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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors (JAKi) in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of patients with JDM treated by JAKi with a follow-up of at least 6 months. Proportion of clinically inactive disease (CID) within six months of JAKi initiation was evaluated using PRINTO criteria and skin Disease Activity Score. Serum IFN-α concentration was measured by SIMOA assay. RESULTS: Nine refractory and one new-onset patients with JDM treated with ruxolitinib (n = 7) or baricitinib (n = 3) were included. The main indications for treatment were refractory muscle involvement (n = 8) and ulcerative skin disease (n = 2). CID was achieved in 5/10 patients (2/2 anti-MDA5, 3/4 anti-NXP2, 0/3 anti-TIF1γ positive patients) within six months of JAKi introduction. All responders could withdraw plasmatic exchange, immunoadsorption and other immunosuppressive drugs. The mean daily steroid dose decreased from 1.1 mg/Kg (range 0.35-2 mg/Kg/d) to 0.1 (range, 0-0.3, p= 0.008) in patients achieving CID, and was stopped in two. Serum IFN-α concentrations were elevated in all patients at the time of treatment initiation and normalized in both responder and non-responder. A muscle biopsy repeated in one patient 26 months after the initiation of JAKi, showed a complete restoration of muscle endomysial microvascular bed. Herpes zoster and skin abscesses developed in three and two patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: JAKis resulted in a CID in a subset of new-onset or refractory patients with JDM and may dramatically reverse severe muscle vasculopathy. Overall tolerance was good except for a high rate of herpes zoster infection.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393505

RESUMO

Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis can be caused by inborn errors of the TLR3 pathway, resulting in impairment of CNS cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. Deficiencies of the TLR3 pathway impair cell-intrinsic immunity to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and HSV-1 in fibroblasts, and to HSV-1 in cortical but not trigeminal neurons. The underlying molecular mechanism is thought to involve impaired IFN-α/ß induction by the TLR3 recognition of dsRNA viral intermediates or by-products. However, we show here that human TLR3 controls constitutive levels of IFNB mRNA and secreted bioactive IFN-ß protein, and thereby also controls constitutive mRNA levels for IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in fibroblasts. Tlr3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts also have lower basal ISG levels. Moreover, human TLR3 controls basal levels of IFN-ß secretion and ISG mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons. Consistently, TLR3-deficient human fibroblasts and cortical neurons are vulnerable not only to both VSV and HSV-1, but also to several other families of viruses. The mechanism by which TLR3 restricts viral growth in human fibroblasts and cortical neurons in vitro and, by inference, by which the human CNS prevents infection by HSV-1 in vivo, is therefore based on the control of early viral infection by basal IFN-ß immunity.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411153

RESUMO

Whilst upregulation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling is common across the type I interferonopathies (T1Is), central nervous system (CNS) involvement varies between these disorders, the basis of which remains unclear. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), presumed monogenic T1Is (pT1I), childhood systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric features (nSLE), non-IFN-related autoinflammation (AI) and non-inflammatory hydrocephalus (as controls). We measured IFN-alpha protein using digital ELISA. Eighty-two and 63 measurements were recorded respectively in CSF and serum of 42 patients and 6 controls. In an intergroup comparison (taking one sample per individual), median CSF IFN-alpha levels were elevated in AGS, SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE compared to AI and controls, with levels highest in AGS compared to all other groups. In AGS, CSF IFN-alpha concentrations were higher than in paired serum samples. In contrast, serum IFN was consistently higher compared to CSF levels in SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE. Whilst IFN-alpha is present in the CSF and serum of all IFN-related diseases studied here, our data suggest the primary sites of IFN production in the monogenic T1I AGS and SAVI are, respectively, the CNS and the periphery. These results inform the diagnosis of, and future therapeutic approaches to, monogenic and multifactorial T1Is.

