Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(1): e42-e50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in mortality persist in high-income countries with universal health care, and the mechanisms by which these inequalities are generated remain unclear. We aimed to examine whether social inequalities were present before or after the onset of adverse health conditions (multimorbidity, frailty, and disability). METHODS: Our analysis was based on data from the ongoing Whitehall II cohort study, which enrolled British civil servants aged 35-55 years in 1985-88. Participants were assessed for three indicators of socioeconomic status (education, occupational position, and literacy) at age 50 years. Participants underwent clinical examinations (in 2002-04, 2007-09, 2012-13, and 2015-16) for assessment of frailty (two or more of low physical activity, slow walking speed, poor grip strength, weight loss, and exhaustion) and disability (two or more difficulties in bathing, dressing, going to the toilet, transferring, feeding, and walking). In addition, electronic health records were used to assess the incidence of multimorbidity (two or more of diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, arthritis, cancer, dementia, and Parkinson's disease) and mortality. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, we used multistate models to examine social inequalities in transitions from healthy state to adverse health conditions and subsequently to mortality. FINDINGS: Of 10 308 individuals in the Whitehall II study cohort, 6425 had relevant data available at 50 years and to the end of follow-up on Aug 31, 2017, and were included in our analysis. Participants were followed up for a median of 23·6 years (IQR 19·6-28·9). 1694 (26·4%) of 6425 participants developed multimorbidity, 1733 (27·0%) became frail, 692 (10·8%) had a disability, and 611 (9·5%) died. Multimorbidity (hazard ratio [HR] 4·12 [95% CI 3·41-4·98]), frailty (HR 2·38 [95% CI 1·93-2·93]), and disability (HR 1·73 [95% CI 1·34-2·22]) were associated with increased risk of mortality; these associations were not modified by socioeconomic status. In multistate models, occupation was the socioeconomic status indicator that was most strongly associated with inequalities in the transition from healthy state to multimorbidity (HR 1·54 [95% CI 1·37-1·73]), to frailty (HR 2·08 [95% CI 1·85-2·33]), and to disability (HR 1·44 [95% CI 1·18-1·74]). Socioeconomic status indicators did not affect transitions to mortality in those with multimorbidity, frailty, or disability. INTERPRETATION: Socioeconomic status affects the risk of multimorbidity, frailty, and disability, but does not affect the risk of mortality after the onset of these adverse health conditions. Therefore, primary prevention is key to reducing social inequalities in mortality. Of the three adverse health conditions, multimorbidity had the strongest association with mortality, making it a central target for improving population health. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council; National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health; British Heart Foundation.

2.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792574

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This work examined the role of physical activity in the course of diabetes using data spanning nearly three decades. Our first aim was to examine the long-term association of moderate and vigorous physical activity with incidence of type 2 diabetes. Our second aim was to investigate the association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity post-diabetes diagnosis with subsequent risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: A total of 9987 participants from the Whitehall II cohort study free of type 2 diabetes at baseline (1985-1988) were followed for incidence of type 2 diabetes, based on clinical assessments between 1985 and 2016 and linkage to electronic health records up to 31 March 2017. We first examined the association of moderate and vigorous physical activity measured by questionnaire in 1985-1988 (mean age 44.9 [SD 6.0] years; women, 32.7%) with incident type 2 diabetes, using the interval-censored, illness-death model, a competing risk analysis that takes into account both competing risk of death and intermittent ascertainment of diabetes due to reliance on data collection cycles (interval-censored). The second analysis was based on individuals with type 2 diabetes over the follow-up period where we used Cox regression with inverse probability weighting to examine the association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS: Of the 9987 participants, 1553 developed type 2 diabetes during a mean follow-up of 27.1 (SD 6.3) years. Compared with participants who were inactive in 1985-1988, those who undertook any duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.75, 0.97], p = 0.02; analysis adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioural and health-related factors). In 1026 participants with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes over the follow-up period, data on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after diabetes diagnosis were available; 165 all-cause deaths and 55 cardiovascular disease-related deaths were recorded during a mean follow-up of 8.8 (SD 6.1) years. In these participants with diabetes, any duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.61 [95% CI 0.41, 0.93], p = 0.02) while the association with cardiovascular mortality was evident only for physical activity undertaken at or above recommendations (≥2.5 h per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity or ≥1.25 h per week of vigorous physical activity; HR 0.40 [95% CI 0.16, 0.96], p = 0.04) in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity plays an important role in diabetes, influencing both its incidence and prognosis. A protective effect on incidence was seen for durations of activity below recommendations and a marginal additional benefit was observed at higher durations. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes, any duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with reduced all-cause mortality while recommended durations of physical activity were required for protection against cardiovascular disease-related mortality. DATA AVAILABILITY: Whitehall II data, protocols and other metadata are available to the scientific community. Please refer to the Whitehall II data sharing policy at https://www.ucl.ac.uk/epidemiology-health-care/research/epidemiology-and-public-health/research/whitehall-ii/data-sharing.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717923

