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1.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (CT-MPI) with hyperemia induced by regadenoson was evaluated for the detection of myocardial ischemia, safety, relative radiation exposure, and patient experience compared with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients (66.5 y, 29% male) who had undergone clinically indicated SPECT imaging and provided written informed consent were included in this phase II, IRB-approved, and FDA-approved clinical trial. All patients underwent coronary CT angiography and CT-MPI with hyperemia induced by the intravenous administration of regadenoson (0.4 mg/5 mL). Patient experience and findings on CT-MPI images were compared to SPECT imaging. RESULTS: Patient experience and safety were similar between CT-MPI and SPECT procedures and no serious adverse events due to the administration of regadenoson occurred. SPECT resulted in a higher number of mild adverse events than CT-MPI. Patient radiation exposure was similar during the combined coronary computed tomography angiography and CT-MPI (4.4 [2.7] mSv) and SPECT imaging (5.6 [1.7] mSv) (P-value 0.401) procedures. Using SPECT as the reference standard, CT-MPI analysis showed a sensitivity of 58.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.7-84.8), a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 73.5-100), and an accuracy of 79.1% (95% CI: 57.9-92.87). Low apparent sensitivity occurred when the SPECT defects were small and highly suspicious for artifacts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that CT-MPI is safe, well tolerated, and can be performed with comparable radiation exposure to SPECT. CT-MPI has the benefit of providing both complete anatomic coronary evaluation and assessment of myocardial perfusion.

2.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(3): 198-203, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilization of invasive and noninvasive tests and compare cost in patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department (ED) who underwent either triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography (TRO-CTA) or standard of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of 2156 ED patients who presented with acute chest pain with a negative initial troponin and electrocardiogram for myocardial injury. Patient cohorts matched by patient characteristics who had undergone TRO-CTA as a primary imaging test (n=1139) or standard of care without initial CTA imaging (n=1017) were included in the study. ED visits, utilization of tests, and costs during the initial episode of hospital care were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, or aortic dissection were observed. Median ED waiting time (4.5 vs. 7.0 h, P<0.001), median total length of hospital stay (5.0 vs. 32.0 h, P<0.001), hospital admission rate (12.6% vs. 54.2%, P<0.001), and ED return rate to our hospital within 30 days (3.5% vs. 14.6%, P<0.001) were significantly lower in the TRO-CTA group. Moreover, reduced rates of additional testing and invasive coronary angiography (4.9% vs. 22.7%, P<0.001), and ultimately lower total cost per patient (11,783$ vs. 19,073$, P<0.001) were observed in the TRO-CTA group. CONCLUSIONS: TRO-CTA as an initial imaging test in ED patients presenting with acute chest pain was associated with shorter ED and hospital length of stay, fewer return visits within 30 days, and ultimately lower ED and hospitalization costs.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 119: 108657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the impact of gender differences on the diagnostic performance of machine-learning based coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML) for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia. METHOD: Five centers enrolled 351 patients (73.5% male) with 525 vessels in the MACHINE (Machine leArning Based CT angiograpHy derIved FFR: a Multi-ceNtEr) registry. CT-FFRML and invasive FFR ≤ 0.80 were considered hemodynamically significant, whereas cCTA luminal stenosis ≥50% was considered obstructive. The diagnostic performance to assess lesion-specific ischemia in both men and women was assessed on a per-vessel basis. RESULTS: In total, 398 vessels in men and 127 vessels in women were included. Compared to invasive FFR, CT-FFRML reached a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 78% (95%CI 72-84), 79% (95%CI 73-84), 75% (95%CI 69-79), and 82% (95%CI: 76-86) in men vs. 75% (95%CI 58-88), 81 (95%CI 72-89), 61% (95%CI 50-72) and 89% (95%CI 82-94) in women, respectively. CT-FFRML showed no statistically significant difference in the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) in men vs. women (AUC: 0.83 [95%CI 0.79-0.87] vs. 0.83 [95%CI 0.75-0.89], p = 0.89). CT-FFRML was not superior to cCTA alone [AUC: 0.83 (95%CI: 0.75-0.89) vs. 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65-0.81), p = 0.12] in women, but showed a statistically significant improvement in men [0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.87) vs. 0.76 (95%CI: 0.71-0.80), p = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Machine-learning based CT-FFR performs equally in men and women with superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/normas
4.
Radiology ; 293(2): 260-271, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502938

