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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
3.
Br J Cancer ; 123(4): 591-603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) account for 85-90% of all lung cancers. As drug resistance critically impairs chemotherapy effectiveness, there is great need to identify new therapeutic targets. The aims of this study were to investigate the prognostic and therapeutic potential of the copper-metabolism-domain-protein, COMMD4, in NSCLC. METHODS: The expression of COMMD4 in NSCLC was investigated using bioinformatic analysis, immunoblotting of immortalised human bronchial epithelial (HBEC) and NSCLC cell lines, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. COMMD4 function was additionally investigated in HBEC and NSCLC cells depleted of COMMD4, using small interfering RNA sequences. RESULTS: Bioinformatic analysis and in vitro analysis of COMMD4 transcripts showed that COMMD4 levels were upregulated in NSCLC and elevated COMMD4 was associated with poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma (ADC). Immunoblotting demonstrated that COMMD4 expression was upregulated in NSCLC cells and siRNA-depletion of COMMD4, decreased cell proliferation and reduced cell viability. Cell death was further enhanced after exposure to DNA damaging agents. COMMD4 depletion caused NSCLC cells to undergo mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that COMMD4 may function as a prognostic factor in ADC NSCLC. Additionally, COMMD4 is a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC, as its depletion induces cancer cell death.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos
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