Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11621, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406157

RESUMO

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a subclinical marker for atherosclerosis. Previously, we reported a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for total cIMT on chromosome 14q and identified PRiMA1, FOXN3 and CCDC88C as candidate genes using a common variants (CVs)-based approach. Herein, we further evaluated the genetic contribution of the QTL to cIMT by resequencing. We sequenced all exons within the QTL and genomic regions of PRiMA1, FOXN3 and CCDC88C in Dominican families with evidence for linkage to the QTL. Unrelated Dominicans from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) were used for validation. Single-variant-based and gene-based analyses were performed for CVs and rare variants (RVs). The strongest evidence for association with CVs was found in PRiMA1 (p = 8.2 × 10-5 in families, p = 0.01 in NOMAS at rs12587586), and in the five-gene cluster SPATA7-PTPN21-ZC3H14-EML5-TTC8 locus (p = 1.3 × 10-4 in families, p = 0.01 in NOMAS at rs2274736). No evidence for association with RVs was found in PRiMA1. The top marker from previous study in PRiMA1 (rs7152362) was associated with fewer atherosclerotic events (OR = 0.67; p = 0.02 in NOMAS) and smaller cIMT (ß = -0.58, p = 2.8 × 10-4 in Family). Within the five-gene cluster, evidence for association was found for exonic RVs (p = 0.02 in families, p = 0.28 in NOMAS), which was enriched among RVs with higher functional potentials (p = 0.05 in NOMAS for RVs in the top functional tertile). In summary, targeted resequencing provided validation and novel insights into the genetic architecture of cIMT, suggesting stronger effects for RVs with higher functional potentials. Furthermore, our data support the clinical relevance of CVs associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
3.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polymorphisms in coagulation genes have been associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. Here we pursue an a priori hypothesis that genetic variation in the endothelial-based receptors of the thrombomodulin-protein C system (THBD and PROCR) may similarly be associated with early-onset ischemic stroke. We explored this hypothesis utilizing a multi-stage design of discovery and replication. METHODS: Discovery was performed in the Genetics-of-Early-Onset Stroke (GEOS) Study, a biracial population-based case-control study of ischemic stroke among men and women aged 15-49 including 829 cases of first ischemic stroke (42.2% African-American) and 850 age-comparable stroke-free controls (38.1% African-American). Twenty-four single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in THBD and 22 SNPs in PROCR were evaluated. Following LD pruning (r2≥0.8), we advanced uncorrelated SNPs forward for association analyses. Associated SNPs were evaluated for replication in an early-onset ischemic stroke population (onset-age<60 years) consisting of 3676 cases and 21118 non-stroke controls from 6 case-control studies. Lastly, we determined if the replicated SNPs also associated with older-onset ischemic stroke in the METASTROKE data-base. RESULTS: Among GEOS Caucasians, PROCR rs9574, which was in strong LD with 8 other SNPs, and one additional independent SNP rs2069951, were significantly associated with ischemic stroke (rs9574, OR = 1.33, p = 0.003; rs2069951, OR = 1.80, p = 0.006) using an additive-model adjusting for age, gender and population-structure. Adjusting for risk factors did not change the associations; however, associations were strengthened among those without risk factors. PROCR rs9574 also associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in the replication sample (OR = 1.08, p = 0.015), but not older-onset stroke. There were no PROCR associations in African-Americans, nor were there any THBD associations in either ethnicity. CONCLUSION: PROCR polymorphisms are associated with early-onset ischemic stroke in Caucasians.

4.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 8(2): 659-668, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288195

RESUMO

Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) is an intermediate phenotype for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a predictor of stroke. Using families from the Dominican Republic, we have previously shown LVM to be heritable and found evidence for linkage to chromosome 12p11. Our current study aimed to further characterize the QTL by sequencing the 1 LOD unit down region in 10 families from the Dominican Republic with evidence for linkage to LVM. Within this region, we tested 5477 common variants [CVs; minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥5%] using the Quantitative Transmission-Disequilibrium Test (QTDT). Gene-based analyses were performed to test rare variants (RVs; MAF < 5%) in 181 genes using the family-based sequence kernel association test. A sample of 618 unrelated Dominicans from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) and 12 Dominican families with Exome Array data were used for replication analyses. The most strongly associated CV with evidence for replication was rs1046116 (Discovery families P = 9.0 × 10-4; NOMAS P = 0.03; replication families P = 0.46), a missense variant in PKP2 In nonsynonymous RV analyses, PKP2 was one of the most strongly associated genes (P = 0.05) with suggestive evidence for replication in NOMAS (P = 0.05). PKP2 encodes the plakophilin 2 protein and is a desmosomal gene implicated in arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and recently in arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy, which makes PKP2 an excellent candidate gene for LVM. In conclusion, sequencing of our previously reported QTL identified common and rare variants within PKP2 to be associated with LVM. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role these variants play in influencing LVM.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Placofilinas/genética , Adulto , República Dominicana , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Thromb Res ; 161: 43-51, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic storm (TS) presents as a severe, acute thrombotic phenotype, characterized by multiple clotting events and frequently affecting younger adults. Understanding the extensive hypercoagulation of an extreme phenotype as TS will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of a wider spectrum of thrombotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We completed whole exome sequencing on 26 TS patients, including 1 multiplex family, 13 trios and 12 isolated TS patients. We examined both dominant and recessive inheritance models for known thrombotic factors as well as performed a genome-wide screen. Identified genes of interest in the family and trios were screened in the remaining TS patients. Variants were filtered on frequency (<5% in 1000 genomes), conservation and function in gene and were annotated for effect on protein and overall functionality. RESULTS: We observed an accumulation of variants in genes linked to chondroitin sulfate (CS), but not heparan sulfate metabolism. Sixteen conserved, rare missense and nonsense variants in genes involved in CS metabolism (CHPF, CHPF2, CHST3, CHST12, CHST15, SLC26A2, PAPSS2, STAB2) were identified in over one-third of the TS patients. In contrast, we identified only seven variants in known thrombosis genes (including FV Leiden). CONCLUSIONS: As CS has multiple functions in the glycocalyx protecting the endothelial cells, reduced availability of CS could diminish the normal control mechanisms for blood coagulation, making these CS metabolism genes strong potential risk factors for TS. Overall, no single gene was identified with strong evidence for TS causality; however, our data suggest TS is mediated by an accumulation of rare pro-thrombotic risk factors.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Trombose/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurol Genet ; 3(5): e185, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate genetic variants influencing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the understudied Hispanic population. METHODS: Using 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with WMH volume (WMHV) in 922 Hispanics who underwent brain MRI as a cross-section of 2 community-based cohorts in the Northern Manhattan Study and the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple linear modeling with PLINK was performed to examine the additive genetic effects on ln(WMHV) after controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. Gene-based tests of association were performed using VEGAS. Replication was performed in independent samples of Europeans, African Americans, and Asians. RESULTS: From the SNP analysis, a total of 17 independent SNPs in 7 genes had suggestive evidence of association with WMHV in Hispanics (p < 1 × 10-5) and 5 genes from the gene-based analysis with p < 1 × 10-3. One SNP (rs9957475 in GATA6) and 1 gene (UBE2C) demonstrated evidence of association (p < 0.05) in the African American sample. Four SNPs with p < 1 × 10-5 were shown to affect binding of SPI1 using RegulomeDB. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS of 2 community-based Hispanic cohorts revealed several novel WMH-associated genetic variants. Further replication is needed in independent Hispanic samples to validate these suggestive associations, and fine mapping is needed to pinpoint causal variants.

7.
Ethn Dis ; 27(1): 11-14, 2017 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115816

RESUMO

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. It is currently unknown whether similar associations are observed in Hispanics. Therefore, our study aimed to determine if SCT is associated with mean eGFR and CKD in a sample of 340 Dominican Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Using regression analyses, we tested rs334 for association with eGFR and CKD, adjusting for age and sex. eGFR was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Within our sample, there were 16 individuals with SCT (SCT carriers). We found that SCT carriers had a mean eGFR that was 12.12 mL/min/1.73m2 lower than non-carriers (P=.002). Additionally, SCT carriers had 2.72 times higher odds of CKD compared with non-carriers (P=.09). Taken together, these novel results show that Hispanics with SCT, as found among African Americans with SCT, may also be at increased risk for kidney disease.

8.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167202, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936005

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disorders including ischemic stroke (IS) and myocardial infarction (MI) are heritable; however, few replicated loci have been identified. One strategy to identify loci influencing these complex disorders is to study subclinical phenotypes, such as carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness (bIMT). We have previously shown bIMT to be heritable and found evidence for linkage and association with common variants on chromosome 7p for bIMT. In this study, we aimed to characterize contributions of rare variants (RVs) in 7p to bIMT. To achieve this aim, we sequenced the 1 LOD unit down region on 7p in nine extended families from the Dominican Republic (DR) with strong evidence for linkage to bIMT. We then performed the family-based sequence kernel association test (famSKAT) on genes within the 7p region. Analyses were restricted to single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with population based minor allele frequency (MAF) <5%. We first analyzed all exonic RVs and then the subset of only non-synonymous RVs. There were 68 genes in our analyses. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD1) was the most significantly associated gene when analyzing exonic RVs (famSKAT p = 9.2x10-4; number of SNVs = 14). We achieved suggestive replication of NOD1 in an independent sample of twelve extended families from the DR (p = 0.055). Our study provides suggestive statistical evidence for a role of rare variants in NOD1 in bIMT. Studies in mice have shown Nod1 to play a role in heart function and atherosclerosis, providing biologic plausibility for a role in bIMT thus making NOD1 an excellent bIMT candidate.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD1/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , República Dominicana , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
10.
PLoS Genet ; 11(10): e1005378, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26426971

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Caracteres Sexuais , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Hum Genet ; 134(10): 1127-38, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26319989

RESUMO

Through linkage and tagSNP-based association studies in 100 Dominican Republic (DR) families, we previously identified ANLN and AOAH (7p14.3) as candidate genes for carotid intima-media thickness at bifurcation (bIMT). Introns, exons, and flanking regions of ANLN and AOAH were re-sequenced in 151 individuals from nine families with evidence for linkage at 7p14.3. For common variants [CV, minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥5 %], single variant-based analysis was performed. For rare variants (RV, MAF < 5 %), gene-based analysis aggregating all RVs within a gene was performed. CV analysis revealed the strongest signal at rs3815483 (P = 0.0003) in ANLN and rs60023210 (P = 0.00005) in AOAH. In ANLN, RV analysis found suggestive evidence for association with exonic RVs (P = 0.08), and in particular non-synonymous RVs (P = 0.04) but not with all RVs (P = 0.15). The variant alleles of all non-synonymous RVs segregated with the major allele of rs3815483 and were associated with lower bIMT while a novel synonymous RV segregated with the minor allele of rs3815483 and was associated with greater bIMT. Additional analysis in 561 DR individuals found suggestive evidence for association with all ANLN non-synonymous RVs (P = 0.08). In AOAH, no evidence for association with RVs was detected. Instead, conditional analysis revealed that multiple independent intronic CVs are associated with bIMT in addition to rs60023210. We demonstrate the utility of using family-based studies to evaluate the contribution of RVs. Our data suggest two modes of genetic architecture underlying the linkage and association at ANLN (multiple exonic RVs) and AOAH (multiple intronic CVs with uncharacterized functions).


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , República Dominicana , Éxons , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Escore Lod , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Mol Autism ; 6: 43, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, yet genome-wide association studies (GWAS), copy number variation screens, and candidate gene association studies have found no single factor accounting for a large percentage of genetic risk. ASD trio exome sequencing studies have revealed genes with recurrent de novo loss-of-function variants as strong risk factors, but there are relatively few recurrently affected genes while as many as 1000 genes are predicted to play a role. As such, it is critical to identify the remaining rare and low-frequency variants contributing to ASD. METHODS: We have utilized an approach of prioritization of genes by GWAS and follow-up with massively parallel sequencing in a case-control cohort. Using a previously reported ASD noise reduction GWAS analyses, we prioritized 837 RefSeq genes for custom targeting and sequencing. We sequenced the coding regions of those genes in 2071 ASD cases and 904 controls of European white ancestry. We applied comprehensive annotation to identify single variants which could confer ASD risk and also gene-based association analysis to identify sets of rare variants associated with ASD. RESULTS: We identified a significant over-representation of rare loss-of-function variants in genes previously associated with ASD, including a de novo premature stop variant in the well-established ASD candidate gene RBFOX1. Furthermore, ASD cases were more likely to have two damaging missense variants in candidate genes than controls. Finally, gene-based rare variant association implicates genes functioning in excitatory neurotransmission and neurite outgrowth and guidance pathways including CACNAD2, KCNH7, and NRXN1. CONCLUSIONS: We find suggestive evidence that rare variants in synaptic genes are associated with ASD and that loss-of-function mutations in ASD candidate genes are a major risk factor, and we implicate damaging mutations in glutamate signaling receptors and neuronal adhesion and guidance molecules. Furthermore, the role of de novo mutations in ASD remains to be fully investigated as we identified the first reported protein-truncating variant in RBFOX1 in ASD. Overall, this work, combined with others in the field, suggests a convergence of genes and molecular pathways underlying ASD etiology.

13.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 83: 1.4.1-31, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271837

RESUMO

This unit describes linkage analysis, an invaluable tool in mapping human disease genes. Linkage analysis is one of several methods used to map genes. Specifically, in linkage analysis, cosegregation of two or more genes (traits) is examined in a family unit to determine if they segregate independently of each other according to Mendel's laws or if they do not segregate independently because of their close physical proximity. The procedures outlined in this unit are not always straightforward, and a number of caveats are presented in the commentary regarding possible complications and confounding factors that may arise. Specific examples are given, but it is not possible to cover all possible scenarios or variables. The intention is to enable the reader to master basic principles used in the linkage approach, and thus be in a position to undertake, with proper consultation, a linkage-analysis study. This unit deals specifically with lod score analysis in Mendelian disorders.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Escore Lod , Polimorfismo Genético
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(10): 2592-600, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131847

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess use of genetic testing and corresponding genetic services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Survey data from 397 parents of individuals with ASD was collected using the Center for Autism and Related Disabilities client registry. Participants reported that 41.2% of the individuals with ASD had undergone any type of genetic testing. However, only 21.3% of individuals with ASD had been referred to a genetics specialist. Diagnosis and level of functioning were significantly associated with both referral to a genetics specialist and having undergone any genetic testing. In addition, Hispanic ancestry was associated with increased referral to genetic testing. Concerns about the limited benefits of genetic testing and prohibitive costs were potential barriers to pursuing genetic testing. Overall, low numbers of individuals with ASD have a history of undergoing genetic testing or receiving genetic services. Possible reasons include low referral rates as well as concerns by parents about cost and relevance, and lack of availability. These findings confirm the historical trend for providing genetic testing and genetic services to those with the greatest impairments.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Criança , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pais
15.
Mol Autism ; 5(1): 1, 2014 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of neurodevelopmental conditions of varying severity, characterized by marked qualitative difficulties in social relatedness, communication, and behavior. Despite overwhelming evidence of high heritability, results from genetic studies to date show that ASD etiology is extremely heterogeneous and only a fraction of autism genes have been discovered. METHODS: To help unravel this genetic complexity, we performed whole exome sequencing on 100 ASD individuals from 40 families with multiple distantly related affected individuals. All families contained a minimum of one pair of ASD cousins. Each individual was captured with the Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon kit, sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq 2000, and the resulting data processed and annotated with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), and SeattleSeq. Genotyping information on each family was utilized in order to determine genomic regions that were identical by descent (IBD). Variants identified by exome sequencing which occurred in IBD regions and present in all affected individuals within each family were then evaluated to determine which may potentially be disease related. Nucleotide alterations that were novel and rare (minor allele frequency, MAF, less than 0.05) and predicted to be detrimental, either by altering amino acids or splicing patterns, were prioritized. RESULTS: We identified numerous potentially damaging, ASD associated risk variants in genes previously unrelated to autism. A subset of these genes has been implicated in other neurobehavioral disorders including depression (SLIT3), epilepsy (CLCN2, PRICKLE1), intellectual disability (AP4M1), schizophrenia (WDR60), and Tourette syndrome (OFCC1). Additional alterations were found in previously reported autism candidate genes, including three genes with alterations in multiple families (CEP290, CSMD1, FAT1, and STXBP5). Compiling a list of ASD candidate genes from the literature, we determined that variants occurred in ASD candidate genes 1.65 times more frequently than in random genes captured by exome sequencing (P = 8.55 × 10-5). CONCLUSIONS: By studying these unique pedigrees, we have identified novel DNA variations related to ASD, demonstrated that exome sequencing in extended families is a powerful tool for ASD candidate gene discovery, and provided further evidence of an underlying genetic component to a wide range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases.