RESUMO

In this article, the authors discuss the technical background and summarize the current body of literature regarding virtual monoenergetic (VM) images derived from dual-energy CT data, which can be reconstructed between 40 and 200 keV. Substantially improved iodine attenuation at lower kiloelectron volt levels and reduced beam-hardening artifacts at higher kiloelectron volt levels have been demonstrated from all major manufacturers of dual-energy CT units. Improved contrast attenuation with VM imaging at lower kiloelectron volt levels enables better delineation and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of various vascular or oncologic abnormalities. Low-kiloelectron-volt VM imaging may be useful for salvaging CT studies with suboptimal contrast material delivery or providing additional information on the arterial vasculature obtained from venous phase acquisitions. For patients with renal impairment, substantial reductions in the use of iodinated contrast material can be achieved by using lower-energy VM imaging. The authors recommend routine reconstruction of VM images at 50 keV when using dual-energy CT to exploit the increased contrast properties. For reduction of beam-hardening artifacts, VM imaging at 120 keV is useful for the initial assessment.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the influence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score on the diagnostic performance of machine-learning-based coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR). BACKGROUND: CT-FFR is used reliably to detect lesion-specific ischemia. Novel CT-FFR algorithms using machine-learning artificial intelligence techniques perform fast and require less complex computational fluid dynamics. Yet, influence of CAC score on diagnostic performance of the machine-learning approach has not been investigated. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-two vessels from 314 patients (62.3 ± 9.3 years, 77% male) who underwent cCTA followed by invasive FFR were investigated from the MACHINE (Machine Learning based CT Angiography derived FFR: a Multi-center Registry) registry data. CAC scores were quantified using the Agatston convention. The diagnostic performance of CT-FFR to detect lesion-specific ischemia was assessed across all Agatston score categories (CAC 0, >0 to <100, 100 to <400, and ≥400) on a per-vessel level with invasive FFR as the reference standard. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of CT-FFR versus invasive FFR was superior to cCTA alone on a per-vessel level (78% vs. 60%) and per patient level (83% vs. 73%) across all Agatston score categories. No statistically significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, or specificity of CT-FFR were observed across the categories. CT-FFR showed good discriminatory power in vessels with high Agatston scores (CAC ≥ 400) and high performance in low-to-intermediate Agatston scores (CAC >0 to <400) with a statistically significant difference in the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) (AUC: 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.85] vs. 0.85 [95% CI: 0.82-0.89], p = 0.04). CT-FFR showed superior diagnostic value over cCTA in vessels with high Agatston scores (CAC ≥ 400: AUC 0.71 vs. 0.55, p = 0.04) and low-to-intermediate Agatston scores (CAC >0 to <400: AUC 0.86 vs. 0.63, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Machine-learning-based CT-FFR showed superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone in CAC with a significant difference in the performance of CT-FFR as calcium burden/Agatston calcium score increased. (Machine Learning Based CT Angiography Derived FFR: a Multicenter, Registry [MACHINE] NCT02805621).

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 116: 76-83, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the value of an automated model-based plaque characterization tool for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: We retrospectively included 45 patients with suspected coronary artery disease of which 16 (33%) experienced MACE within 12 months. Commercially available plaque quantification software was used to automatically extract quantitative plaque morphology: lumen area, wall area, stenosis percentage, wall thickness, plaque burden, remodeling ratio, calcified area, lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) area and matrix area. The measurements were performed at all cross sections, spaced at 0.5 mm, based on fully 3D segmentations of lumen, wall, and each tissue type. Discriminatory power of these markers and traditional risk factors for predicting MACE were assessed. RESULTS: Regression analysis using clinical risk factors only resulted in a prognostic accuracy of 63% with a corresponding area under the curve (AUC) of 0.587. Based on our plaque morphology analysis, minimal cap thickness, lesion length, LRNC volume, maximal wall area/thickness, the remodeling ratio, and the calcium volume were included into our prognostic model as parameters. The use of morphologic features alone resulted in an increased accuracy of 77% with an AUC of 0.94. Combining both clinical risk factors and morphological features in a multivariate logistic regression analysis increased the accuracy to 87% with a similar AUC of 0.924. CONCLUSION: An automated model based algorithm to evaluate CCTA-derived plaque features and quantify morphological features of atherosclerotic plaque increases the ability for MACE prognostication significantly compared to the use of clinical risk factors alone.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to correlate early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation with noninvasive imaging using cardiac computed tomography (CT). METHODS: CT image data of 260 patients who had undergone wide area circumferential ablation (WACA) between October 2005 and August 2010 as well as from 30 subjects in sinus rhythm without a history of AF (control group) were retrospectively analyzed. To evaluate early outcome of AF ablation, all AF patients underwent follow-up with a 30-day event monitor 3 to 4 months after ablation. In addition, a cardiac CT was also performed 3 to 4 months after ablation to exclude pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis. The presence of early AF was correlated with anatomic and functional PV and left atrial parameters, as assessed by cardiac CT. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients (26.9%) were found to have early recurrence of AF. However, we found no association between PV or left atrial anatomic or functional parameters derived from cardiac imaging with early AF recurrence. Furthermore, no correlation (P>0.05) between AF recurrence and coronary artery stenosis, anatomic origin of the sinoatrial, or atrioventricular nodal arteries was observed. Finally, PV contraction did not predict AF recurrence. However, when comparing PV contraction in WACA patients with the control group, a significant (P<0.05) reduction in left superior PV and right superior PV contractility was found in patients after radiofreqency ablation. CONCLUSIONS: In our relatively large cohort, cardiac CT did not yield any anatomic or functional markers for the prediction of early AF recurrence after undergoing WACA. However, our data may provide insights into functional changes that occur following ablation procedures.

8.
Eur J Radiol ; 113: 140-147, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop institutional diagnostic reference levels (IDRL) for coronary CT angiography (CCTA) according to patient size by analyzing radiation dose changes over the past 10 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This IRB approved retrospective investigation analyzed radiation dose data from CCTA between 2007 and 2016 at our institution. Annual trends in radiation dose were described for each scanner type and scanning mode. Radiation levels were analyzed for normorhythmic patients, patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), arrhythmia, and according to patient size and tube voltage. Median, and quartile values for volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were calculated. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal Wallis test were performed to assess the significance of quantitative data. RESULTS: 35,375 examinations from 33,317 patients (median age, 58 [50-66] years; male patients, 21,087 [58.7%]) were analyzed. CTDIvol, DLP, and SSDE significantly decreased by 9.0%, 30.8%, and 40.1% (all P < 0.05) for all examinations, respectively. All radiation dose metrics progressively decreased across scanning modes (especially retrospectively ECG-gated spiral and prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode), but did not significantly change across scanners in the last 6 years. CTDIvol and DLP increased with patient size when water-equivalent diameters were >19 cm for normorhythmic and CABG patients. In arrhythmic patients, CTDIvol increased progressively with water-equivalent diameters across all groups. CONCLUSION: CCTA radiation dose has progressively decreased in the past decade except in patients with prior CABG and arrhythmia. Size-specific IDRLs may optimize radiation utilization in these patients going forward.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/tendências , Angiografia Coronária/tendências , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/tendências , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
9.
Eur Radiol ; 29(5): 2378-2387, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived plaque markers combined with deep machine learning-based fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) to identify lesion-specific ischemia using invasive FFR as the reference standard. METHODS: Eighty-four patients (61 ± 10 years, 65% male) who had undergone cCTA followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Various plaque markers were derived from cCTA using a semi-automatic software prototype and deep machine learning-based CT-FFR. The discriminatory value of plaque markers and CT-FFR to identify lesion-specific ischemia on a per-vessel basis was evaluated using invasive FFR as the reference standard. RESULTS: One hundred three lesion-containing vessels were investigated. 32/103 lesions were hemodynamically significant by invasive FFR. In a multivariate analysis (adjusted for Framingham risk score), the following markers showed predictive value for lesion-specific ischemia (odds ratio [OR]): lesion length (OR 1.15, p = 0.037), non-calcified plaque volume (OR 1.02, p = 0.007), napkin-ring sign (OR 5.97, p = 0.014), and CT-FFR (OR 0.81, p < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristics analysis showed the benefit of identifying plaque markers over cCTA stenosis grading alone, with AUCs increasing from 0.61 with ≥ 50% stenosis to 0.83 with addition of plaque markers to detect lesion-specific ischemia. Further incremental benefit was realized with the addition of CT-FFR (AUC 0.93). CONCLUSION: Coronary CTA-derived plaque markers portend predictive value to identify lesion-specific ischemia when compared to cCTA stenosis grading alone. The addition of CT-FFR to plaque markers shows incremental discriminatory power. KEY POINTS: • Coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived quantitative plaque markers of atherosclerosis portend high discriminatory power to identify lesion-specific ischemia. • Coronary CT angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) shows superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone in detecting lesion-specific ischemia. • A combination of plaque markers with CT-FFR provides incremental discriminatory value for detecting flow-limiting stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/etiologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 16(6): 441-453, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomographic (CT) coronary artery calcium scoring (CAC) has been validated as a well-established screening method for cardiovascular risk stratification and treatment management that is used in addition to traditional risk factors. The purpose of this review is to present an update on current and future applications of CAC. Areas covered: The topic of CAC is summarized from its introduction to current application with focus on the validation and clinical integration including cardiovascular risk prediction and outcome, cost-effectiveness, impact on downstream medical testing, and the technical advances in scanner and software technology that are shaping the future of CAC. Furthermore, this review aims to provide guidance for the appropriate clinical use of CAC. Expert commentary: CAC is a well-established screening test in preventive care that is underused in daily clinical practice. The widespread clinical implementation of CAC will be decided by future technical advances in CT image acquisition, cost-effectiveness, and reimbursement status.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Radiology ; 288(1): 64-72, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634438

RESUMO

Purpose To compare two technical approaches for determination of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR)-FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, FFRCFD) and FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on machine learning algorithm (hereafter, FFRML)-against coronary CT angiography and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Materials and Methods A total of 85 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 62% men) who had undergone coronary CT angiography followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective study. FFR values were derived on-site from coronary CT angiography data sets by using both FFRCFD and FFRML. The performance of both techniques for detecting lesion-specific ischemia was compared against visual stenosis grading at coronary CT angiography, QCA, and invasive FFR as the reference standard. Results On a per-lesion and per-patient level, FFRML showed a sensitivity of 79% and 90% and a specificity of 94% and 95%, respectively, for detecting lesion-specific ischemia. Meanwhile, FFRCFD resulted in a sensitivity of 79% and 89% and a specificity of 93% and 93%, respectively, on a per-lesion and per-patient basis (P = .86 and P = .92). On a per-lesion level, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.89 for FFRML and 0.89 for FFRCFD showed significantly higher discriminatory power for detecting lesion-specific ischemia compared with that of coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.61) and QCA (AUC, 0.69) (all P < .0001). Also, on a per-patient level, FFRML (AUC, 0.91) and FFRCFD (AUC, 0.91) performed significantly better than did coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.65) and QCA (AUC, 0.68) (all P < .0001). Processing time for FFRML was significantly shorter compared with that of FFRCFD (40.5 minutes ± 6.3 vs 43.4 minutes ± 7.1; P = .042). Conclusion The FFRML algorithm performs equally in detecting lesion-specific ischemia when compared with the FFRCFD approach. Both methods outperform accuracy of coronary CT angiography and QCA in the detection of flow-limiting stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Eur Radiol ; 28(8): 3473-3481, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the minimum iodine delivery rate (IDR) required to achieve diagnostic coronary attenuation (300 HU) with dual-energy coronary CTA. METHODS: Acquisitions were performed on a circulation phantom with a third- generation dual-source CT scanner. Contrast media was injected for a fixed time whilst IDRs varied from 1.0 to 0.3 gI/s in 0.1-gI/s intervals. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions from 40 to 90 keV in 5 keV increments were generated. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and coronary HU were measured for each injection. RESULTS: VMI+ from 40-70 keV reached diagnostic attenuation with at least one IDR. The minimum IDR achieving a diagnostic attenuation ranged from 0.4 gI/s at 40 keV (312.8 HU) to 1.0 gI/s at 70 keV (334.1 HU). Attenuation values reached with IDR of 1.0 gI/s were significantly higher at each keV level (p<0.001). CNR showed a near perfect correlation with the IDR (ρ≥0.962; p<0.001), the IDR of 1.0 gI/s provided the highest CNR at each keV level, achieving the highest overall value at 40 keV (54.0±3.1). CONCLUSIONS: IDRs from 0.4-1.0 gI/s associated with VMI+ from 40-70 keV provide diagnostic coronary attenuation with dual-energy coronary CTA. KEY POINTS: • Iodine delivery rate (IDR) is a major determinant of contrast enhancement. • Low-keV noise-optimized monoenergetic images (VMI+) maximize iodine attenuation. • Low-keV VMI+ allows for lower IDRs while maintaining adequate coronary attenuation. • Lowest IDR to reach 300 HU was 0.4 gI/s, 40 keV VMI+.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Iohexol/análogos & derivados , Imagens de Fantasmas , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/farmacocinética , Iohexol/administração & dosagem , Iohexol/farmacocinética , Imagem Radiográfica a Partir de Emissão de Duplo Fóton/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
13.
Eur J Radiol ; 101: 111-117, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of an iterative beam-hardening correction algorithm (iBHC) on artifact reduction and image quality in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) with low tube voltage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (17 male, mean age, 57.3 ±â€¯14.5 years) were prospectively enrolled in this IRB-approved study and underwent 70-kV cCTA using a third-generation dual-source CT scanner. Images were reconstructed using a standard algorithm (Bv36) both with and without the iBHC technique. Several region-of-interest (ROI) measurements were performed in the inferior wall of the left ventricle (LV), an area prone to beam-hardening, as well as other myocardial regions. Coronary contrast-to-noise (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were calculated. Two radiologists assessed subjective image quality. RESULTS: The iBHC algorithm generally increased myocardial attenuation in all ROIs (P < 0.566); however, the increase was significantly more distinct in beam-hardening prone areas such as the inferior LV (increase, +13.9 HU, +18.6%, P < 0.001), compared to the remaining myocardium (increase, +4.4 HU, +4.5%, P < 0.003). While no significant difference was found for image noise (P < 0.092), greater CNR and SNR values for the left main coronary artery (increase, +20.7% and +17.3%, respectively) were found using the iBHC algorithm (both with P < 0.001). Subjective image quality was comparable between both image series (P = 0.217). CONCLUSION: The iBHC post-processing algorithm leads to significantly reduced beam-hardening while providing improved objective and equivalent subjective image quality in 70-kV cCTA.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Iohexol/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído
14.
Eur Radiol ; 28(7): 3097-3104, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of high-pitch CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) with tin filtration (Sn100kVp) versus standard 120kVp high-pitch acquisition. METHODS: 78 patients (58% male, 61.5±9.1 years) were prospectively enrolled. Subjects underwent clinical 120kVp high-pitch CACS using third-generation dual-source CT followed by additional high-pitch Sn100kVp acquisition. Agatston scores, calcium volume scores, Agatston score categories, percentile-based risk categorization and radiation metrics were compared. RESULTS: 61/78 patients showed coronary calcifications. Median Agatston scores were 34.9 [0.7-197.1] and 41.7 [0.7-207.2] and calcium volume scores were 34.1 [0.7-218.0] for Sn100kVp and 35.7 [1.1-221.0] for 120kVp acquisitions, respectively (both p<0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed underestimated Agatston scores and calcium volume scores with Sn100kVp versus 120kVp acquisitions (mean difference: 16.4 and 11.5). However, Agatston score categories and percentile-based risk categories showed excellent agreement (ĸ=0.98 and ĸ=0.99). Image noise was 25.8±4.4HU and 16.6±2.9HU in Sn100kVp and 120kVp scans, respectively (p<0.0001). Dose-length-product was 9.9±4.8mGy*cm and 40.9±14.4mGy*cm with Sn100kVp and 120kVp scans, respectively (p<0.0001). This resulted in significant effective radiation dose reduction (0.13±0.07mSv vs. 0.57±0.2mSv, p<0.0001) for Sn100kVp acquisitions. CONCLUSION: CACS using high-pitch low-voltage tin-filtered acquisitions demonstrates excellent agreement in Agatston score and percentile-based cardiac risk categorization with standard 120kVp high-pitch acquisitions. Furthermore, radiation dose was significantly reduced by 78% while maintaining accurate risk prediction. KEY POINTS: • Coronary artery calcium scoring with tin filtration reduces radiation dose by 78%. • There is excellent correlation between high-pitch Sn100kVp and standard 120kVp acquisitions. • Excellent agreement regarding Agatston score categories and percentile-based risk categorization was achieved. • No cardiac risk reclassifications were observed using Sn100kVp coronary artery calcium scoring.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Cálcio , Feminino , Filtração/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estanho
15.
Eur Radiol ; 28(3): 1066-1076, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis burden by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to demonstrate its association with the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients with stable angina who had undergone repeat CCTA due to recurrent or worsening symptoms. Lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden as well as coronary diameter stenosis were quantitatively analysed. The incidence of MACE during follow-up was determined. RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of 268 patients (mean age 52.9 ± 9.8 years, 71 % male) with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Patients with lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden (%) progression, as well as coronary diameter stenosis (%) progression had a significantly higher incidence of MACE than those without (all p < 0.05). The progression of lipid-rich plaque (HR = 1.601, p = 0.021), total plaque burden (HR = 2.979, p = 0.043) and coronary diameter stenosis (HR = 4.327, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACE (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with recurrent or worsening symptoms associated with coronary artery disease who have coronary atherosclerosis progression on CCTA are at an increased risk of future MACE. KEY POINTS: • Repeat CCTA can provide information regarding the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. • Coronary atherosclerosis progression at CCTA is independently associated with MACE. • CCTA findings could serve as incremental predictors of MACE.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Estável/complicações , Angina Estável/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Thorac Imaging ; 33(2): 88-96, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817458

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has evolved as a rapid and highly sensitive method for the exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, as it pertains to moderate and severe lesions, the ability to discriminate between those that are hemodynamically significant and those that are nonobstructive is lacking. Consequently, this deficiency can result in a significant number of unnecessary referrals for invasive angiography that yields nonobstructive results. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), which assesses the hemodynamic significance of a specific lesion, when performed during invasive angiography, results in improved patient outcomes compared with visual stenosis assessment alone. Through the application of computational analytic methods to CT-derived anatomic coronary models, noninvasive calculation of FFR has become possible. This allows for the improved ability to differentiate between nonobstructive coronary lesions and those that are truly hemodynamically significant. Currently, HeartFlow FFRCT is the only FDA-approved and commercially available CCTA-derived FFR (CT-FFR) platform. By reducing the number of invasive procedures performed for nonobstructive disease, CT-derived FFR has the ability to lower health care expenditures and become the true gatekeeper to invasive angiography.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(12): 2121-2127, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102036

RESUMO

This study investigated the performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) with cCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR) for therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-four patients (62 ± 11 years, 62% men) with at least 1 coronary stenosis of ≥50% on clinically indicated dual-source cCTA, who had subsequently undergone ICA with FFR measurement, were retrospectively evaluated. CT-FFR values were computed using an on-site machine-learning algorithm to assess the functional significance of CAD. The therapeutic strategy (optimal medical therapy alone vs revascularization) and the appropriate revascularization procedure (percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary artery bypass grafting) were selected using cCTA-CT-FFR. Thirty-six patients (49%) had a functionally significant CAD based on ICA-FFR. cCTA-CT-FFR correctly identified a functionally significant CAD and the need of revascularization in 35 of 36 patients (97%). When revascularization was deemed indicated, the same revascularization procedure (32 percutaneous coronary interventions and 3 coronary artery bypass grafting) was chosen in 35 of 35 patients (100%). Overall, identical management strategies were selected in 73 of the 74 patients (99%). cCTA-CT-FFR shows excellent performance to identify patients with and without the need for revascularization and to select the appropriate revascularization strategy. cCTA-CT-FFR as a noninvasive "one-stop shop" has the potential to change diagnostic workflows and to directly inform therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected CAD.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Radiology ; 285(1): 17-33, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926310

RESUMO

Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) by means of a pressure wire technique is the established reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1 , 2 ). Coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography has emerged as a noninvasive method for direct assessment of CAD and plaque characterization with high diagnostic accuracy compared with ICA ( 3 , 4 ). However, the solely anatomic assessment provided with both coronary CT angiography and ICA has poor discriminatory power for ischemia-inducing lesions. FFR derived from standard coronary CT angiography (FFRCT) data sets by using any of several advanced computational analytic approaches enables combined anatomic and hemodynamic assessment of a coronary lesion by a single noninvasive test. Current technical approaches to the calculation of FFRCT include algorithms based on full- and reduced-order computational fluid dynamic modeling, as well as artificial intelligence deep machine learning ( 5 , 6 ). A growing body of evidence has validated the diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT techniques compared with invasive FFR. Improved therapeutic guidance has been demonstrated, showing the potential of FFRCT to streamline and rationalize the care of patients suspected of having CAD and improve outcomes while reducing overall health care costs ( 7 , 8 ). The purpose of this review is to describe the scientific principles, clinical validation, and implementation of various FFRCT approaches, their precursors, and related imaging tests. © RSNA, 2017.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(8): 1260-1266, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844517

RESUMO

This study investigated the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and multivessel disease to gauge significance and guide management of non-culprit lesions. We retrospectively analyzed data of 48 patients (56 ± 10 years, 60% men) who were admitted for symptoms suggestive of ACS and underwent dual-source cCTA followed by invasive coronary angiography with culprit lesion intervention. Culprit lesions were retrospectively identified on cCTA using images obtained during invasive coronary angiography. Non-culprit lesions with ≥25% luminal stenosis and deferred intervention were evaluated using a machine learning CT-FFR algorithm to determine lesion-specific ischemia (CT-FFR ≤0.80). Follow-up was performed. CT-FFR identified lesion-specific ischemia in 23 of 81 non-culprit lesions. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, 14 patients (29%) had major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CT-FFR ≤0.80 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.77 [95% confidence interval 1.16 to 12.29], p = 0.027), Framingham risk score (FRS) (HR 2.96 [1.01 to 7.63], p = 0.038), and a CAD-RADS classification ≥3 (HR 3.12 [1.03 to 10.17], p = 0.051) were predictors of MACE. In a risk-adjusted model controlling for FRS and CAD-RADS ≥3, CT-FFR ≤0.80 remained a predictor of MACE (1.56 [1.01 to 2.83], p = 0.048). Receiver operating characteristics analysis including FRS, CAD-RADS ≥ 3, and CT-FFR ≤0.80 (area under the curve 0.78) showed incremental discriminatory power over FRS alone (area under the curve 0.66, p = 0.032). CT-FFR of non-culprit lesions in patients with ACS and multivessel disease adds prognostic value to identify risk of future MACE.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6956, 2017 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761180

RESUMO

Recent studies demonstrated that sinogram affirmed iterative reconstructions (SAFIRE) can produce higher-resolution images with greater robustness for the reduction of various imaging artefacts. Eighty-five patients were prospectively evaluated and underwent a high-pitch spiral acquisition CT scan. In-stent noise, signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), stent-lumen attenuation increase ratio (SAIR), and subjective image quality score were measured and compared between the SAFIRE and Filter back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Conventional coronary angiography served as the standard of reference. In 159 evaluated stents, SAFIRE was superior to FBP with regards to in-stent noise, SNR, SAIR, and image quality score. On per-stent analysis, SAFIRE vs. FBP reconstruction yielded 85% vs. 85%sensitivity, 89% vs. 78%specificity, 73% vs. 57%positive predictive value, 95% vs. 94%negative predictive value, and 0.87 vs. 0.82 area under curve, although these improvements did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). However, in the subgroup of small diameter stents (≤3 mm; n = 95), specificity(82% vs. 62%), positive predictive value(66% vs. 50%) and area under curve (0.81 vs. 0.70) improved significantly (P < 0.05) with SAFIRE. SAFIRE image reconstruction can thus improve the evaluation for ISR, especially in smaller stents.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Razão Sinal-Ruído
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