4.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175106

RESUMO

As microbial therapeutics are increasingly being tested in diverse patient populations, it is essential to understand the host and environmental factors influencing the microbiome. Through analysis of 1,359 gut microbiome samples from 946 healthy donors of the Milieu Intérieur cohort, we detail how microbiome composition is associated with host factors, lifestyle parameters, and disease states. Using a genome-based taxonomy, we found biological sex was the strongest driver of community composition. Additionally, bacterial populations shift across decades of life (age 20-69), with Bacteroidota species consistently increased with age while Actinobacteriota species, including Bifidobacterium, decreased. Longitudinal sampling revealed that short-term stability exceeds interindividual differences. By accounting for these factors, we defined global shifts in the microbiomes of patients with non-gastrointestinal tumors compared with healthy donors. Together, these results demonstrated that the microbiome displays predictable variations as a function of sex, age, and disease state. These variations must be considered when designing microbiome-targeted therapies or interpreting differences thought to be linked to pathophysiology or therapeutic response.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-29, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298217

RESUMO

Host-microbial co-metabolism products are being increasingly recognized to play important roles in physiological processes. However, studies undertaking a comprehensive approach to consider host-microbial metabolic relationships remain scarce. Metabolomic analysis yielding detailed information regarding metabolites found in a given biological compartment holds promise for such an approach. This work aimed to explore the associations between host plasma metabolomic signatures and gut microbiota composition in healthy adults of the Milieu Intérieur study. For 846 subjects, gut microbiota composition was profiled through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in stools. Metabolomic signatures were generated through proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of plasma. The associations between metabolomic variables and α- and ß-diversity indexes and relative taxa abundances were tested using multi-adjusted partial Spearman correlations, PERMANOVAs, and MaAsLins, respectively. A Multiple testing correction was applied (Benjamini-Hochberg, 10%-FDR). Microbial richness was negatively associated with lipid-related signals and positively associated with amino acids, choline, creatinine, glucose, and citrate (-0.133 ≤ Spearman's ρ ≤ 0.126). Specific associations between metabolomic signals and abundances of taxa were detected (25 at the genus level and 19 at the species level): notably, numerous associations were observed for creatinine (positively associated with 11 species, and negatively associated with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). This large-scale population-based study highlights metabolites associated with gut microbial features and provides new insights into the understanding of complex host-gut microbiota metabolic relationships. In particular, our results support the implication of a "gut-kidney axis". More studies providing a detailed exploration of these complex interactions, and their implications for host health are needed.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy has revolutionised treatment of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including spondyloarthritis (SpA). However, TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are not effective in all patients and the biological basis for treatment failure remains unknown. We have analysed induced immune responses to define the mechanism of action of TNF blockers in SpA and to identify immunological correlates of responsiveness to TNFi. METHODS: Immune responses to microbial and pathway-specific stimuli were analysed in peripheral blood samples from 80 patients with axial SpA before and after TNFi treatment, using highly standardised whole-blood stimulation assays. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory, and gene expression was monitored using nCounter assays. RESULTS: Anti-TNF therapy induced profound changes in patients' innate immune responses. TNFi action was selective, and had only minor effects on Th1/Th17 immunity. Modular transcriptional repertoire analysis identified prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signalling, leucocyte recirculation, macrophage polarisation, dectin and interleukin (IL)-1 signalling, as well as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor family as key pathways targeted by TNF blockers in vivo. Analysis of induced immune responses before treatment initiation revealed that expression of molecules associated with leucocyte adhesion and invasion, chemotaxis and IL-1 signalling are correlated with therapeutic responses to anti-TNF. CONCLUSIONS: We show that TNFi target multiple immune cell pathways that cooperate to resolve inflammation. We propose that immune response profiling provides new insight into the biology of TNF-blocker action in patients and can identify signalling pathways associated with therapeutic responses to biological therapies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in STING1 underlie a type I interferonopathy termed SAVI (STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy). This severe disease is variably characterized by early-onset systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and interstitial lung disease (ILD). OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of SAVI patients. METHODS: Assessment of clinical, radiological, and immunologic data from 21 patients (17 families). RESULTS: Patients carried heterozygous substitutions in STING1 previously described in SAVI, mainly the p.V155M. Most patients were symptomatic from infancy but late onset in adulthood occurred in one patient. Systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and ILD were observed in 19, 18 and 21 patients respectively. Extensive tissue loss occurred in 4 patients. Severity of ILD was highly variable with insidious progression up to end-stage respiratory failure reached at teenage in 6 patients. Lung imaging revealed early fibrotic lesions. Failure to thrive was almost constant, with severe growth failure seen in 4 patients. Seven patients presented polyarthritis and one infant mimicked a combined immune deficiency. Extended features reminiscent of other interferonopathies were also found e.g. intracranial calcification, glaucoma, glomerular nephropathy. Increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon α protein was constant. Autoantibodies were frequently found, in particular rheumatoid factor. Most patients presented with a T-cell defect, with low counts of memory CD8+ cells and impaired T-cell proliferation in response to antigens. Long-term follow-up described in 8 children confirmed the clinical benefice of ruxolitinib in SAVI unless the treatment is started early in the course of the disease underlying the need for early diagnosis. Tolerance was reasonably good. CONCLUSION: This largest worldwide cohort of SAVI patients precise core features and extends the clinical and immunological phenotype of the disease, displaying overlap with other monogenic interferonopathies.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250895