16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 37(8): 846-59, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24186853

RESUMO

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Família Multigênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Cotinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Tabagismo/genética
17.
Springerplus ; 2(1): 46, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23459313

RESUMO

In a recent meta-analysis migraine was associated with a two-fold increase in stroke risk. While the mechanism driving this association is unknown, one intriguing hypothesis is that migraineurs are genetically predisposed to developing ischemic stroke. Mutations in the ATP1A2 gene are implicated in familial hemiplegic migraine type II and increase the severity of ischemic brain injury in animal models. To further explore these observations, we assessed the association between ATP1A2 polymorphisms, migraine, and the risk of ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early-Onset Stroke Study, a population-based case-control study of ischemic stroke among men and women aged 15-49. Using responses to a headache symptoms questionnaire, subjects were classified as having no migraine, or migraine with or without visual aura. Evaluating a total of 134 ATP1A2 polymorphisms genotyped using a combination of Illumina platforms (Cardiovascular Gene-centric 50 K SNP Array and HumanOmni1-Quad_v1-0_B Bead Chip), only one polymorphism (rs2070704) demonstrated a nominally significant association with stroke in an age-, gender-, ethnicity-adjusted model (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.98, p = 0.025) and in a vascular risk factor model adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and myocardial infarction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.63-0.89, p = 0.001). Ethnicity-stratified analyses demonstrated a significant association for rs2070704 among African-Americans (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.53-0.90, p = 0.005) but not Caucasians (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.64-1.04, p = 0.107). These associations were unchanged when migraine subtypes were included as co-variates. We did not observe an association between ATP1A2 polymorphisms and migraine. While our results do not demonstrate a strong relationship between ATP1A2 polymorphisms and migraine associated stroke risk, the results are hypothesis generating and indicate that an association between ATP1A2 polymorphisms and stroke risk may exist. Additional studies are required.

18.
Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 69(8): 854-60, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22868939

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. DATA SOURCES: Primary data. STUDY SELECTION: Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. DATA EXTRACTION: Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. DATA SYNTHESIS: Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). CONCLUSION: These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fumar , Tabagismo , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/genética , Tabagismo/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 7(4): e35591, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22536414

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of ischemic stroke is complex and is likely to include rare or low frequency variants with high penetrance and large effect sizes. Such variants are likely to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis compared to common variants with small effect sizes. Because a significant portion of human functional variation may derive from the protein-coding portion of genes we undertook a pilot study to identify variation across the human exome (i.e., the coding exons across the entire human genome) in 10 ischemic stroke cases. Our efforts focused on evaluating the feasibility and identifying the difficulties in this type of research as it applies to ischemic stroke. The cases included 8 African-Americans and 2 Caucasians selected on the basis of similar stroke subtypes and by implementing a case selection algorithm that emphasized the genetic contribution of stroke risk. Following construction of paired-end sequencing libraries, all predicted human exons in each sample were captured and sequenced. Sequencing generated an average of 25.5 million read pairs (75 bp×2) and 3.8 Gbp per sample. After passing quality filters, screening the exomes against dbSNP demonstrated an average of 2839 novel SNPs among African-Americans and 1105 among Caucasians. In an aggregate analysis, 48 genes were identified to have at least one rare variant across all stroke cases. One gene, CSN3, identified by screening our prior GWAS results in conjunction with our exome results, was found to contain an interesting coding polymorphism as well as containing excess rare variation as compared with the other genes evaluated. In conclusion, while rare coding variants may predispose to the risk of ischemic stroke, this fact has yet to be definitively proven. Our study demonstrates the complexities of such research and highlights that while exome data can be obtained, the optimal analytical methods have yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Caseínas/genética , Infarto Cerebral/genética , Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 36(4): 340-51, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22539395

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N = 14,786), Asian (N = 6,889), and African American (N = 10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (P < 0.01) in each of these three populations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.25-1.42, P = 1.1 × 10(-17) in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Variação Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA