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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 125, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is commonly used in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposures. Accounting for cell type composition is critical in such studies as it reduces confounding due to the cell specificity of DNA methylation (DNAm). In the absence of cell sorting information, statistical methods can be applied to deconvolve heterogeneous cell mixtures. Among these methods, reference-based approaches leverage age-appropriate cell-specific DNAm profiles to estimate cellular composition. In UCB, four reference datasets comprising DNAm signatures profiled in purified cell populations have been published using the Illumina 450 K and EPIC arrays. These datasets are biologically and technically different, and currently, there is no consensus on how to best apply them. Here, we systematically evaluate and compare these datasets and provide recommendations for reference-based UCB deconvolution. RESULTS: We first evaluated the four reference datasets to ascertain both the purity of the samples and the potential cell cross-contamination. We filtered samples and combined datasets to obtain a joint UCB reference. We selected deconvolution libraries using two different approaches: automatic selection using the top differentially methylated probes from the function pickCompProbes in minfi and a standardized library selected using the IDOL (Identifying Optimal Libraries) iterative algorithm. We compared the performance of each reference separately and in combination, using the two approaches for reference library selection, and validated the results in an independent cohort (Generation R Study, n = 191) with matched Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting measured cell counts. Strict filtering and combination of the references significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of cell type estimates. Ultimately, the IDOL library outperformed the library from the automatic selection method implemented in pickCompProbes. CONCLUSION: These results have important implications for epigenetic studies in UCB as implementing this method will optimally reduce confounding due to cellular heterogeneity. This work provides guidelines for future reference-based UCB deconvolution and establishes a framework for combining reference datasets in other tissues.

3.
Allergy ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New insights into immune cells could contribute to treatment and monitoring of atopic disease. Because nongenetic factors shape the human immune system, we here studied these immune cells in a large cohort with atopic children with adjustment for prenatal and postnatal confounders. METHODS: Information on atopic dermatitis, inhalant- and food-allergic sensitization, asthma lung function scores was obtained from 855 10-year-old children within the Generation R cohort. 11-color flow cytometry was performed to determine CD27+ and CD27- IgG+ , IgE+ and IgA+ memory B cells, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg-memory cells from venous blood. Associations between any atopic disease, the individual atopic diseases, and immune cell numbers were determined. RESULTS: Children with any atopic disease had higher Th2, Treg, Treg-memory, and CD27+ IgA+ memory B-cell numbers compared to children without atopic disease. When studying the individual diseases compared to children without the individual diseases, children with atopic dermatitis, inhalant-, and food-allergic sensitization had higher memory Treg cell numbers 12.3% (95% CI 4.2; 21.0), (11.1% (95% CI 3.0; 19.8), (23.7% (95% CI 7.9; 41.8), respectively. Children with food-allergic sensitization had higher total B and CD27+ IgA+ memory B-cell numbers (15.2% [95% CI 3.2; 28.7], 22.5% [95% CI 3.9; 44.3], respectively). No associations were observed between asthma and B- or T-cell numbers. CONCLUSION: Children with any atopic disease and children with inhalant- and food-allergic sensitization or atopic dermatitis had higher circulating memory Treg cells, but not higher IgE+ B-cell numbers. The associations of higher Treg and CD27+ IgA+ B-cell numbers in children with food-allergic sensitization are suggestive of TGF-ß-mediated compensation for chronic inflammation.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408965

RESUMO

There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children's DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(10): 1507-1517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414213

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic diseases in children is markedly increasing to epidemic proportions. The aim of this study is to describe the presence and examine associated parental and child characteristics of allergic sensitization and physician-diagnosed allergy in Dutch children at age 10 years. This study among 5471 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort from fetal life onwards. Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests. Physician-diagnosed allergy and parental and child characteristics were collected by questionnaires. In children aged 10 years, inhalant and food allergic sensitization was present in 32.2% and 7.1%, and physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy in 12.4% and 2.3%. Maternal and paternal history of allergy, eczema or asthma was associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (aOR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.23-1.70) and 1.59 (1.30-1.94), respectively), but not with food allergy. Asthma and eczema ever at age 10 years were associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (4.60 (3.55-5.96) and 2.42 (1.94-3.03), respectively). Eczema ever at age 10 years was associated with an increased risk of physician-diagnosed food allergy (5.78, 3.04-9.52), with the highest risk of cashew (7.36, 3.20-16.94) and peanut (5.58, 3.08-10.10) food allergy.Conclusions: We found strong effects of parental history of allergy, eczema or asthma on the presence of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy in children at age 10 years. Eczema ever at age 10 years was a strong risk factor for the development of physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy. What is Known: • The prevalence of allergic diseases in children has markedly increased. • Early-life influences are critically important in the development of allergic diseases. What is New: • Maternal and paternal history of allergy, eczema or asthma is associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy but not with food allergy. • Eczema ever at age 10 years is associated with an increased risk of physician-diagnosed food allergy, with the highest risk for cashew and peanut food allergy.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1198-1204, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to determine whether the DNA methylation profile of children born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is different from that of children born to mothers from the general population. In addition, we aimed to determine whether any differences in methylation are associated with maternal RA disease activity or medication use during pregnancy. METHODS: For this study, genome-wide DNA methylation was measured at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip, in 80 blood samples from children (mean age=6.8 years) born to mothers with RA. As controls, blood samples from 354 children (mean age=6.0 years) from the population-based Generation R Study were used. Linear mixed models were performed to investigate differential methylation between the groups, corrected for relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 147 CpGs were differentially methylated between blood samples of children born to mothers with RA and the control blood samples. The five most significantly associated CpGs were cg06642177, cg08867893, cg06778273, cg07786668 and cg20116574. The differences in methylation were not associated with maternal RA disease activity or medication use during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation at 147 CpGs differed between children born to mothers with RA and children born to mothers from the general population. It remains unknown whether the identified associations are causal, and if so whether they are caused by the disease or treatment. More research, including replication of these results, is necessary in order to strengthen the relevance of our findings for the later-life health of children born to mothers with RA.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
10.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 900-910, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in early life might affect the developing lung and immune system, and subsequently influence the risk of asthma and allergy in later life. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation and at birth with lung function, asthma, inhalant allergic sensitization and inhalant allergy at school-age. METHODS: This study among 4951 children and their mothers was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal venous blood samples in mid-gestation and umbilical cord blood samples at birth were used to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. At age 10 years, lung function was measured by spirometry, current asthma and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy by questionnaire, and inhalant allergic sensitization by skin prick tests. We used multivariable regression models to examine associations. RESULTS: Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation were associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC), but a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/FVC (FEV1 /FVC) and a lower forced expiratory flow after exhaling 75% of FVC (FEF75 ) (Z-score differences [95% CI] 0.02 [0.00, 0.03], -0.02 [-0.03, -0.01] and -0.01 [-0.03, -0.00], respectively, per 10 nmol/L 25-hydroxyvitamin D), but not with asthma. Furthermore, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation were associated with an increased risk of inhalant allergy (Odds Ratio [95% CI] 1.07 [1.02, 1.12]), but not with inhalant allergic sensitization. After additional adjustment for child's 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at the age of 6 years, only the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation with FEV1 /FVC and FEF75 remained. We did not find consistent associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at birth with respiratory or allergy outcomes. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation may influence lung development. The clinical implications of the observed associations remain unclear.