RESUMO

Conventional vaccine design has been based on trial-and-error approaches, which have been generally successful. However, there have been some major failures in vaccine development and we still do not have highly effective licensed vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and other major infections of global significance. Approaches at rational vaccine design have been limited by our understanding of the immune response to vaccination at the molecular level. Tools now exist to undertake in-depth analysis using systems biology approaches, but to be fully realized, studies are required in humans with intensive blood and tissue sampling. Methods that support this intensive sampling need to be developed and validated as feasible. To this end, we describe here a detailed approach that was applied in a study of 15 healthy adults, who were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Sampling included ~350 mL of blood, 12 microbiome samples, and lymph node fine needle aspirates obtained over a ~7-month period, enabling comprehensive analysis of the immune response at the molecular level, including single cell and tissue sample analysis. Samples were collected for analysis of immune phenotyping, whole blood and single cell gene expression, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetics, whole blood response to key immune stimuli, cytokine responses, in vitro T cell responses, antibody repertoire analysis and the microbiome. Data integration was undertaken using different approaches-NetworkAnalyst and DIABLO. Our results demonstrate that such intensive sampling studies are feasible in healthy adults, and data integration tools exist to analyze the vast amount of data generated from a multi-omics systems biology approach. This will provide the basis for a better understanding of vaccine-induced immunity and accelerate future rational vaccine design.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a lymphocytic infiltration of salivary glands and the presence of an interferon (IFN) signature. Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) play an active role in pSS pathophysiology. The aim of this work was to study the interactions between SGECs and T cells in pSS and the role of the IL-7/IFN axis. METHODS: Primary cultured SGECs from pSS and controls were stimulated with poly(I:C), IFNα or IFNγ. T cells were sorted from blood and stimulated with IL-7. CD25 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Salivary gland explants were cultured for 4 days with anti-IL-7R antagonist antibody (OSE-127) and transcriptomic analysis was performed by using nanostring. RESULTS: IL-7 serum level was increased in pSS patients versus controls and was associated with B-cell biomarkers. IL7R expression was decreased in T cells from pSS patients versus controls. SGECs stimulated with poly(I:C), IFNα, or IFNγ secreted IL-7. IL-7 stimulation increased the activation of T cells, as well as IFNγ secretion. Transcriptomic analysis of salivary gland explants showed a correlation between IL7 and IFN expression. Lastly, explants cultured with anti-IL-7R antibody showed decreased IFN-stimulated gene expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an IL-7-IFNγ amplification loop involving SGECs and T cells in pSS. IL-7 was secreted by SGECs stimulated with type 1 or type 2 IFN and, in turn, activate T cells that secrete type 2 IFN. An anti-IL-7R antibody decreased the IFN signature in T cells during pSS and could be of therapeutic interest.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and is a major public health problem. Clinical challenges include the lack of a blood-based test for active disease. Current blood-based tests, such as QuantiFERON (QFT) do not distinguish active TB disease from asymptomatic Mtb infection. METHODS: We hypothesized that TruCulture, an immunomonitoring method for whole blood stimulation, could discriminate active disease from latent Mtb infection (LTBI). We stimulated whole blood from active TB patients and compared to LTBI donors. Mtb- specific antigens and live bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were used as stimuli, with direct comparison to QFT. Protein analyses were performed using conventional and digital ELISA, as well as Luminex. RESULTS: TruCulture showed discrimination of active TB cases from LTBI (p < 0.0001 AUC = 0.81) as compared to QFT (p = 0.45 AUC = 0.56), based on an IFNγ readout after Mtb antigen stimulation. This result was replicated in an independent cohort (AUC = 0.89). In exploratory analyses, TB stratification could be further improved by the Mtb Ag/BCG IFNγ ratio (p < 0.0001 AUC = 0.91). Finally, the combination of digital ELISA and transcriptional analysis showed that LTBI donors with high IFNγ clustered with TB patients, suggesting the possibility to identify sub-clinical disease. CONCLUSIONS: TruCulture offers a next-generation solution for whole blood stimulation and immunomonitoring with the possibility to discriminate active and latent infection.

12.
JCI Insight ; 5(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970636

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin disorder of unknown etiology that manifests as recurrent, painful lesions. Cutaneous dysbiosis and unresolved inflammation are hallmarks of active HS, but their origin and interplay remain unclear. Our metabolomic profiling of HS skin revealed an abnormal induction of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism in dermal fibroblasts, correlating with the release of kynurenine pathway-inducing cytokines by inflammatory cell infiltrates. Notably, overactivation of the kynurenine pathway in lesional skin was associated with local and systemic depletion in tryptophan. Yet the skin microbiota normally degrades host tryptophan into indoles regulating tissue inflammation via engagement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In HS skin lesions, we detected contextual defects in AHR activation coinciding with impaired production of bacteria-derived AHR agonists and decreased incidence of AHR ligand-producing bacteria in the resident flora. Dysregulation of tryptophan catabolism at the skin-microbiota interface thus provides a mechanism linking the immunological and microbiological features of HS lesions. In addition to revealing metabolic alterations in patients with HS, our study suggests that correcting AHR signaling would help restore immune homeostasis in HS skin.

13.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972996

RESUMO

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon alfa-2/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
14.
Ann Neurol ; 88(6): 1244-1250, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951275

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterise both neuronal autoantibodies and levels of interferon α, two proposed causative agents in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 35 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 15 with NPSLE) showed no antibodies against natively expressed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), or the surface of live hippocampal neurons. By comparison to controls (n = 104), patients with SLE had antibodies that bound to a peptide representing the extracellular domain of NMDARs (p < 0.0001), however, binding was retained against both rearranged peptides and no peptide (r = 0.85 and r = 0.79, respectively, p < 0.0001). In summary, neuronal-surface reactive antibodies were not detected in NPSLE. Further, while interferon α levels were higher in SLE (p < 0.0001), they lacked specificity for NPSLE. Our findings mandate a search for novel biomarkers in this condition. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1244-1250.

15.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 65: 83-88, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745736

RESUMO

The goal of translational medicine is to use an improved understanding of human biology to develop new clinical approaches. Immune responses are highly variable from one person to another, with this variability strongly impacting clinical outcome. Variable immunity can determine differential risks for infection, for development of autoimmunity, and for response to therapeutic interventions. Therefore, a better understanding of the causes of such differences has huge potential to improve patient management through precision medicine strategies. Variability in immunity is determined by intrinsic (e.g. age, sex), extrinsic (e.g. environment, diet), and genetic factors. There is a growing consensus that genetics factors account for 20-40% of immune variability between individuals. The remaining unexplained variability is likely due to direct environmental influences, as well as specific gene-environmental interactions, which are more challenging to quantify and study. However, population based cohort studies with systems immunology approaches are now providing new understanding into these associations.

16.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725128

RESUMO

Heterozygous missense mutations in coatomer protein subunit α, COPA, cause a syndrome overlapping clinically with type I IFN-mediated disease due to gain-of-function in STING, a key adaptor of IFN signaling. Recently, increased levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were described in COPA syndrome. However, the link between COPA mutations and IFN signaling is unknown. We observed elevated levels of ISGs and IFN-α in blood of symptomatic COPA patients. In vitro, both overexpression of mutant COPA and silencing of COPA induced STING-dependent IFN signaling. We detected an interaction between COPA and STING, and mutant COPA was associated with an accumulation of ER-resident STING at the Golgi. Given the known role of the coatomer protein complex I, we speculate that loss of COPA function leads to enhanced type I IFN signaling due to a failure of Golgi-to-ER STING retrieval. These data highlight the importance of the ER-Golgi axis in the control of autoinflammation and inform therapeutic strategies in COPA syndrome.

17.
Science ; 369(6504): 718-724, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661059

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by distinct patterns of disease progression that suggest diverse host immune responses. We performed an integrated immune analysis on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients with various disease severity. A distinct phenotype was observed in severe and critical patients, consisting of a highly impaired interferon (IFN) type I response (characterized by no IFN-ß and low IFN-α production and activity), which was associated with a persistent blood viral load and an exacerbated inflammatory response. Inflammation was partially driven by the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB and characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production and signaling. These data suggest that type I IFN deficiency in the blood could be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and provide a rationale for combined therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon alfa-2/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Carga Viral
18.
Diabetologia ; 63(8): 1576-1587, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500289

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Self-antigen-specific T cell responses drive type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, but alterations in innate immune responses are also critical and not as well understood. Innate immunity in human type 1 diabetes has primarily been assessed via gene-expression analysis of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, without the immune activation that could amplify disease-associated signals. Increased responsiveness in each of the two main innate immune pathways, driven by either type 1 IFN (IFN-1) or IL-1, have been detected in type 1 diabetes, but the dominant innate pathway is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the key innate pathway in type 1 diabetes and assess the whole blood immune stimulation assay as a tool to investigate this. METHODS: The TruCulture whole blood ex vivo stimulation assay, paired with gene expression and cytokine measurements, was used to characterise changes in the stimulated innate immune response in type 1 diabetes. We applied specific cytokine-induced signatures to our data, pre-defined from the same assays measured in a separate cohort of healthy individuals. In addition, NOD mice were stimulated with CpG and monocyte gene expression was measured. RESULTS: Monocytes from NOD mice showed lower baseline vs diabetes-resistant B6.g7 mice, but higher induced IFN-1-associated gene expression. In human participants, ex vivo whole blood stimulation revealed higher induced IFN-1 responses in type 1 diabetes, as compared with healthy control participants. In contrast, neither the IL-1-induced gene signature nor response to the adaptive immune stimulant Staphylococcal enterotoxin B were significantly altered in type 1 diabetes samples vs healthy control participants. Targeted gene-expression analysis showed that this enhanced IFN response was specific to IFN-1, as IFN-γ-driven responses were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study identifies increased responsiveness to IFN-1 as a feature of both the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes and human established type 1 diabetes. A stimulated IFN-1 gene signature may be a potential biomarker for type 1 diabetes and used to evaluate the effects of therapies targeting this pathway. DATA AVAILABILITY: Mouse gene expression data are found in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) repository, accession GSE146452 ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE146452 ). Nanostring count data from the human experiments were deposited in the GEO repository, accession GSE146338 ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE146338 ). Data files and R code for all analyses are available at https://github.com/rodriguesk/T1D_truculture_diabetologia . Graphical abstract.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 807-819, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572726

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the occurrence of three copies of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). HSA21 contains a cluster of four interferon receptor (IFN-R) genes: IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR2, and IL10RB. DS patients often develop mucocutaneous infections and autoimmune diseases, mimicking patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, which enhance cellular responses to three types of interferon (IFN). A gene dosage effect at these four loci may contribute to the infectious and autoimmune manifestations observed in individuals with DS. We report high levels of IFN-αR1, IFN-αR2, and IFN-γR2 expression on the surface of monocytes and EBV-transformed-B (EBV-B) cells from studying 45 DS patients. Total and phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1 and pSTAT1) levels were constitutively high in unstimulated and IFN-α- and IFN-γ-stimulated monocytes from DS patients but lower than those in patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Following stimulation with IFN-α or -γ, but not with IL-6 or IL-21, pSTAT1 and IFN-γ activation factor (GAF) DNA-binding activities were significantly higher in the EBV-B cells of DS patients than in controls. These responses resemble the dysregulated responses observed in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. Concentrations of plasma type I IFNs were high in 12% of the DS patients tested (1.8% in the healthy controls). Levels of type I IFNs, IFN-Rs, and STAT1 were similar in DS patients with and without recurrent skin infections. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis based on principal component analysis and interferon modules on circulating monocytes. We found that DS monocytes had levels of both IFN-α- and IFN-γ-inducible ISGs intermediate to those of monocytes from healthy controls and from patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Unlike patients with GOF STAT1 mutations, patients with DS had normal circulating Th17 counts and a high proportion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells with low levels of STAT1 expression. We conclude a mild interferonopathy in Down syndrome leads to an incomplete penetrance at both cellular and clinical level, which is not correlate with recurrent skin bacterial or fungal infections. The constitutive upregulation of type I and type II IFN-R, at least in monocytes of DS patients, may contribute to the autoimmune diseases observed in these individuals.

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