RESUMO

Background: No comparative data is available to report on the effect of online self-exclusion. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of self-exclusion in online poker gambling as compared to matched controls, after the end of the self-exclusion period. Methods: We included all gamblers who were first-time self-excluders over a 7-year period (n = 4887) on a poker website, and gamblers matched for gender, age and account duration (n = 4451). We report the effects over time of self-exclusion after it ended, on money (net losses) and time spent (session duration) using an analysis of variance procedure between mixed models with and without the interaction of time and self-exclusion. Analyzes were performed on the whole sample, on the sub-groups that were the most heavily involved in terms of time or money (higher quartiles) and among short-duration self-excluders (<3 months). Results: Significant effects of self-exclusion and short-duration self-exclusion were found for money and time spent over 12 months. Among the gamblers that were the most heavily involved financially, no significant effect on the amount spent was found. Among the gamblers who were the most heavily involved in terms of time, a significant effect was found on time spent. Short-duration self-exclusions showed no significant effect on the most heavily involved gamblers. Conclusions: Self-exclusion seems efficient in the long term. However, the effect on money spent of self-exclusions and of short-duration self-exclusions should be further explored among the most heavily involved gamblers.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1981-1987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most previous studies on cardiovascular health (CVH) and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) have used a single measure of CVH, and none have investigated the association with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We examined the association between changes in CVH and incident T2D and IFG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Within the Whitehall II study, CVH was examined every 5 years from 1991/93 until 2015/16. Subjects with 0-2, 3-4, and 5-6 ideal metrics of CVH from the American Heart Association were categorized as having low, moderate, or high CVH, respectively. RESULTS: There were 6,234 participants (mean age 49.8 ± 6.0 years, 70% male) without prior cardiovascular disease and T2D, including 5,015 who were additionally free from IFG at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 24.8 (interquartile range 24.0-25.2) years, 895 and 1,703 incident cases of T2D and IFG occurred, respectively. Change in CVH between 1991/93 and 2002/04 was calculated among 4,464 participants free from CVD and T2D and among 2,795 participants additionally free from IFG. In multivariate analysis, compared with those with stable low CVH, risk of T2D was lower in those with initially high CVH (hazard ratio [HR] 0.21; 95% CI 0.09, 0.51), those who had persistently moderate CVH or changed from moderate to high CVH (moderate-moderate/high; HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.41, 0.69), low-moderate/high (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.45, 0.86), and moderate-low (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.56, 0.98). Results were similar for IFG, but the effect sizes were smaller. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with stable low CVH, other patterns of change in CVH were associated with lower risk of T2D and IFG.