11.
Epigenetics ; 14(5): 445-466, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876376

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate both genetic variability and environmental exposures. However, comprehensive epigenome-wide analysis has not been performed across major childhood allergic phenotypes. We examined the association of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in mid-childhood peripheral blood (Illumina HumanMethyl450K) with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, environmental/inhalant and food allergen sensitization in 739 children in two birth cohorts (Project Viva-Boston, and the Generation R Study-Rotterdam). We performed covariate-adjusted epigenome-wide association meta-analysis and employed pathway and regional analyses of results. Seven-hundred and five methylation sites (505 genes) were significantly cross-sectionally associated with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, 1411 (905 genes) for environmental and 45 (36 genes) for food allergen sensitization (FDR<0.05). We observed differential methylation across multiple genes for all three phenotypes, including genes implicated previously in innate immunity (DICER1), eosinophilic esophagitis and sinusitis (SIGLEC8), the atopic march (AP5B1) and asthma (EPX, IL4, IL5RA, PRG2, SIGLEC8, CLU). In addition, most of the associated methylation marks for all three phenotypes occur in putative transcription factor binding motifs. Pathway analysis identified multiple methylation sites associated with atopic sensitization and environmental allergen sensitization located in/near genes involved in asthma, mTOR signaling, and inositol phosphate metabolism. We identified multiple differentially methylated regions associated with atopic sensitization (8 regions) and environmental allergen sensitization (26 regions). A number of nominally significant methylation sites in the cord blood analysis were epigenome-wide significant in the mid-childhood analysis, and we observed significant methylation - time interactions among a subset of sites examined. Our findings provide insights into epigenetic regulatory pathways as markers of childhood allergic sensitization.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(4): 443-450, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction is associated with higher risks of childhood respiratory morbidity. Fetal blood flow adaptations might contribute to these associations. We examined the associations of fetal umbilical, cerebral, and pulmonary blood flow with wheezing patterns, lung function, and asthma in childhood. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 903 children, we measured fetal umbilical, cerebral, and pulmonary blood flow by pulsed-wave Doppler at a median gestational age of 30.3 (95% range 28.8-32.3) weeks. We obtained information about wheezing patterns until the age of 6 years by questionnaires. Lung function was measured by spirometry and information about current asthma was obtained by questionnaire at the age of 10 years. RESULTS: Results showed a non-significant relationship between a higher umbilical artery pulsatility index (PI) and umbilical artery PI/cerebral artery PI ratio, indicating fetal blood flow redistribution at the expense of the trunk, with higher risks of early wheezing (OR [95% CI]: 2.07 (0.70-6.10) and 2.74 (0.60, 12.62) per unit increase, respectively). A higher pulmonary artery time velocity integral, indicating higher pulmonary vascular resistance, was associated with a higher risk of late/persistent wheezing (Z-score 1.14 [1.01-1.29]). A higher middle cerebral artery PI was associated with a higher FEV1 /FVC (Z-score [95% CI]: 0.21 [0.01-0.42]). Results did not materially change after additional adjustment for birth and growth characteristics. CONCLUSION: Third-trimester fetal blood flow patterns might be related to childhood respiratory health. These findings should be considered as hypothesis generating and need further replication.

13.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.

14.
Chest ; 155(1): e13-e16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616742

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old girl was referred to a pediatric pulmonologist for dyspnea and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The patient was born full term to unrelated Dutch parents after an uneventful pregnancy and birth. The year before presentation, she had suffered from pneumonia and > 10 upper RTIs. Apart from the recurrent RTIs, which started in infancy, her medical history was not significant and did not include allergies or eczema. An adenotonsillectomy was performed at the age of 2 years, and she was treated with multiple antibiotic regimens and inhalation therapy with salbutamol and corticosteroids, with no relief of symptoms.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 206: 127-134, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences comprise auditory and visual perceptive phenomena, such as hearing or seeing things that are not there, in the absence of a psychotic disorder. Psychotic experiences commonly occur in the general pediatric population. Although the majority of psychotic experiences are transient, they are predictive of future psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. They have been associated with sleep problems, but studies with objective sleep measures are lacking. This study assessed whether psychotic experiences were associated with actigraphic sleep measures, symptoms of dyssomnia, nightmares, or other parasomnias. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study comprises 4149 children from the Generation R Study. At age 10 years, psychotic experiences including hallucinatory phenomena were assessed by self-report; dyssomnia and parasomnia symptoms were assessed by mother- and child-report. Additionally, at age 11 years, objective sleep parameters were measured using a tri-axial wrist accelerometer in N = 814 children, who wore the accelerometer for five consecutive school days. RESULTS: Psychotic experiences were not associated with objective sleep duration, sleep efficiency, arousal, or social jetlag. However, psychotic experiences were associated with self-reported dyssomnia (B = 2.45, 95%CI: 2.13-2.77, p < 0.001) and mother-reported parasomnia, specifically nightmares (ORadjusted = 3.59, 95%CI 2.66-4.83, p < 0.001). Similar results were found when analyses were restricted to hallucinatory phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood psychotic experiences were not associated with objective sleep measures. In contrast, psychotic experiences were associated with nightmares, which are a known risk indicator of psychopathology in pre-adolescence. More research is needed to shed light on the potential etiologic or diagnostic role of nightmares in the development of psychotic phenomena.

16.
Eur Radiol ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of geometric distortion (GD) on MRI lung volume quantification and evaluate available manual, semi-automated, and fully automated methods for lung segmentation. METHODS: A phantom was scanned with MRI and CT. GD was quantified as the difference in phantom's volume between MRI and CT, with CT as gold standard. Dice scores were used to measure overlap in shapes. Furthermore, 11 subjects from a prospective population-based cohort study each underwent four chest MRI acquisitions. The resulting 44 MRI scans with 2D and 3D Gradwarp were used to test five segmentation methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t tests were used for statistics. RESULTS: Using phantoms, volume differences between CT and MRI varied according to MRI positions and 2D and 3D Gradwarp correction. With the phantom located at the isocenter, MRI overestimated the volume relative to CT by 5.56 ± 1.16 to 6.99 ± 0.22% with body and torso coils, respectively. Higher Dice scores and smaller intraobject differences were found for 3D Gradwarp MR images. In subjects, semi-automated and fully automated segmentation tools showed high agreement with manual segmentations (ICC = 0.971-0.993 for end-inspiratory scans; ICC = 0.992-0.995 for end-expiratory scans). Manual segmentation time per scan was approximately 3-4 h and 2-3 min for fully automated methods. CONCLUSIONS: Volume overestimation of MRI due to GD can be quantified. Semi-automated and fully automated segmentation methods allow accurate, reproducible, and fast lung volume quantification. Chest MRI can be a valid radiation-free imaging modality for lung segmentation and volume quantification in large cohort studies. KEY POINTS: • Geometric distortion varies according to MRI setting and patient positioning. • Automated segmentation methods allow fast and accurate lung volume quantification. • MRI is a valid radiation-free alternative to CT for quantitative data analysis.

17.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e022449, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, discriminant validity and concurrent validity of the Health Status Classification System-Preschool (HSCS-PS) in children aged 3 years in a large community sample in the Netherlands. DESIGN/SETTING: A prospective population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: A questionnaire was administrated to a sample of parents of 4546 children (36.7±1.5 months). OUTCOME MEASURES: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children was measured by HSCS-PS. The HSCS-PS consists of 10 original domains. Two single-item measures of 'General health' and 'Behavior' were added. A disability score was calculated by summing up all 10 original domains to describe the overall health status. Feasibility was assessed by the response rate, percentages of missing answers, score distributions and the presence of floor/ceiling effects. Discriminant validity was analysed between subgroups with predefined conditions: low birth weight, preterm birth, wheezing, Ear-Nose-Throat surgical procedures and behaviour problems. In the absence of another HRQOL measure, this study uses the single-items 'General health' and 'Behavior' as a first step to evaluate concurrent validity of the HSCS-PS. RESULTS: Feasibility: response rate was 69%. Ceiling effects were observed in all domains. Discriminant validity: the disability score discriminated clearly between subgroups of children born with a 'very low birth weight', 'very preterm birth', with 'four or more than four times wheezing', 'at least one ear-nose-throat surgical procedures', 'behaviour problems present' and the 'reference' group. Concurrent validity: HSCS-PS domains correlated better with hypothesised parallel additional domains than with other non-hypothesised original domains. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the feasibility and validity of the HSCS-PS among preschoolers in community settings. We recommend developing a utility-based scoring algorithm for the HSCS-PS. Further empirical studies and repeated evaluations in varied populations are recommended.

18.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464331

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most prevalent chronic lung disease in infants and presents as a consequence of preterm birth. Due to the lack of effective preventive and treatment strategies, BPD currently represents a major therapeutic challenge that requires continued research efforts at the basic, translational, and clinical levels. However, not all very low birth weight premature babies develop BPD, which suggests that in addition to known gestational age and intrauterine and extrauterine risk factors, other unknown factors must be involved in this disease's development. One of the main goals in BPD research is the early prediction of very low birth weight infants who are at risk of developing BPD in order to initiate the adequate preventive strategies. Other benefits of determining the risk of BPD include providing prognostic information and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment. In this article, we describe new opportunities to address BPD's complex pathophysiology by identifying prognostic biomarkers and develop novel, complex in vitro human lung models in order to develop effective therapies. These therapies for protecting the immature lung from injury can be developed by taking advantage of recent scientific progress in -omics, 3D organoids, and regenerative medicine.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 52(5)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309974

RESUMO

Pre-eclampsia is associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, wheezing and asthma in later childhood. Currently, there are no studies available investigating maternal blood pressure measurements during multiple time-points in pregnancy and respiratory outcome measures in the child.We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure and hypertensive disorders with the risk of lower lung function, wheezing and asthma in children aged 10 years. This study among 4894 children was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study. We used multivariate analyses, taking lifestyle and socioeconomic factors into account.We observed consistent associations per 5 mmHg higher maternal blood pressure in early pregnancy with a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio (z-score -0.03 (95% CI -0.05- -0.01)) and per 5 mmHg higher blood pressure in late pregnancy with a higher risk for current wheezing and current asthma (OR 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.12) and 1.06 (95% CI 1.00-1.11), respectively). We found no associations of maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy with child lung function, current wheezing or current asthma.Our results suggest that higher blood pressure in pregnant women is associated with lower lung function and increased risks of current wheezing and current asthma in children. The associations may be trimester specific.

20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of obesity in offspring. It remains unclear whether maternal adiposity also affects organ fat, which has important adverse cardiometabolic health consequences and whether the associations reflect intrauterine causal mechanisms. We examined the associations of parental pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with general, abdominal, pericardial, and liver fat in 10-year-old children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 2354 parents and their children, we obtained pre-pregnancy maternal and paternal BMI and gestational weight gain and offspring BMI, fat mass index (total fat/height4) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous fat index (subcutaneous fat/height4), visceral fat index (visceral fat/height3), pericardial fat index (pericardial fat/height3), and liver fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 10 years. RESULTS: A 1-standard deviation score (SDS) higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher childhood BMI (difference 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.36) SDS), fat mass index (difference 0.28 (95% CI 0.24, 0.31) SDS), subcutaneous fat index (difference 0.26 (95% CI 0.22, 0.30) SDS), visceral fat index (difference 0.24 (95% CI 0.20, 0.28) SDS), pericardial fat index (difference 0.12 (95% CI 0.08, 0.16) SDS), and liver fat fraction (difference 0.15 (95% CI 0.11, 0.19) SDS). After conditioning each MRI adiposity measure on BMI at 10 years, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remained associated with higher childhood subcutaneous and visceral fat indices. Smaller but not statistically different effect estimates were observed for paternal BMI. Gestational weight gain was not consistently associated with organ fat. CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, but not gestational weight gain, was associated with higher general and organ fat. Similar associations of pre-pregnancy maternal and paternal BMI with offspring adiposity suggest a role of family shared lifestyle factors and genetics.

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