTS: Patients had a mean (standard deviation) age of 67 (8) years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 57 (20)% predicted. At baseline, the prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 10% and 5%, respectively. In multivariable models adjusted by confounders and previous PA, patients performed 81 fewer steps/day (95% confidence interval, -149 to -12, P=0.02) per extra point in HADS-depression score. HADS-anxiety symptoms were not associated with PA. CONCLUSION: In COPD patients, symptoms of depression are prospectively associated with a measurable reduction in PA 6 months later.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Exercício , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital
5.
BMJ Open ; 6(4): e010301, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. SETTINGS: The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). PARTICIPANTS: Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. RESULTS: There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches. Applicability and impact of the proposals for enhanced clinical risk assessment require prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Front Psychol ; 6: 708, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089807

RESUMO

The recent prospect of pharmaceutical interventions for cognitive impairment of Down syndrome (DS) has boosted a number of clinical trials in this population. However, running the trials has raised some methodological challenges and questioned the prevailing methodology used to evaluate cognitive functioning of DS individuals. This is usually achieved by comparing DS individuals to matched healthy controls of the same mental age. We propose a new tool, the TESDAD Battery that uses comparison with age-matched typically developed adults. This is an advantageous method for probing the clinical efficacy of DS therapies, allowing the interpretation and prediction of functional outcomes in clinical trials. In our DS population the TESDAD battery permitted a quantitative assessment of cognitive defects, which indicated language dysfunction and deficits in executive function, as the most important contributors to other cognitive and adaptive behavior outcomes as predictors of functional change in DS. Concretely, auditory comprehension and functional academics showed the highest potential as end-point measures of therapeutic intervention for clinical trials: the former as a cognitive key target for therapeutic intervention, and the latter as a primary functional outcome measure of clinical efficacy. Our results also emphasize the need to explore the modulating effects of IQ, gender and age on cognitive enhancing treatments. Noticeably, women performed significantly better than men of the same age and IQ in most cognitive tests, with the most consistent differences occurring in memory and executive functioning and negative trends rarely emerged on quality of life linked to the effect of age after adjusting for IQ and gender. In sum, the TESDAD battery is a useful neurocognitive tool for probing the clinical efficacy of experimental therapies in interventional studies in the DS population suggesting that age-matched controls are advantageous for determining normalization of DS.

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