5.
BMJ ; 366: l4414, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the Life Simple 7 cardiovascular health score at age 50 and incidence of dementia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study; study inception 1985-88). PARTICIPANTS: 7899 participants with data on the cardiovascular health score at age 50. EXPOSURES: The cardiovascular health score included four behavioural (smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index) and three biological (fasting glucose, blood cholesterol, blood pressure) metrics, coded on a three point scale (0, 1, 2). The cardiovascular health score was the sum of seven metrics (score range 0-14) and was categorised into poor (scores 0-6), intermediate (7-11), and optimal (12-14) cardiovascular health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident dementia, identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2017. RESULTS: 347 incident cases of dementia were recorded over a median follow-up of 24.7 years. Compared with an incidence rate of dementia of 3.2 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 4.0) per 1000 person years among the group with poor cardiovascular health, the absolute rate differences per 1000 person years were -1.5 (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.7) for the group with intermediate cardiovascular health and -1.9 (-2.8 to -1.1) for the group with optimal cardiovascular health. Higher cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower risk of dementia (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.85 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). Similar associations with dementia were observed for the behavioural and biological subscales (hazard ratios per 1 point increment in the subscores 0.87 (0.81 to 0.93) and 0.91 (0.83 to 1.00), respectively). The association between cardiovascular health at age 50 and dementia was also seen in people who remained free of cardiovascular disease over the follow-up (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.84 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the Life Simple 7 ideal cardiovascular health recommendations in midlife was associated with a lower risk of dementia later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ß-amyloid peptide (Aß42) and CSF Tau in a large population of patients referred to memory clinics for investigation of cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: We analyzed Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in CSF taken from 3565 patients referred to 18 French memory clinics. Patients were classified into four profiles according to levels of CSF biomarkers (A: amyloidosis, N: neurodegeneration). The association between CSF Tau and CSF Aß42 were analyzed using general linear regression models, in the overall population and stratified by biomarkers profiles. We compared linear and quadratic models using Akaike information criterion. We also assessed change in biomarker profiles in a subset of patients who had 2 assessments of biomarkers. RESULTS: CSF Tau was negatively associated with CSF Aß42 in the overall population, following a non-linear quadratic model. However, the nature of this association was different in the 4 profiles: positive association in A-N- profile, negative association in A-N+ and A+N+ profiles, lack of association in A+N- patients. When considering patients with longitudinal data on profiles, 36% of those initially classified as A-N+ evolved to an A+N+ profile. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the association between CSF Aß42 and CFS Tau depends on the A/N profiles of patients. These results suggest an increase in CSF Aß42 early in the disease before its decline while tau pathology progresses, this pattern is particularly observed in non-APOE4 subjects. This phenomenon may explain why some patients with neurodegeneration only markers convert to an AD profile (A+N+) over time.

7.
JAMA ; 321(10): 957-968, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860560

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies suggest that diet is linked to cognitive health. However, the duration of follow-up in many studies is not sufficient to take into account the long preclinical phase of dementia, and the evidence from interventional studies is not conclusive. Objective: To examine whether midlife diet is associated with subsequent risk for dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study established in 1985-1988 that had dietary intake assessed in 1991-1993, 1997-1999, and 2002-2004 and follow-up for incident dementia until March 31, 2017. Exposures: Food frequency questionnaire to derive the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), an 11-component diet quality score (score range, 0-110), with higher scores indicating a healthier diet. Main Outcome and Measures: Incident dementia ascertained through linkage to electronic health records. Results: Among 8225 participants without dementia in 1991-1993 (mean age, 50.2 years [SD, 6.1 years]; 5686 [69.1%] were men), a total of 344 cases of incident dementia were recorded during a median follow-up of 24.8 years (interquartile range, 24.2-25.1 years). No significant difference in the incidence rate for dementia was observed in tertiles of AHEI exposure during 1991-1993, 1997-1999 (median follow-up, 19.1 years), and 2002-2004 (median follow-up, 13.5 years). Compared with an incidence rate for dementia of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.47-2.12) per 1000 person-years in the worst tertile of AHEI (lowest tertile of diet quality) in 1991-1993, the absolute rate difference for the intermediate tertile was 0.03 (95% CI, -0.43 to 0.49) per 1000 person-years and for the best tertile was 0.04 (95% CI, -0.42 to 0.51) per 1000 person-years. Compared with the worst AHEI tertile in 1997-1999 (incidence rate for dementia, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.62 to 2.61] per 1000 person-years), the absolute rate difference for the intermediate AHEI tertile was 0.14 (95% CI, -0.58 to 0.86) per 1000 person-years and for the best AHEI tertile was 0.14 (95% CI, -0.58 to 0.85) per 1000 person-years. Compared with the worst AHEI tertile in 2002-2004 (incidence rate for dementia, 3.12 [95% CI, 2.49 to 3.92] per 1000 person-years), the absolute rate difference for the intermediate AHEI tertile was -0.61 (95% CI, -1.56 to 0.33) per 1000 person-years and for the best AHEI tertile was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.67 to 0.22) per 1000 person-years. In the multivariable analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for dementia per 1-SD (10-point) AHEI increment were not significant as assessed in 1991-1993 (adjusted HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.08]), in 1997-1999 (adjusted HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.83 to 1.12]), or in 2002-2004 (adjusted HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.00]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this long-term prospective cohort study, diet quality assessed during midlife was not significantly associated with subsequent risk for dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 29, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death, with an average survival estimated between 5 and 10 years after diagnosis. Despite recent advances in diagnostic criteria of AD, few studies have used biomarker-based diagnostics to determine the prognostic factors of AD. We investigate predictors of death and institutionalization in a population of AD patients with high probability of AD physiopathology process assessed by positivity of three CSF biomarkers. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-one AD patients with abnormal values for CSF beta-amyloid peptide (Aß42), tau, and phosphorylated tau levels were recruited from a memory clinic-based registry between 2008 and 2017 (Lariboisiere hospital, Paris, France) and followed during a median period of 3.9 years. We used multivariable Cox models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death and institutionalization for baseline clinical data, genotype of the apolipoprotein E (APOE), and levels of CSF biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 71 (22%) patients were institutionalized and 57 (18%) died during the follow-up. Greater age, male sex, lower MMSE score, and lower CSF Aß42 level were associated with an increased risk of mortality. One standard deviation lower CSF Aß42 (135 pg/mL) was associated with a 89% increased risk of death (95% CI = 1.25-2.86; p = 0.002). This association was not modified by age, sex, education, APOE ε4, and disease severity. There was no evidence of an association of tau CSF biomarkers with mortality. None of the CSF biomarkers were associated with institutionalization. CONCLUSIONS: Lower CSF Aß42 is a strong prognostic marker of mortality in AD patients, independently of age or severity of the disease. Whether drugs targeting beta-amyloid peptide could have an effect on mortality of AD patients should be investigated in future clinical trials.

