Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Resuscitation ; 146: 149-154, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Initiation of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) in patients with refractory cardiac arrest may improve otherwise deleterious outcome. In general, the duration of mechanical resuscitation from collapse to ECMO ranges from 40 to 70 min. CPR-related injuries are reported frequently in non-eCPR patients. We wanted to quantify CPR-related injuries in eCPR patients. METHODS: All eCPR patients cannulated at a tertiary referral medical center between October 2010 and October 2017 were included in a retrospective registry study. A full-body CT scan was performed within the first 24 h after eCPR. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (mean age 58.8 ±â€¯16.7 years, CPR duration 61.7 ±â€¯31.9 min, and hospital survival 13.6 %) underwent eCPR and immediate full-body computed tomography (CT). Full-body CT detected the cause for collapse in 16.5% of patients. Average number of pathologies detected per CT scan was 6.5 ±â€¯3.3 findings per patient, of which 2.6 ±â€¯1.5 findings were retrospectively considered of clinical relevance for subsequent treatment. Most frequent findings were multiple rib or sternal fractures (65.5%), pneumo- or hemothorax (32.3%) and pulmonary infiltrates (91.3%). Intracranial bleedings and cerebral edema were frequent (10.7% and 26.2%). A total of 20 patients (19.4%) had findings in whole-body CT that were considered to be so severe that further treatment was considered futile and therapy was subsequently discontinued. Most findings were associated with poor outcome with the exception of rib fractures, bleedings and abdominal trauma, which might have been caused by vigorous resuscitation efforts and were associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: A full-body CT scan performed after eCPR revealed substantial clinically significant findings. Therefore, it might be reasonable to routinely perform a full-body CT in all eCPR patients.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 41(4): 509-518, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120118

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for ≥3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of α = 0.004 (<6 primary outcome events). From May 2014 through June 2018, consecutive patients were enrolled in seven countries. Of the 525 patients included in the interim analysis, three (0.6%; one-sided upper 99.6% confidence interval 2.1%) suffered symptomatic non-fatal VTE recurrence, a number sufficiently low to fulfil the condition for early termination of the trial. Major bleeding occurred in 6 (1.2%) of the 519 patients comprising the safety population. There were two cancer-related deaths (0.4%). CONCLUSION: Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.

3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013252, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians must balance the risks of bleeding and thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in people with an indication for anticoagulation. The potential of non-vitamin K antagonists (NOACs) to prevent bleeding complications is promising, but evidence remains limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence from randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in people with an indication for anticoagulation. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and two clinical trials registers in February 2019. We checked bibliographies of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared NOACs and vitamin K antagonists for people with an indication for anticoagulation who underwent PCI. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently checked the results of searches to identify relevant studies, assessed each included study, and extracted study data. We conducted random-effects, pairwise analyses using Review Manager 5 and network meta-analyses (NMA) using the R package 'netmeta'. We ranked competing treatments by P scores, which are derived from the P values of all pairwise comparisons, and allow ranking of treatments on a continuous 0 to 1 scale. MAIN RESULTS: We identified nine RCTs that met the inclusion criteria, but four were ongoing trials, and were not included in this analysis. We included five RCTs, with 8373 participants, in the NMA (two RCTs compared apixaban to a vitamin K antagonist, two RCTs compared rivaroxaban to a vitamin K antagonist, and one RCT compared dabigatran to a vitamin K antagonist). Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests little or no difference between NOACs and vitamin K antagonists in death from cardiovascular causes (not reported in the dabigatran trial), myocardial infarction, stroke, death from any cause, and stent thrombosis. Apixaban (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95), high dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), and low dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92) probably reduce the risk of recurrent hospitalisation compared with vitamin K antagonists. No studies looked at health-related quality of life. Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests that NOACs may be safer than vitamin K antagonists in terms of bleeding. Both high dose dabigatran (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.97), and low dose dabigatran (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.70) may reduce major bleeding more than vitamin K antagonists. High dose dabigatran (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), low dose dabigatran (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.75), apixaban (RR 0,67 , 95% Cl 0.51 to 0.88), high dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83), and low dose rivaroxaban (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.88) probably reduce non-major bleeding more than vitamin K antagonists. The results from the NMA were inconclusive between the different NOACs for all primary and secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests no meaningful difference in efficacy outcomes between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonists following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. NOACs probably reduce the risk of recurrent hospitalisation for adverse events compared with vitamin K antagonists. Low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests that dabigatran may reduce the rates of major and non-major bleeding, and apixaban and rivaroxaban probably reduce the rates of non-major bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists. Our network meta-analysis did not show superiority of one NOAC over another for any of the outcomes. Head to head trials, directly comparing NOACs against each other, are required to provide more certain evidence.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683713

RESUMO

The serine protease high-temperature-required protein A2 (HtrA2) has been identified as a key intracellular molecule promoting apoptosis in cells during ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. IR injury in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) contributes to overall myocardial damage. HtrA2 has further been shown to be significantly increased in the serum of patients with STEMI. In the present pilot study, we use human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate whether extracellular HtrA2 induces apoptosis using Annexin V staining. Furthermore, we examine whether HtrA2 is released extracellularly after staurosporine-induced apoptosis using ELISA. We find that HtrA2 is released upon induction of apoptosis by staurosporine into the cell culture medium. Furthermore, treatment of HUVECs with extracellular HtrA2-induces apoptosis, while the addition of anti-HtrA2 antibodies reduces both HtrA2- and staurosporine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we show here that extracellular HtrA2 induces apoptosis in human endothelial cells, although the exact molecular mechanisms have to be investigated in future.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are key components in atherogenesis and determine the course of its clinical sequelae acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Components of the innate immune system-the superfamily of TLR receptors-are present in platelets and represent a link between atherothrombosis and inflammation. We hypothesize that alteration in platelet TLR mRNA expression is a result of inflammation driving coronary atherosclerosis and may represent an alternative platelet activation pathway in ACS. TLR2-, TLR4- and TLR9- mRNA-expression was determined in ACS patients and compared to patients with invasive exclusion of atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries. METHODS: A total of fifty-four patients were enrolled in this clinical retrospective cohort single centre study. Total RNA from sepharose-filtered highly purified platelets was isolated using acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction and transcribed to cDNA using a first strand cDNA synthesis kit. To determine absolute copy numbers of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 we used plasmid based quantitative PCR with normalisation to an internal control. RESULTS: We found that mRNA expression levels of TLR2 but not TLR 4 and 9 are up-regulated in platelets of patients with ACS when compared to patients without coronary atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest elevated TLR2 mRNA expression in platelets as a biomarker reflecting the underlying inflammation in ACS and possibly severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Platelet TLR2 may represent a link between inflammation and atherothrombosis in ACS.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620937

RESUMO

In the context of interventional cardiology, platelet function testing may identify patients treated with P2Y12-inhibitors at an increased risk of mortality, thrombosis and bleeding. Several whole blood point-of-care platelet function analyzers are available; however, inter-device differences have not been examined systematically. To compare three platelet function tests under standardized in vitro conditions. Healthy volunteer (n = 10) blood samples were spiked with increasing concentrations of ticagrelor (0-7500 ng/mL) and/or ASA (0-3280 ng/mL), measured on three platelet function analyzers (TEG®6s, Multiplate®, and VerifyNow®) and respective Effective Concentration (EC) levels EC10, EC50 and EC90 were calculated. Repeatability was assessed in a separate group of pooled blood samples (n = 10) spiked with ticagrelor at EC10, EC50 and EC90. ASA had no impact on ADP-activated channels for all three devices. TEG®6s was able to distinguish (p ≤ 0.05) between all ticagrelor EC zones; VerifyNow® and Multiplate® were able to distinguish between three and two zones, respectively. Multiplate® showed the largest window between EC10 and EC90 (19-9153 ng/mL), followed by TEG®6s (144-2589 ng/mL), and VerifyNow® (191-1100 ng/mL). Drug effect models distribution of disagreements were identified for TEG®6s (5.0%), VerifyNow® (8.3%), and Multiplate® (13.3%). TEG®6s showed the smallest average coefficient of variation between EC conditions (5.1%), followed by Multiplate® (14.1%), and VerifyNow® (17.7%). Linear models could be generated between TEG®6s and Multiplate®, but not VerifyNow®. Significant differences were found between whole blood point-of-care platelet function analyzers and the clinical impact of these differences needs to be further investigated.

8.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 3(4): 684-694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624788

RESUMO

Antiplatelet therapy through inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/P2Y12 pathway is commonly used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although efficient in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation, it increases the risk of bleeding complications. In patients with ACS receiving platelet aggregation inhibitors, that is, P2Y12 blockers (n = 923), we investigated the relationship between plasma and platelet-associated CD40L levels and bleeding events (n = 71). Treatment with P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ACS did not affect plasma-soluble CD40L levels, but decreased platelet CD40L surface expression (pCD40L) and platelet-released CD40L (rCD40L) levels in response to stimulation as compared to healthy controls. In vitro inhibition of the ADP pathway in healthy control platelets reduced both pCD40L and rCD40L levels. In a multivariable analysis, the reduced pCD40L level observed in ACS patients was significantly associated with the risk of bleeding occurrence (adjusted odds ratio = 0.15; 95% confidence interval = 0.034-0.67). P2Y12 inhibitor-treated (ticagrelor) mice exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in tail bleeding duration compared with controls. A significant reduction in bleeding duration was observed on CD40L+/+ but not CD40L-/- platelet infusion. In addition, CD40L blockade in P2Y12 inhibitor-treated blood samples from a healthy human reduced thrombus growth over immobilized collagen under arterial flow. In conclusion, measurement of pCD40L may offer a novel approach to assessing bleeding risk in patients with ACS who are being treated with P2Y12 inhibitors.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1529-1531, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537260
10.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 320, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) can be a rescue therapy for patients in cardiogenic shock or in refractory cardiac arrest. After cannulation, vasoplegia and cardiac depression are frequent. In literature, there are conflicting data on inotropic therapy in these patients. METHODS: Analysis of a retrospective registry of all patients treated with VA-ECMO in a university hospital center between October 2010 and December 2018 for cardiogenic shock or extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) with a focus on individual early inotropic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients (age 58.6 ± 14.3, 29.9% female, 58% eCPR, in-house survival 43.7%) were analyzed. Of these, 41.6% received no inotrope therapy within the first 24 h (survival 47.9%), 29.0% received an inodilator (survival 52.2%), and 29.0% received epinephrine (survival 25.0%). Survival of patients with epinephrine was significantly worse compared to other patient groups when evaluating 30-day survival (p = 0.034/p = 0.005) and cumulative incidence of in-hospital death (p = 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with epinephrine was associated with mortality in the whole cohort (OR 0.38, p = 0.011) as well as after propensity score matching (OR 0.24, p = 0.037). We found no significant differences between patients with inodilator treatment and those without. CONCLUSION: Early epinephrine therapy within the first 24 h after cannulation for VA-ECMO was associated with poor survival compared to patients with or without any inodilator therapy. Until randomized data are available, epinephrine should be avoided in patients on VA-ECMO.

11.
14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275944

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is a key characteristic of sepsis but also also in non-infectious conditions such as post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Cytokine adsorption and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are emerging therapies applied in these critically ill patients, but the experience with their concurrent use is limited. We evaluated cytokine adsorption in critically ill patients requiring support with either veno-venous (vv) or veno-arterial (va) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and hypothesized that adsorber incorporation into the ECMO circuit was technically feasible and not associated with imminent risk. We analyzed data from the first six cases of a prospective single-center registry of patients undergoing veno-venous (vv) or veno-arterial (va) ECMO therapy. While in most published cases cytokine adsorbers were inserted into a hemofiltration circuit, we directly incorporated the adsorber into the ECMO circuit without interruption of continuous ECMO support. We observed no relevant side effects attributable to cytokine adsorption. Thirty-day mortality was 83% (predicted mortality 87%), indicating that the decision for adding cytokine adsorption may have been considered as an ultima ratio decision in severe cases with poor prognosis. Vasopressor or inotrope use, lactate level, and fluid balance did not change significantly when comparing pre- vs. post-cytokine adsorption values. Interestingly, the real-time course of the mentioned three surrogate parameters remained unaltered in all but two cases, regardless of cytokine removal. Beneficial effects of cytokine adsorption are plausible in two va-ECMO-treated patient, where increasing lactate began to drop after initiation of cytokine adsorption. Taken together, these data suggest that incorporation of cytokine adsorption into the management of critically ill patients requiring continued ECMO support is feasible and easy to handle. Whether cytokine removal improves clinical outcome in ECMO-treated patients should now be investigated in randomized controlled trials.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244834

RESUMO

Obstruction of a coronary artery causes ischemia of heart tissue leading to myocardial infarction. Prolonged oxygen deficiency provokes tissue necrosis, which can result in heart failure and death of the patient. Therefore, restoration of coronary blood flow (reperfusion of the ischemic area) by re-canalizing the affected vessel is essential for a better patient outcome. Paradoxically, sudden reperfusion also causes tissue injury, thereby increasing the initial ischemic damage despite restoration of blood flow (=ischemia/reperfusion injury, IRI). Myocardial IRI is a complex event that involves various harmful mechanisms (e.g., production of reactive oxygen species and local increase in calcium ions) as well as inflammatory cells and signals like chemokines and cytokines. An involvement of platelets in the inflammatory reaction associated with IRI was discovered several years ago, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This mini review focusses on platelet contributions to the intricate picture of myocardial IRI. We summarize how upregulation of platelet surface receptors and release of immunomodulatory mediators lead to aggravation of myocardial IRI and subsequent cardiac damage by different mechanisms such as recruitment and activation of immune cells or modification of the cardiac vascular endothelium. In addition, evidence for cardioprotective roles of distinct platelet factors during IRI will be discussed.

18.
Am Heart J ; 208: 81-90, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I [human]) is a plasma-derived apolipoprotein A-I developed for early reduction of cardiovascular risk following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The safety of CSL112 among AMI subjects with moderate, stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. METHODS: CSL112_2001, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized phase 2 trial, enrolled patients with moderate CKD within 7 days following AMI. Enrollment was stratified on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate and presence of diabetes requiring treatment. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive 4 weekly infusions of CSL112 6 g or placebo. The co-primary safety end points were renal serious adverse events (SAEs) and acute kidney injury, defined as an increase ≥26.5 µmol/L in baseline serum creatinine for more than 24 hours, during the treatment period. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were randomized (55 CSL112 vs 28 placebo). No increase in renal SAEs was observed in the CSL112 group compared with placebo (CSL112 = 1 [1.9%], placebo = 4 [14.3%]). Similarly, no increase in acute kidney injury events was observed (CSL112 = 2 [4.0%], placebo = 4 [14.3%]). Rates of other SAEs were similar between groups. CSL112 administration resulted in increases in ApoA-I and cholesterol efflux similar to those observed in patients with AMI and normal renal function or stage 2 CKD enrolled in the ApoA-I Event Reducing in Ischemic Syndromes I trial. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the acceptable safety of the 6-g dose of CSL112 among AMI subjects with moderate stage 3 CKD and support inclusion of these patients in a phase 3 cardiovascular outcomes trial powered to assess efficacy.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lipoproteínas HDL/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Lipoproteínas HDL/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 514-526, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468670

RESUMO

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) was discovered as a vasoconstrictor in 1937. Since its discovery, the involvement of serotonin in numerous physiological processes was described. It acts as an important neurotransmitter, regulates bowel movement, can be released as a tissue hormone and acts as a growth factor. Among the years, a link between serotonin and inflammation has been identified and further evidence suggests an important role of serotonergic components in immune responses. Peripheral serotonin is synthesized by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), which exists in two different isoforms: Tph2 being responsible for serotonin synthesis in neurons and Tph1 for generation of serotonin in peripheral organs. After synthesis in intestinal enterochromaffin cells, serotonin is stored in platelets and released upon stimulation. Several immune cells express the serotonin transporter SERT and enzymes for serotonin metabolism (monoamine oxygenase, MAO). To be susceptible to changes in serotonin levels, serotonin receptors are required and almost all of the 15 receptor subtypes are represented on immune cells. In this review, we describe the distribution of serotonergic components in cells of the immune system and the impact of platelet-derived serotonin on these cells. In particular, we aim to understand the effect of serotonin on immune cell recruitment to sites of inflammation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Serotonina/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Ativação Plaquetária/imunologia , Serotonina/sangue , Serotonina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478162

RESUMO

The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata shows a concerning increase in drug resistance. Here, we present the analysis of two serial bloodstream isolates, obtained 12 days apart. Both isolates show pan-azole resistance and echinocandin resistance was acquired during the sampling interval. Genome sequencing identified nine nonsynonymous SNVs between the strains, including a S663P substitution in FKS2 and previously undescribed SNVs in MDE1 and FPR1, offering insight into how C. glabrata acquires drug resistance and adapts to a human host.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/genética , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Genômica/métodos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA