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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466191

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of 21st April 2021, the disease had affected more than 143 million people with more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Urgent effective strategies are required to control the scourge of the pandemic. Rapid sample collection and effective testing of appropriate specimens from patients meeting the suspect case definition for COVID-19 is a priority for clinical management and outbreak control. The WHO recommends that suspected cases be screened for SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). Other COVID-19 screening techniques such as serological and antigen tests have been developed and are currently being used for testing at ports of entry and for general surveillance of population exposure in some countries. However, there are limited testing options, equipment, and trained personnel in many African countries. Previously, positive patients have been screened more than twice to determine viral clearance prior to discharge after treatment. In a new policy directive, the WHO now recommends direct discharge after treatment of all positive cases without repeated testing. In this review, we discuss COVID-19 testing capacity, various diagnostic methods, test accuracy, as well as logistical challenges in Africa with respect to the WHO early discharge policy.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , África , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Manejo de Espécimes , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 167, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality among adolescent mothers in South Africa is higher than many middle-income countries. This is largely attributable to conditions that can be prevented or managed by high quality antenatal care. The way in which pregnant adolescents are treated at antenatal clinics influences their timely utilization of antenatal services. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of pregnant adolescents with health care workers when accessing antenatal care. METHODS: Pregnant girls aged 13-19 (n = 19) who attended public health care facilities that provide Basic Antenatal Care (BANC) services in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited. Four face to face in-depth interviews and four mini focus group discussions were undertaken, facilitated by a topic guide. Thematic analyses were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Experiences that reinforce antenatal attendance, such as respectful and supportive treatment, were outweighed by negative experiences, such as victimization; discrimination against being pregnant at a young age; experiencing disregard and exclusion; inadequate provision of information about pregnancy, health and childbirth; clinic attendance discouragement; and mental health turmoil. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of a discordant relationship between the health care workers and the pregnant adolescents. Adolescents feel mistreated and discriminated against by the health care workers, which in turn discourages their attendance at antenatal clinics. Maternal health care workers need to receive support and regular training on the provision of youth friendly antenatal care and be regularly evaluated, to promote the provision of fair and high quality antenatal services for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Gestantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , África do Sul
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069668

RESUMO

This study investigates the provincial variation in hypertension prevalence in South Africa in 2012 and 2016, adjusting for individual level demographic, behavioural and socio-economic variables, while allowing for spatial autocorrelation and adjusting simultaneously for the hierarchical data structure and risk factors. Data were analysed from participants aged ≥15 years from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) 2012 and the South African Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2016. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or self-reported health professional diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Bayesian geo-additive regression modelling investigated the association of various socio-economic factors on the prevalence of hypertension across South Africa's nine provinces while controlling for the latent effects of geographical location. Hypertension prevalence was 38.4% in the SANHANES in 2012 and 48.2% in the DHS in 2016. The risk of hypertension was significantly high in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga in the 2016 DHS, despite being previously nonsignificant in the SANHANES 2012. In both survey years, hypertension was significantly higher among males, the coloured population group, urban participants and those with self-reported high blood cholesterol. The odds of hypertension increased non-linearly with age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference. The findings can inform decision making regarding the allocation of public resources to the most affected areas of the population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brazil, Russia, India China and South Africa have prioritized cooperation regarding health, including malnutrition. Anaemia in children, adolescents and women of reproductive age has been on the increase in these countries, placing a huge strain on healthcare systems. This study aimed to map the scientific perspective and research publications on anaemia in children and adolescents in the BRICS countries. METHODS: Bibliometric analyses were employed to map scientific publications related to anaemia in children and adolescents in BRICS countries using VOSviewer software. Research documents from 1990 to 2020 were imported from PubMed. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse trends in research publications, authorship and keywords over the 30-year period. FINDINGS: BRICS countries accounted for 15% of all publications on the subject within the last three decades. While India had the highest number of publications, China had the author with the highest number of research publications and co-authorship links. Of all article types, India had the highest number of letters, while China and South Africa published the highest number of RCT/clinical trial and review articles, respectively. CONCLUSION: The review of all scientific studies on anaemia in BRICS nations for the past 30 years revealed gaps in research collaborations on anaemia between authors in BRICS nations. However, collaborative research projects may contribute to building a shared base of evidence, innovations, data and methodologies for a more comprehensive understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities of child and adolescent anaemia. This will aid in the development and evaluation of interventions and policies to alleviate anaemia and nutrient deficiencies.


Assuntos
Anemia , Bibliometria , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Brasil , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Federação Russa , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632619, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109143

RESUMO

Introduction: Social or physical distancing has been an effective measure for reducing the spread of COVID-19 infections. Investigating the determinants of adherence to social distancing can inform public health strategies to improve the behaviour. However, there is a lack of data in various populations. This study investigates the degree to which South Africans complied with social distancing during the country's COVID-19 lockdown and identifies the determinants associated with being in close contact with large numbers of people. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a South African national online survey on a data free platform, supplemented with telephone interviews. The survey was conducted from 8 to 29 April 2020. The primary outcome was the number of people that participants came into close contact with (within a 2-metre distance) the last time they were outside their home during the COVID-19 lockdown. Multivariate multinomial regression investigated the socio-demographic, psychosocial and household environmental determinants associated with being in contact with 1-10, 11-50 and more than 50 people. Results: Of the 17,563 adult participants, 20.3% reported having not left home, 50.6% were in close physical distance with 1-10 people, 21.1% with 11-50 people, and 8.0% with >50 people. Larger household size and incorrect knowledge about the importance of social distancing were associated with being in contact with >50 people. Male gender, younger age and being in the White and Coloured population groups were significantly associated with being in contact with 1-10 people but not with larger numbers of people. Employment, at least secondary school education, lack of self-efficacy in being able to protect oneself from infection, and moderate or high risk perception of becoming infected, were all associated with increased odds of close contact with 1-10, 11-50, and >50 people relative to remaining at home. Conclusion: The findings identify subgroups of individuals that are less likely to comply with social distancing regulations. Public health communication, interventions and policy can be tailored to address these determinants of social distancing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 614858, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996709

RESUMO

Background: Adequate information and knowledge about COVID-19 has been shown to induce the confidence and positive performance among healthcare workers (HCWs). Therefore, assessing the relationship between confidence in knowledge and associated factors among HCWs is vital in the fight against COVID-19. This paper investigates factors associated with HCWs' confidence in their overall knowledge about COVID-19 in South Africa in the early stages of the epidemic. Methods: Data utilized in this paper were from an online survey conducted among HCWs using a structured questionnaire on a data free online platform. The study population were all the medical fraternity in South Africa including medical and nurse practitioners as well as other healthcare professionals. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to examine the factors associated with confidence in HCWs' overall knowledge about COVID-19. Results: Overall, just below half (47.4%) of respondents indicated that they had confidence in their overall knowledge about COVID-19. Increased odds of having confidence in the knowledge about COVID-19 were significantly associated with being male [aOR = 1.31 95% CI (1.03-1.65), p < 0.05], having a doctorate degree [aOR = 2.01 (1.23-3.28), p < 0.05], being satisfied with the information about COVID-19 guidelines [aOR = 6.01 (4.89-7.39), p < 0.001], having received training in 6-8 areas [aOR = 2.54 (1.89-3.43), p < 0.001] and having received training in 9-11 areas [aOR = 5.33 (3.81-7.47), p < 0.001], and having already treated COVID-19 patients [aOR = 1.43 (1.08-1.90), p < 0.001]. Those who were highly concerned with the levels of training of HCWs [aOR = 0.47 (0.24-0.92), p < 0.05] had decreased odds of having confidence in their overall knowledge about COVID-19. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the importance of capacitating HCWs with knowledge and adequate relevant training as part of infection prevention control measures during pandemics. Future training and information sharing should be sensitive to knowledge gaps by age, gender, qualifications, professional categories, and experience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 66, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress in vision impairments and blindness is a complex issue and a major public health concern. Sudden adjustments in routine lifestyle and career aspirations in such persons culminate in and/or aggravate their level of stress. Yet, psychological distress in persons with visual difficulties and vision loss in South Africa is poorly understood. We investigated the association between psychological distress and self-reported vision difficulties as well as clinician-assessed vision loss using data from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). METHODS: Data was analysed on participants aged ≥ 15 years who participated in the SANHANES-1 clinical examinations and interviews. Data on demographic, socio-economic, and health status variables were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Vision assessment was conducted by clinicians adhering to standard protocols as well as by participants' subjective response to vision-related questions. Vision loss was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than Snellen 6/12 in the better eye. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between vision parameters and psychological distress. RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 6859 participants with mean age of 38.4 years (60.8% females). The prevalence of psychological distress was 19.9%. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic, health risk and eye care variables, self-reported myopia (mild adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.7; moderate AOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7; severe AOR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.3) and self-reported hyperopia (mild AOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5; moderate AOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.8; severe AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) were significantly associated with psychological distress. While psychological distress was higher in patients with clinician assessed vision loss than those with normal vision, the association was not statistically significant after adjusting for confounders (AOR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.7-1.4). CONCLUSIONS: Persons who self-reported vision difficulty experienced a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Therefore, comprehensive psychological care is needed for patients with eye disease or vision difficulties as part of a governmental strategy to provide mental health care for all South Africans.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 604439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777878

RESUMO

Child and adolescent overweight is a growing public health problem globally. Europe and low and middle-income (LMIC) countries in Sub-Saharan Africa provide sufficiently suitable populations to learn from with respect to the potential for mobile health (mHealth) interventions in this area of research. The aim of this paper is to identify mHealth interventions on prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sweden and report on their effects, in order to inform future research in this area. A search of peer-reviewed publications was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, and Scopus. The search included all articles published up to August 2019. The search strings consisted of MeSH terms related to mHealth, overweight or obesity, children, adolescents or youth and individual countries in Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, a combination of free-text words; mobile phone, physical activity, exercise, diet, weight, BMI, and healthy eating was also used. Seven studies were reported from Europe and no eligible studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. The results of this narrative review indicate a lack of research in the development and testing of mHealth interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. There is a need for an evidence base of mHealth interventions that are both relevant and appropriate in order to stem the epidemic of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in these countries. Uptake of such interventions is likely to be high as there is high penetrance of mobile phone technology amongst adolescents, even within poor communities in Africa.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Telemedicina , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Suécia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 580, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic a public health emergency of international concern. South Africa, like many other countries, initiated a multifaceted national response to the pandemic. Self-isolation and quarantine are essential components of the public health response in the country. This paper examined perceptions and preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine during the initial phase of the pandemic in South Africa. METHODS: The analysis used data obtained from an online quantitative survey conducted in all nine provinces using a data-free platform. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Of 55,823 respondents, 40.1% reported that they may end up in self-isolation or quarantine, 32.6% did not think that they would and 27.4% were unsure. Preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine was 59.0% for self, 53.8% for child and 59.9% for elderly. The odds of perceived possibility for self-isolation or quarantine were significantly higher among Coloureds, Whites, and Indians/Asians than Black Africans, and among those with moderate or high self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 than those with low risk perception. The odds were significantly lower among older age groups than those aged 18-29 years, and those unemployed than fully employed. The odds of preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine were significantly less likely among females than males. Preparedness for self, child and elderly isolation or quarantine was significantly more likely among other population groups than Black Africans and among older age groups than those aged 18-29 years. Preparedness for self, child and elderly isolation or quarantine was significantly less likely among those self-employed than fully employed and those residing in informal dwellings than formal dwellings. In addition, preparedness for self-isolation or quarantine was significantly less likely among those with moderate and high self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 than low risk perception. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the challenge of implementing self-isolation or quarantine in a country with different and unique social contexts. There is a need for public awareness regarding the importance of self-isolation or quarantine as well as counter measures against contextual factors inhibiting this intervention, especially in impoverished communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 1, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vision loss is a major public health concern that significantly affects developing countries, including South Africa. Although existing literature have reported on the prevalence, causes, and impact of vision loss on the quality of life of affected individuals (children and adults) in parts of South Africa, there is no evidence of the prevalence and associated factors of vision loss in the general population. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of vision loss and its associated factors in South Africa using a population-based survey. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted using data from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1), a population-based national health survey conducted from 2011 to 2012. Vision loss was defined as presenting visual acuity (PVA) worse than Snellen 6/12 in the better eye. Visual acuity was assessed by clinicians and participants' subjective response to vision-related questions. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the independent variables with vision loss. RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 4346 individuals with a mean age of 39.1 years. Female sex accounted for 55.6% of the participants. The prevalence of vision loss among participants was 9.2% (95% CI: 7.7-10.9). Older age (45-54 years, OR = 2.99, p < 0.001; 55-64 years, OR = 5.78, p < 0.001 and ≥ 65 years, OR = 5.12, p < 0.001), female sex (OR = 1.50, p = 0.016), and previous diabetes diagnosis (OR = 2.28, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with increased odds of vision loss. Further, secondary school education (OR = 0.71, p = 0.031), white ethnicity (OR = 0.11, p = 0.007), residing in Mpumalanga province (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) and having never had an eye examination (OR = 0.56, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with reduced odds of vision loss. CONCLUSION: Almost one in ten participants had vision loss. Adopting strategies targeted at reducing barriers to the utilization of eye care services will promote early detection and management of blinding conditions, and thereby, decrease the burden of vision loss in South Africa.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 407, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a chronic disease of uncontrolled blood sugar levels. People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing visual impairment and other diabetes-related visual complications. The study aims to determine the eyecare utilization pattern and its associated determinants among diabetics in the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 56.2 years and 66.6% were females. The prevalence of eyecare utilization among participants was 49.0% and this differed significantly by age groups (p = 0.024) and the number of years since diabetes diagnosis (p < 0.001). After statistical adjustments, older age (55-64 years OR = 4.18, p = 0.003 and ≥ 65 years OR = 4.78, p = 0.002), having health insurance (OR = 6.32, p = 0.002), and having had diabetes for 6-10 years (OR = 4.23, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with eye care utilization. About half of people diagnosed with diabetes in South Africa have had an eye examination since diabetes diagnosis, which is disturbingly low given the impact of diabetes complications on eye health. Government policies must be directed at ensuring access to affordable health insurance and eye health education on diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 756, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eye examinations are recommended for all persons throughout life. However, there is disparity in the uptake of eye care services in different populations. Using data from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study (the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, [SANHANES-1]), this paper investigates the utilization of eye care services and its associated factors in South Africa. METHODS: Participants aged 15 years and older who participated in interviews and clinical examination were enrolled in the SANHANES from 2011 to 2012. Eye care utilization was assessed from participants' responses to whether they had their eyes examined by a medical professional and when they were last examined. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression models employing a hierarchical approach to add predisposing (e.g. age, sex), enabling (e.g. health insurance) and need (e.g. hypertension) factors sequentially. RESULTS: The study sampled 3320 participants, with 64.9% being females. 73.4% (95% CI [69.7-76.7]) of participants had never had an eye examination. After statistical adjustment, age groups (compared with 15-29 years: 30-44 years Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.76; 45-59 years OR = 2.13; 60-74 years OR = 2.74; ≥75 years OR = 3.22), ethnicity (compared with African descent: white OR = 4.71; mixed-race OR = 1.87; Indian OR = 7.67), high risk alcohol use (OR = 1.83), wealth index (compared with lowest quintile: third quintile OR = 1.75; fourth quintile OR = 2.23; fifth quintile OR = 2.49), health insurance (OR = 2.19), diabetes (OR = 1.75), high cholesterol (OR = 2.51), having assessed healthcare in the past 5 years (OR = 2.42), and self-reported vision problems (OR = 1.51) were significantly associated with eye care utilization. CONCLUSION: Almost three-quarters of South Africans sampled were not utilizing eye care services. It is imperative to strengthen current public health measures (including eye health promotion programs) to address the alarmingly low uptake of eye care services as well as the disparities in eye care utilization in South Africa.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/terapia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 179, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is currently undergoing a nutrition transition, and overweight and obesity is on the increase in South African children. Urbanization and other health determinants have led to reduced physical activity and unhealthy eating that have increased the risk of adverse chronic health conditions. This study aims to provide evidence of the effectiveness of a school-based intervention study that targets diet and physical activity for the prevention of child and adolescent overweight and/or obesity. METHODS: We will employ a mixed method study design which is divided into two phases. Phase 1, namely the qualitative elicitation research phase will inform the development of the quantitative intervention phase (phase 2), consisting of a cluster-randomized trial, based on input from key stakeholders. The study will be undertaken in 16 government-funded primary schools in the iLembe district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study will target learners in Grades 4 and 7, their parents, Life Orientation educators, school principals and members of school governing bodies. Assessment for the primary objective (BMI Z scores), and the secondary objectives (change in knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding diet and physical activity) in both study arms will be conducted at baseline in March 2020 and at the end of the study in October 2020. DISCUSSION: The study will be a novel combined mixed methods/RCT design that focuses on diet, physical activity school and family-based interventions in the context of rapidly increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal. To encourage behaviour change and management of malnutrition, education including diet and physical activity, is an important strategy that must be considered. Nutrition education extends beyond the dissemination of food information; it includes addressing the needs of participants, empowers and encourages decision-making and choice of foods, change in nutrition attitudes, beliefs and influences based on resources available and within cultural boundaries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201711002699153. Protocol registered on 16 November 2017.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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