9.
JAMA ; 320(17): 1793-1804, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398604

RESUMO

Importance: There is consistent evidence of the association between ideal cardiovascular health and lower incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, most studies used a single measure of cardiovascular health. Objective: To examine how cardiovascular health changes over time and whether these changes are associated with incident CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study in a UK general community (Whitehall II), with examinations of cardiovascular health from 1985/1988 (baseline) and every 5 years thereafter until 2015/2016 and follow-up for incident CVD until March 2017. Exposures: Using the 7 metrics of the American Heart Association (nonsmoking; and ideal levels of body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol), participants with 0 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 7 ideal metrics were categorized as having low, moderate, and high cardiovascular health. Change in cardiovascular health over 10 years between 1985/1988 and 1997/1999 was considered. Main Outcome and Measure: Incident CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke). Results: The study population included 9256 participants without prior CVD (mean [SD] age at baseline, 44.8 [6.0] years; 2941 [32%] women), of whom 6326 had data about cardiovascular health change. Over a median follow-up of 18.9 years after 1997/1999, 1114 incident CVD events occurred. In multivariable analysis and compared with individuals with persistently low cardiovascular health (consistently low group, 13.5% of participants; CVD incident rate per 1000 person-years, 9.6 [95% CI, 8.4-10.9]), there was no significant association with CVD risk in the low to moderate group (6.8% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -1.9 [95% CI, -3.9 to 0.1]; HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.66-1.08]), the low to high group, (0.3% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -7.7 [95% CI, -11.5 to -3.9]; HR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.03-1.35]), and the moderate to low group (18.0% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -1.3 [95% CI, -3.0 to 0.3]; HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.80-1.15]). A lower CVD risk was observed in the consistently moderate group (38.9% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -4.2 [95% CI, -5.5 to -2.8]; HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.53-0.74]), the moderate to high group (5.8% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -6.4 [95% CI, -8.0 to -4.7]; HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.27-0.56]), the high to low group (1.9% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -5.3 [95% CI, -7.8 to -2.8]; HR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.29-0.83]), the high to moderate group (9.3% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -4.5 [95% CI, -6.2 to -2.9]; HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.51-0.85]), and the consistently high group (5.5% of participants; absolute rate difference per 1000 person-years, -5.6 [95% CI, -7.4 to -3.9]; HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.40-0.80]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among a group of participants without CVD who received follow-up over a median 18.9 years, there was no consistent relationship between direction of change in category of a composite metric of cardiovascular health and risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ ; 362: k2927, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study). PARTICIPANTS: 9087 participants aged 35-55 years at study inception (1985/88). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident dementia, identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2017. Measures of alcohol consumption were the mean from three assessments between 1985/88 and 1991/93 (midlife), categorised as abstinence, 1-14 units/week, and >14 units/week; 17 year trajectories of alcohol consumption based on five assessments of alcohol consumption between 1985/88 and 2002/04; CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence assessed in 1991/93; and hospital admission for alcohol related chronic diseases between 1991 and 2017. RESULTS: 397 cases of dementia were recorded over a mean follow-up of 23 years. Abstinence in midlife was associated with a higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.89) compared with consumption of 1-14 units/week. Among those drinking >14 units/week, a 7 unit increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval 4% to 32%) increase in risk of dementia. CAGE score >2 (hazard ratio 2.19, 1.29 to 3.71) and alcohol related hospital admission (4.28, 2.72 to 6.73) were also associated with an increased risk of dementia. Alcohol consumption trajectories from midlife to early old age showed long term abstinence (1.74, 1.31 to 2.30), decrease in consumption (1.55, 1.08 to 2.22), and long term consumption >14 units/week (1.40, 1.02 to 1.93) to be associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with long term consumption of 1-14 units/week. Analysis using multistate models suggested that the excess risk of dementia associated with abstinence in midlife was partly explained by cardiometabolic disease over the follow-up as the hazard ratio of dementia in abstainers without cardiometabolic disease was 1.33 (0.88 to 2.02) compared with 1.47 (1.15 to 1.89) in the entire population. CONCLUSION: The risk of dementia was increased in people who abstained from alcohol in midlife or consumed >14 units/week. In several countries, guidelines define thresholds for harmful alcohol consumption much higher than 14 units/week. The present findings encourage the downward revision of such guidelines to promote cognitive health at older ages.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur Heart J ; 39(33): 3119-3125, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901708

RESUMO

Aims: To examine associations of diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at age 50, 60, and 70 years with incidence of dementia, and whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) over the follow-up mediates this association. Methods and results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured on 8639 persons (32.5% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study in 1985, 1991, 1997, and 2003. Incidence of dementia (n dementia/n total = 385/8639) was ascertained from electronic health records followed-up until 2017. Cubic splines using continuous blood pressure measures suggested SBP ≥130 mmHg at age 50 but not at age 60 or 70 was associated with increased risk of dementia, confirmed in Cox regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and time varying chronic conditions [hazard ratio (HR) 1.38; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11, 1.70]. Diastolic blood pressure was not associated with dementia. Participants with longer exposure to hypertension (SBP ≥ 130 mmHg) between mean ages of 45 and 61 years had an increased risk of dementia compared to those with no or low exposure to hypertension (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.00, 1.66). In multi-state models, SBP ≥ 130 mmHg at 50 years of age was associated with greater risk of dementia in those free of CVD over the follow-up (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15, 1.87). Conclusion: Systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg at age 50, below the conventional ≥140 mmHg threshold used to define hypertension, is associated with increased risk of dementia; in these persons this excess risk is independent of CVD.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Demência/etiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sístole/fisiologia
12.
PLoS Med ; 15(5): e1002571, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23.7 years (1985 to 2017). Three sets of risk factors were assessed at age 50 years, each on a 5-point scale: clinical profile (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight/obesity, family history of cardiometabolic disease), occupational position, and behavioural factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity). The outcomes examined were cardiometabolic disease (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke), cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and mortality. We used multi-state models to examine the role of risk factors in 5 components of the cardiometabolic disease trajectory: from healthy state to first cardiometabolic disease, from first cardiometabolic disease to cardiometabolic multimorbidity, from healthy state to death, from first cardiometabolic disease to death, and from cardiometabolic multimorbidity to death. A total of 2,501 participants developed 1 of the 3 cardiometabolic diseases, 511 developed cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and 1,406 died. When behavioural and clinical risk factors were considered individually, only smoking was associated with all five transitions. In a model containing all 3 risk factor scales, midlife clinical profile was the strongest predictor of first cardiometabolic disease (hazard ratio for the least versus most favourable profile: 3.74; 95% CI: 3.14-4.45) among disease-free participants. Among participants with 1 cardiometabolic disease, adverse midlife socioeconomic (1.54; 95% CI: 1.10-2.15) and behavioural factors (2.00; 95% CI: 1.40-2.85), but not clinical characteristics, were associated with progression to cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Only midlife behavioural factors predicted mortality among participants with cardiometabolic disease (2.12; 95% CI: 1.41-3.18) or cardiometabolic multimorbidity (3.47; 95% CI: 1.81-6.66). A limitation is that the study was not large enough to estimate transitions between each disease and subsequent outcomes and between all possible pairs of diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of specific midlife factors in disease progression, from disease-free state to single disease, multimorbidity, and death, varies depending on the disease stage. While clinical risk factors at age 50 determine the risk of incident cardiometabolic disease in a disease-free population, midlife socioeconomic and behavioural factors are stronger predictors of progression to multimorbidity and mortality in people with cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
J Endocr Soc ; 2(4): 322-335, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577108

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown controversial results about the role of testosterone in all-cause mortality in elderly men. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome (MetS) could partly explain this discrepancy. We therefore examined the association of all-cause mortality with total and bioavailable testosterone, taking into account the MetS. We used data from the Three-City Cohort (3C) study with 12-year follow-up. The 3C study included 3650 men aged >65 years in three French cities. Hormone was measured in a random subsample of 444 men, and MetS was determined as stated by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. We used inverse-probability-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Of 444 men included in the analysis, 106 (23.9%) had MetS at baseline, and 166 died over the follow-up. There was a significant interaction between testosterone level and MetS for all-cause mortality (P = 0.002 and P = 0.008 for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively). Among men with MetS, a decrease in one standard deviation of testosterone was associated with higher mortality risk [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.78) and HR 1.83 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.86) for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively]. By contrast, there was no association of testosterone with mortality risk among men without MetS. Our results suggest that MetS modifies the association between testosterone and mortality in older men. If confirmed, these findings could contribute to improve risk stratification and better manage the health of older men.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1485, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367642

RESUMO

Taller individuals walk faster but it is unknown whether this advantage persists at older ages. We examined the cross-sectional/longitudinal associations of height with gait speed (GS) in participants from the Dijon-Three-City cohort study (France) over 11 years. In 4011 participants (65-85 y), we measured usual/fast GS (6 m) up to five times. We examined whether the baseline height-GS association varied with age using linear regression, and whether height influenced GS change using linear mixed models. Taller participants 65 y at baseline walked faster than shorter ones (fast GS difference between top/bottom height quartiles, 0.100 m/s, P < 0.001); this association weakened with age (P-interaction = 0.02), with a 0.012 m/s (P = 0.57) difference at 80 y. Ten-year fast GS decline was 51% greater (P < 0.001) in younger participants in the top height quartile (-0.183 m/s) compared to those in the bottom quartile (-0.121 m/s), leading the GS difference between the two groups to be attenuated by 50% over the follow-up. The height-related difference in fast GS decline was not explained by time-dependent comorbidities or height shrinkage. Analyses for usual GS yielded consistent findings. The height-GS relation is more complex than previously thought, as the height related advantage in GS disappears as persons grow older due to faster decline in taller compared to shorter persons.


Assuntos
Estatura , Marcha/fisiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(2): 178-186, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined whether obesity at ages 50, 60, and 70 years is associated with subsequent dementia. Changes in body mass index (BMI) for more than 28 years before dementia diagnosis were compared with changes in BMI in those free of dementia. METHODS: A total of 10,308 adults (33% women) aged 35 to 55 years in 1985 were followed up until 2015. BMI was assessed six times and 329 cases of dementia were recorded. RESULTS: Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at age 50 years (hazard ratio = 1.93; 1.35-2.75) but not at 60 or 70 years was associated with risk of dementia. Trajectories of BMI differed in those with dementia compared with all others (P < .0001) or to matched control subjects (P < .0001) such that BMI in dementia cases was higher from 28 years (P = .001) to 16 years (P = .05) and lower starting 8 years before diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Obesity in midlife and weight loss in the preclinical phase characterizes dementia; the current obesity epidemic may affect future dementia rates.


Assuntos
Demência/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Circunferência da Cintura , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
16.
BMJ ; 357: j2709, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642251

RESUMO

Objective To test the hypotheses that physical activity in midlife is not associated with a reduced risk of dementia and that the preclinical phase of dementia is characterised by a decline in physical activity.Design Prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 27 years.Setting Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study).Participants 10 308 participants aged 35-55 years at study inception (1985-88). Exposures included time spent in mild, moderate to vigorous, and total physical activity assessed seven times between 1985 and 2013 and categorised as "recommended" if duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity was 2.5 hours/week or more.Main outcome measures A battery of cognitive tests was administered up to four times from 1997 to 2013, and incident dementia cases (n=329) were identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2015.Results Mixed effects models showed no association between physical activity and subsequent 15 year cognitive decline. Similarly, Cox regression showed no association between physical activity and risk of dementia over an average 27 year follow-up (hazard ratio in the "recommended" physical activity category 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.24). For trajectories of hours/week of total, mild, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in people with dementia compared with those without dementia (all others), no differences were observed between 28 and 10 years before diagnosis of dementia. However, physical activity in people with dementia began to decline up to nine years before diagnosis (difference in moderate to vigorous physical activity -0.39 hours/week; P=0.05), and the difference became more pronounced (-1.03 hours/week; P=0.005) at diagnosis.Conclusion This study found no evidence of a neuroprotective effect of physical activity. Previous findings showing a lower risk of dementia in physically active people may be attributable to reverse causation-that is, due to a decline in physical activity levels in the preclinical phase of dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Exercício , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroproteção , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS Med ; 14(6): e1002334, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantage is a risk factor for dementia, but longitudinal studies suggest that it does not affect the rate of cognitive decline. Our objective is to understand the manner in which socioeconomic disadvantage shapes dementia risk by examining its associations with midlife cognitive performance and cognitive decline from midlife to old age, including cognitive decline trajectories in those with dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data are drawn from the Whitehall II study (N = 10,308 at study recruitment in 1985), with cognitive function assessed at 4 waves (1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and cardiometabolic risk factors from 1985 and chronic conditions until the end of follow-up in 2015 (N dementia/total = 320/9,938) allowed the use of inverse probability weighting to take into account data missing because of loss to follow-up between the study recruitment in 1985 and the introduction of cognitive tests to the study in 1997. Generalized estimating equations and Cox regression were used to assess associations of socioeconomic markers (height, education, and midlife occupation categorized as low, intermediate, and high to represent hierarchy in the socioeconomic marker) with cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia (N dementia/total = 195/7,499). In those with dementia, we examined whether retrospective trajectories of cognitive decline (backward timescale) over 18 years prior to diagnosis differed as a function of socioeconomic markers. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poorer cognitive performance (all p < 0.001). Using point estimates for the effect of age, the differences between the high and low socioeconomic groups corresponded to an age effect of 4, 15, and 26 years, for height, education, and midlife occupation, respectively. There was no evidence of faster cognitive decline in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Low occupation, but not height or education, was associated with risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.36]) in an analysis adjusted for sociodemographic factors; the excess risk was unchanged after adjustment for cognitive decline but was completely attenuated after adjustment for cognitive performance. In further analyses restricted to those with dementia, retrospective cognitive trajectories over 18 years prior to dementia diagnosis showed faster cognitive decline in the high education (p = 0.006) and occupation (p = 0.001) groups such that large differences in cognitive performance in midlife were attenuated at dementia diagnosis. A major limitation of our study is the use of electronic health records rather than comprehensive dementia ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the passive or threshold cognitive reserve hypothesis, in that high cognitive reserve is associated with lower risk for dementia because of its association with cognitive performance, which provides a buffer against clinical expression of dementia.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(7): 712-718, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514478

RESUMO

Importance: Neuropsychiatric symptoms, depressive symptoms in particular, are common in patients with dementia but whether depressive symptoms in adulthood increases the risk for dementia remains the subject of debate. Objective: To characterize the trajectory of depressive symptoms over 28 years prior to dementia diagnosis to determine whether depressive symptoms carry risk for dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Up to 10 308 persons, aged 35 to 55 years, were recruited to the Whitehall II cohort study in 1985, with the end of follow-up in 2015. Data analysis for this study in a UK general community was conducted from October to December 2016. Exposures: Depressive symptoms assessed on 9 occasions between 1985 and 2012 using the General Health Questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of dementia (n = 322) between 1985 and 2015. Results: Of the 10 189 persons included in the study, 6838 were men (67%) and 3351 were women (33%). Those reporting depressive symptoms in 1985 (mean follow-up, 27 years) did not have significantly increased risk for dementia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 0.95-1.54) in Cox regression adjusted for sociodemographic covariates, health behaviors, and chronic conditions. However, those with depressive symptoms in 2003 (mean follow-up, 11 years) had an increased risk (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44). Those with chronic/recurring depressive symptoms (≥2 of 3 occasions) in the early study phase (mean follow-up, 22 years) did not have excess risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72-1.44) but those with chronic/recurring symptoms in the late phase (mean follow-up, 11 years) did have higher risk for dementia (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11-2.49). Analysis of retrospective depressive trajectories over 28 years, using mixed models and a backward time scale, shows that in those with dementia, differences in depressive symptoms compared with those without dementia became apparent 11 years (difference, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.09-1.13; P = .02) before dementia diagnosis and became more than 9 times larger at the year of diagnosis (difference, 5.81; 95% CI, 4.81-6.81; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Depressive symptoms in the early phase of the study corresponding to midlife, even when chronic/recurring, do not increase the risk for dementia. Along with our analysis of depressive trajectories over 28 years, these results suggest that depressive symptoms are a prodromal feature of dementia or that the 2 share common causes. The findings do not support the hypothesis that depressive symptoms increase the risk for dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Eur Heart J ; 38(34): 2612-2618, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460139

RESUMO

Aims: To assess whether AF is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction we used prospective data on AF, repeat cognitive scores, and dementia incidence in adults followed over 45 to 85 years. Methods and results: Data are drawn from the Whitehall II study, N = 10 308 at study recruitment in 1985. A battery of cognitive tests was administered four times (1997-2013) to 7428 participants (414 cases of AF), aged 45-69 years in 1997. Compared with AF-free participants, those with longer exposure to AF (5, 10, or 15 years) experienced faster cognitive decline after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioural, and chronic diseases (P for trend = 0.01). Incident stroke or coronary heart disease individually did not explain the excess cognitive decline; however, this relationship was impacted when considering them together (P for trend 0.09). Analysis of incident dementia (N = 274/9302 without AF; N = 50/912 with AF) showed AF was associated with higher risk of dementia in Cox regression adjusted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and chronic diseases [hazard ratio (HR): 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 2.55]. Multistate models showed AF to increase risk of dementia in those free of stroke (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.38) but not those free of stroke and coronary heart disease (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.74, 2.24) over the follow-up. Conclusion: In adults aged 45-85 years AF is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and higher risk of dementia even at ages when AF incidence is low. At least in part, this was explained by incident cardiovascular disease in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Demência/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(3): 203-216, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185034

RESUMO

Most studies on pesticides and Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on occupational exposure in farmers. Whether non-occupational exposure is associated with PD has been little explored. We investigated the association between agricultural characteristics and PD incidence in a French nationwide ecologic study. We hypothesized that persons living in regions with agricultural activities involving more intensive pesticide use would be at higher risk. We identified incident PD cases from French National Health Insurance databases (2010-2012). The proportion of land dedicated to 18 types of agricultural activities was defined at the canton of residence level. We examined the association between agricultural activities and PD age/sex-standardized incidence ratios using multivariable multilevel Poisson regression adjusted for smoking, deprivation index, density of neurologists, and rurality (proportion of agricultural land); we used a false discovery rate approach to correct for multiple comparisons and compute q-values. We also compared incidence in clusters of cantons with similar agricultural characteristics (k-means algorithm). We identified 69,010 incident PD cases. Rurality was associated with higher PD incidence (p < 0.001). Cantons with higher density of vineyards displayed the strongest association (RRtop/bottom quartile = 1.102, 95% CI = 1.049-1.158; q-trend = 0.040). This association was similar in men, women, and non-farmers, stronger in older than younger persons, and present in all French regions. Persons living in the cluster with greatest vineyards density had 8.5% (4.4-12.6%) higher PD incidence (p < 0.001). In France, vineyards rank among the crops that require most intense pesticide use. Regions with greater presence of vineyards are characterized by higher PD risk; non-professional pesticides exposure is a possible explanation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Agroquímicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Praguicidas , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA