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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200095, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess, through space-time analyses, whether the income inequality of the Federative Units (FUs) in Brazil can be associated with the risk of infection and death by COVID-19. METHODS: This was an ecological study, based on secondary data on incidence and mortality rates for COVID-19. Data were analyzed at the state level, having the Gini coefficient as the main independent variable. Records of twelve days were used, spaced one week each, between April 21th and June 7th, 2020. The weekly variation in the rates was calculated through Prais-Winsten regression, aiming at measuring the evolution of the pandemic in each FU. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess correlation between the rates and their weekly evolution and the independent variables. Lastly, a spatial dependence diagnosis was conducted, and a Spatial Regression lag model was used when applicable. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 increased in all Brazilian FUs, being more pronounced among those with greater economic inequality. Association between Gini coefficient and COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates remained even when demographic and spatial aspects were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Income inequality can play an important role in the impact of COVID-19 on the Brazilian territory, through absolute and contextual effects. Structural policies to reduce inequality are essential to face this and future health crises in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(2): e2019204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the occurrence of food insecurity and associated factors in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2016. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional population-based study using data obtained by interviewing heads of household; Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used. RESULTS: 675 households were included; food insecurity prevalence was 35.2% (95%CI31.6;39.0) and its occurrence was associated with heads of household being female (PR=1.49 - 95%CI1.17;1.90), not being white-skinned (PR=1.49 - 95%CI1.18;1.88), being younger, unmarried (PR=1.39 - 95%CI 1.07;1.81), belonging to the lowest education bracket (PR=1.58; 95%CI 1.17;2,12), belonging to the first and second assets index tertiles, having insufficient money to meet expenses (PR=2.22 - 95%CI 1.76;2.80), being obese (PR=1.39 - 95%CI 1.13;1.71), and being a smoker (PR=1.28 - 95%CI 1.05;1.56). CONCLUSION: food insecurity was associated with all factors studied except alcohol abuse.

3.
BrJP ; 1(1): 9-14, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038904

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In view of the high prevalence of pain complaints among workers in the country and their consequences in the quality of life and work, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between the perceived stress and the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms among public servants of the Federal University of Rio Grande. METHODS: Observational, transversal and quantitative study. The survey population comprised all active servants in the second semester of 2016 in any campuses of the Federal University of Rio Grande. Participants received a digital invitation to participate in the survey containing a link that would lead to the questionnaire generated by Google Docs. The questionnaire was composed of questions on demographic data, and two standardized instruments: the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale. The descriptive analysis was done by absolute and relative frequency. For the bivariate analysis, it was used the Fisher's Exact test. P values were reported for the linear trend test on associations between stress and pain. RESULTS: Of the total number of eligible servants (n=717), 36.6% participated in the study. The spine was the most reported area of the body with pain symptoms in the last 12 months, and in the last seven days. The least prevalent region of pain was hips / thighs. It was observed that the greater the perceived stress, the greater was the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. It was observed a statistically significant linear trend in almost all assessed anatomic regions. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the analyzed population, as well as a strong association between the perceived stress and the presence of these symptoms.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Diante da alta prevalência das queixas de dor entre os trabalhadores no país e suas consequências para qualidade de vida e no trabalho. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre o estresse percebido e a presença de sintomas osteomusculares entre servidores públicos da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal e quantitativo. O público da pesquisa foi todos os servidores efetivos que estavam em atividade no segundo semestre de 2016 de qualquer dos campi da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. Os participantes receberam, por via digital, um convite para participar da pesquisa contendo umlink que remetia ao questionário, gerado peloGoogle Docs. O questionário foi composto por perguntas que inquiriam dados demográficos e duas avaliações padronizadas:Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire e Escala de Estresse Percebido. A análise descritiva tratou-se da frequência absoluta e relativa. Para análise bivariada, utilizou-se o Exato de Fisher. Foram reportados os valores p para o teste de tendência linear nas associações entre o estresse e a dor. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 36,6% do número total dos servidores (n=717). A região das costas foi a mais prevalente de dor quanto aos sintomas nos últimos 12 meses, e nos últimos sete dias. A região menos prevalente foi quadril/coxas. Verificou-se que quanto maior o estresse percebido, maior foi a prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares. Observou-se tendência linear com significância estatística em quase todas as regiões anatômicas analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Constatou-se elevada prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares na população estudada, além da forte associação entre o estresse percebido e a presença destes sintomas.

4.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0149299, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP) during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF) at age 18 years. METHODS: We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD) and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats") and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol"). The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex. RESULTS: The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4), significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001). The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively) in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP. CONCLUSION: These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 20(7): 2157-63, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132255

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to evaluate the relationship between stressor events that occurred last year in the family of children and adolescents that are indicative of mental health problems in a sample of students from two schools in a city in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,075 students enrolled in two public elementary schools. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess emotional and behavioral factors of the child and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) of Holmes and Rahe (1967) to assess stressor events. The chi-square and Poisson regression test with robust variance adjustment for expressing the results in the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence intervals of 95% were used. The chances of presenting problems of hyperactivity were 1.42 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.83) times higher in the intermediate tercile and 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78) in the higher tercile compared with the lower tercile. With respect to relationship problems the chances were of 1.49 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.93) times higher in the higher tercile when compared with the lower tercile. The results suggest that environmental factors may be strongly related to the etiology of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Família , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
6.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(7): 2157-2163, 07/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-749943

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a relação entre eventos estressores ocorridos no último ano na família de crianças e adolescentes com indicativos de problemas de saúde mental em uma amostra de estudantes de duas escolas de uma cidade no sul do Brasil. Estudo transversal com 1.075 estudantes matriculados em duas escolas públicas de ensino fundamental (uma estadual e outra municipal). Foi utilizado o Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire para avaliação de fatores emocionais e comportamentais da criança, e a Escala de Avaliação de Reajustamento Social de Holmes e Rahe (1967) para avaliar os eventos estressores. Foram utilizados o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão de Poisson, com ajuste robusto para variância, expressando os resultados em razão de prevalências (RP) e intervalos de confiança de 95%. As chances de apresentar problemas de hiperatividade foram 1,42 (IC 95% 1,10-1,83) vezes maiores no tercil intermediário e 1,37 (IC 95% 1,06-1,78) no tercil superior, quando comparados ao tercil inferior. Quanto aos problemas de relacionamento, as chances foram de 1,49 (IC 95% 1,15-1,93) vezes maiores no tercil superior ao serem comparados com o tercil inferior. Os resultados sugerem que fatores ambientais podem ser fortemente relacionados à etiologia dos transtornos mentais na infância e adolescência.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the relationship between stressor events that occurred last year in the family of children and adolescents that are indicative of mental health problems in a sample of students from two schools in a city in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,075 students enrolled in two public elementary schools. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess emotional and behavioral factors of the child and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) of Holmes and Rahe (1967) to assess stressor events. The chi-square and Poisson regression test with robust variance adjustment for expressing the results in the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence intervals of 95% were used. The chances of presenting problems of hyperactivity were 1.42 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.83) times higher in the intermediate tercile and 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78) in the higher tercile compared with the lower tercile. With respect to relationship problems the chances were of 1.49 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.93) times higher in the higher tercile when compared with the lower tercile. The results suggest that environmental factors may be strongly related to the etiology of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Resistência a Meticilina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/genética
7.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 16(3): 729-736, set. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-700197

RESUMO

Objectives: To measure the prevalence and risk factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Methods: All mothers living in this municipality who had children in 2007 were surveyed for demographic, socioeconomic and health care received during pregnancy and childbirth. The statistical analysis consisted of Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance, and the measure of effect was prevalence ratio (PR). Results: Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed (99% of total), 59% were supplemented with iron during pregnancy period. After adjusting for various confounding factors, a higher PR to iron supplementation was observed among teenagers, women with black skin color, primigravidae, who had six or more antenatal visits, who performed prenatal care in public sector and received vitamin during pregnancy. Conclusion: There is a clear need to increase the iron supplementation coverage of all pregnant women, especially among those currently considered with low gestational risk. .


Objetivos: Medir a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à suplementação com sulfato ferroso entre gestantes residentes no município de Rio Grande, RS. Métodos: Mães residentes neste município que tiveram filho em 2007 foram investigadas quanto a características demográficas, nível socioeconômico e assistência recebida durante a gestação e o parto. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância, e a medida de efeito foi razão de prevalências (RP). Resultados: Dentre as 2.557 mães entrevistadas (99% do total), 59% foram suplementadas com sulfato ferroso durante a gestação. Após análise ajustando para diversos fatores de confusão, mostraram maior RP à suplementação com sulfato ferroso as gestantes adolescentes, de cor da pele preta, primigestas, que realizaram seis ou mais consultas de pré-natal, que fizeram essas consultas na rede pública e que receberam complexo vitamínico durante a gestação. Conclusão: Há evidente necessidade de aumentar a cobertura da suplementação com sulfato ferroso entre todas as gestantes, sobretudo entre aquelas tidas, em geral, como de menor risco gestacional. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Ferrosos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 29(5): 1019-28, 2013 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23703007

RESUMO

Prenatal care is a key indicator of the quality of health services. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional study included all mothers from 2010 who had received prenatal care. Interviews were conducted with a pre-coded questionnaire in the maternity hospital. Of the 2,288 mothers interviewed, 1,228 (53.7%) had the prenatal care card with them and thus comprised the group for comparison. The analysis used kappa correlation and confidence interval. The variables six or more prenatal visits, clinical breast and gynecological examination, two blood tests, VDRL, HIV serology, urine test, and tetanus vaccination showed statistically significant differences between annotated and maternal recall data (p ≤ 0.001). Adequacy of prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care (PHPN) was 23.9% according to information provided by the patients and 4.4% according to information recorded on the prenatal cards (p ≤ 0.001). The prenatal care card showed underreporting, which limited the quality assessment of prenatal care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Coito/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(5): 1019-1028, Mai. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-676036

RESUMO

Prenatal care is a key indicator of the quality of health services. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional study included all mothers from 2010 who had received prenatal care. Interviews were conducted with a pre-coded questionnaire in the maternity hospital. Of the 2,288 mothers interviewed, 1,228 (53.7%) had the prenatal care card with them and thus comprised the group for comparison. The analysis used kappa correlation and confidence interval. The variables six or more prenatal visits, clinical breast and gynecological examination, two blood tests, VDRL, HIV serology, urine test, and tetanus vaccination showed statistically significant differences between annotated and maternal recall data (p≤ 0.001). Adequacy of prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care (PHPN) was 23.9% according to information provided by the patients and 4.4% according to information recorded on the prenatal cards (p ≤ 0.001). The prenatal care card showed underreporting, which limited the quality assessment of prenatal care.


A assistência pré-natal é um indicativo da qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Esse estudo objetivou avaliar a concordância entre os dados do pré-natal da memória materna e do cartão da gestante no Município do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal incluindo todas puérperas do ano de 2010 que realizaram pré-natal. As entrevistas e a coleta dos dados do cartão ocorreram nas maternidades. Das 2.288 puérperas entrevistadas, 1.228 (53,7%) portavam o cartão da gestante, sendo a comparação realizada nesse grupo. A análise foi feita utilizando-se o teste de concordância kappa e o intervalo de confiança. A realização de seis ou mais consultas de pré-natal, exame das mamas e ginecológico, dois exames de sangue, VDRL, anti-HIV, urina e a vacinação antitetânica demonstraram diferença estatística entre os dados referidos e anotados (p ≤ 0,001). A adequação do pré-natal pelo índice do Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal (PHPN) nos dados referidos foi de 23,9% e de 4,4% nos dados anotados (p ≤ 0,001). Observamos um sub-registro no cartão da gestante, o qual influenciou negativamente na avaliação da qualidade do pré-natal.


La asistencia prenatal es un indicativo de la calidad de los servicios de salud. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la correspondencia entre los datos prenatales del diario materno y de la cartilla de gestante en el municipio de Río Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Es un estudio transversal incluyendo a todas las puérperas del año 2010 que recibieron asistencia prenatal. Las entrevistas y la recogida de los datos de la cartilla se produjeron en las maternidades. De las 2.288 puérperas entrevistadas, 1.228 (53,7%) llevaban la cartilla de gestante, realizándose la comparación en ese grupo. El análisis se ejecutó utilizándose el test de concordancia kappa y el intervalo de confianza. La realización de seis o más consultas de prenatal, examen de mamas y ginecológico, de los exámenes de sangre, VDRL, anti-VIH, orina y la vacunación antitetánica demostraron una diferencia estadística entre los datos proporcionados y los anotados (p ≤ 0,001). La adecuación del servicio prenatal por el índice del Programa de Humanización de Prenatal (PHPN) en los datos recogidos fue de un 23,9% y de un 4,4% en los datos anotados (p ≤ 0,001). Observamos un subregistro en la cartilla de la gestante, el cual influenció negativamente en la evaluación de la calidad de prenatal.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Coito/psicologia , Avaliação em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 16(3): 729-36, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24896285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence and risk factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. METHODS: All mothers living in this municipality who had children in 2007 were surveyed for demographic, socioeconomic and health care received during pregnancy and childbirth. The statistical analysis consisted of Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance, and the measure of effect was prevalence ratio (PR). RESULTS: Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed (99% of total), 59% were supplemented with iron during pregnancy period. After adjusting for various confounding factors, a higher PR to iron supplementation was observed among teenagers, women with black skin color, primigravidae, who had six or more antenatal visits, who performed prenatal care in public sector and received vitamin during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There is a clear need to increase the iron supplementation coverage of all pregnant women, especially among those currently considered with low gestational risk.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Ferrosos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 34(11): 518-523, nov. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-660891

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não rastreamento voluntário para citopatológico (CP) de colo uterino entre puérperas em Rio Grande (RS). MÉTODOS: Entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado, ainda na maternidade, em busca de informações sobre características demográficas da gestante, nível socioeconômico da família e tipo de assistência recebida durante o pré-natal para todas aquelas residentes nesse município que tiveram filhos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram utilizados o teste do χ² para comparar proporções e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância na análise multivariável. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 2.288 entrevistadas, 33% não se submeteram ao CP de colo uterino. Destas, dois terços disseram desconhecer a necessidade de realizá-lo, 18% não fizeram este exame por medo ou vergonha e as demais por outras razões. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, as maiores razões de prevalência (RP) para não buscar por CP ocorreram entre aquelas de menor idade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,25 - 1,80) e escolaridade (RP=1,5; IC95% 1,12 - 2,12), que viviam sem companheiro (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,24 - 1,62), fumantes (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,07 - 1,39), que não planejaram a gravidez (RP=1,3; IC95% 1,21 - 1,61), que completaram menos de seis consultas durante pré-natal (RP=1,4; IC95% 1,32 - 1,69) e usuárias de contraceptivo oral (RP=1,2; IC95% 1,04 - 1,38). CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o risco para câncer de colo uterino, menor a probabilidade de a gestante se submeter ao CP de colo uterino. Isso, certamente, tem contribuído para o aumento da morbimortalidade por esta doença nesta localidade.


PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The χ² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Teste de Papanicolaou , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 17(9): 2499-505, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996900

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to evaluate body dissatisfaction among adolescents, and to explore differences according to sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index. 4325 individuals aged 14-15 years old from Pelotas, Brazil, were studied. Body dissatisfaction was evaluated comparing the desired image with the perceived image, according to the Tiggemann & Wilson-Barret silhouette scale. The nutritional status was categorized in accordance with World Health Organization criteria, whereas socioeconomic status was evaluated using classifications of the Brazilian Association of Research Institutes. It was found that 27.6% of teens were overweight. Body dissatisfaction, appraised by the silhouette scale, affected 51% of boys and 65.6% of girls. The economic and nutritional status was associated with the outcome. Most overweight adolescents wished to have a slimmer silhouette than the perceived one. The economic level modified the effect of nutritional status on body dissatisfaction. Adolescents from the wealthier economic classes who were not in the ideal weight range manifested greater body dissatisfaction than the less affluent individuals and, irrespective of economic status, girls are more dissatisfied with excess body weight and boys with slimness.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(9): 2499-2505, set. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-649912

RESUMO

O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a insatisfação corporal em adolescentes e explorar diferenças conforme sexo, nível econômico e índice de massa corporal. Foram estudados 4.325 indivíduos de 14 a 15 anos da cidade de Pelotas, Brasil. A insatisfação corporal foi avaliada comparando a imagem desejada com a imagem percebida, de acordo com escala de silhuetas de Tiggemann e Wilson-Barret. O estado nutricional foi categorizado conforme proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, enquanto o nível socioeconômico foi avaliado segundo classificação da Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisas. Verificou-se que 27,6% dos adolescentes estavam acima do peso. A insatisfação corporal, avaliada pela escala de silhuetas, atingiu 51,0% dos meninos e 65,6% das meninas. O nível econômico e o estado nutricional estiveram associados com o desfecho. A maioria dos adolescentes com excesso de peso desejava ter uma silhueta menor do que a percebida. O nível econômico modificou o efeito do estado nutricional sobre a insatisfação corporal. Adolescentes das classes econômicas mais altas fora do peso ideal mostraram maior insatisfação corporal do que os mais pobres e, independente do nível econômico, as meninas estão mais insatisfeitas com o excesso de peso e os meninos com a magreza.


The scope of this study was to evaluate body dissatisfaction among adolescents, and to explore differences according to sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index. 4325 individuals aged 14-15 years old from Pelotas, Brazil, were studied. Body dissatisfaction was evaluated comparing the desired image with the perceived image, according to the Tiggemann & Wilson-Barret silhouette scale. The nutritional status was categorized in accordance with World Health Organization criteria, whereas socioeconomic status was evaluated using classifications of the Brazilian Association of Research Institutes. It was found that 27.6% of teens were overweight. Body dissatisfaction, appraised by the silhouette scale, affected 51% of boys and 65.6% of girls. The economic and nutritional status was associated with the outcome. Most overweight adolescents wished to have a slimmer silhouette than the perceived one. The economic level modified the effect of nutritional status on body dissatisfaction. Adolescents from the wealthier economic classes who were not in the ideal weight range manifested greater body dissatisfaction than the less affluent individuals and, irrespective of economic status, girls are more dissatisfied with excess body weight and boys with slimness.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 34(11): 518-23, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23288263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure of voluntary screening for cervical cancer during the gestational period in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Previously trained interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire in the maternity to all mothers from this municipality who had delivered from January 1st to December 31st 2010 to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the pregnant women, family socioeconomic status, and prenatal care received. The χ² test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2,288 respondents, 33% were not submitted to the Pap smear during pregnancy. Two thirds of these women stated that they were not aware of the need to perform it, 18% were not screened out of fear or shame, and the rest for other reasons. After adjustment, the highest prevalence ratios (PR) for noncompliance with the Pap smear occurred among young women (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.25 - 1.80), with lower educational level (PR=1.5; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.12), who were living without a partner (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.62), smokers (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.07 - 1.39), who did not plan the current pregnancy (PR=1.3; 95%CI 1,21 - 1.61), who had attended less than six medical visits during the prenatal period (PR=1.4; 95%CI 1.32 - 1.69) and among users of oral contraceptives (PR=1.2; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.38). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the risk for uterine cervical cancer, the less likely a pregnant woman is to undergo a Pap smear. This definitely contributed to the increased morbidity and mortality from this disease in this setting.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 14(5): 454-459, set.-out. 2008. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-496458

RESUMO

Embora os benefícios da aptidão física sobre a saúde e prevenção de doenças estejam amplamente relatados na literatura, existem poucas investigações sobre esse tema, principalmente com crianças e adolescentes. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os componentes de aptidão física relacionada à saúde (AFRS) de acordo com características como sexo, idade, rede de ensino (pública ou privada) e área geográfica (rural ou urbana), em indivíduos de sete a 15 anos de idade. Os dados coletados fazem parte do Projeto Esporte Brasil (Proesp-BR), e os componentes de AFRS avaliados foram: índice de massa corporal (IMC), flexibilidade (teste de "sentar-e-alcançar"), resistência muscular localizada (RML) (teste de abdominal em um minuto) e capacidade aeróbia (teste de corrida de nove minutos). A amostra foi composta por 665 escolares do ensino fundamental do município de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), selecionados de maneira aleatória. Para a comparação das médias das medidas e testes conforme as variáveis independentes, utilizou-se o método de regressão linear simples e multivariável. Dentre os principais achados, destaca-se que os componentes de AFRS estiveram mais associados com características biológicas (sexo e idade), sem diferenças expressivas por rede de ensino ou área geográfica da escola (indicadores de nível socioeconômico). Outros estudos são necessários para o estabelecimento de parâmetros de referência nacionais de AFRS de crianças e adolescentes.


Although the benefits of physical fitness on health and prevention of diseases are extensively reported in the literature, there are few investigations about this theme, mainly among children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the health-related physical fitness (HRPF) components according to characteristics such as sex, age, type of school (public or private) and geographic area of the school (urban or rural), in individuals aged 7-15 years. The data collected belong to the Projeto Esporte Brasil (Brazil Sport Project) (PROESP-BR), and the HRPF components assessed were: body mass index (BMI), flexibility ("sit-and-reach" test), localized muscular resistance (LMR) (one-minute sit-up test) and aerobic capacity (nine-minute running test). The sample comprised 665 students, randomly selected from elementary schools of the Rio Grande County, Brazil. To compare the means of the measures and the tests according to the independent variables, simple and multivariate linear regression was used. Amongst the main results, it can be emphasized that the HRPF components were more associated with biological characteristics (sex and age), with no expressive differences by type of school, nor by geography area of school (indicators of socioeconomic level). Further studies are needed for the establishment of national reference parameters of HRPF of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Atividade Motora , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Oper Dent ; 33(2): 121-6, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18435184

RESUMO

This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the visual assessment of tooth color using a commercial shade guide. Ninety-two individuals were randomly selected from subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing two formulations of carbamide peroxide. Initially, each individual had the color of his or her six maxillary anterior teeth (n=552) determined by one examiner using a digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade). Then, a visual assessment was made by two calibrated examiners using a shade guide (Vitapan Classical). Reliability was evaluated either by kappa coefficient when all the colors were grouped into two categories (dark and light) or by weighted kappa when all 16 colors of the shade guide were considered. The digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade) was used as the gold standard to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the visual assessment. The reliability of the visual assessment using two color categories was "substantial" (k=0.69). When all colors of the shade guide were considered, the reliability was "mild" (kw=0.33). Sensitivity and specificity of the visual assessment with respect to the gold standard was 86.9% and 81.9%, respectively. Despite its subjectivity, visual assessment of tooth color using the Vitapan Classical shade guide is a valid method, with good reliability for differentiating between dark and light colors.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peróxido de Carbamida , Cor , Dente Canino/anatomia & histologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxidantes/administração & dosagem , Oxidantes/uso terapêutico , Peróxidos/administração & dosagem , Peróxidos/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria , Descoloração de Dente/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/uso terapêutico
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 24(1): 113-21, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18209839

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe and compare the tricipital (TSF) and subscapular skinfold (SSF) thickness according to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological characteristics in adolescents from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort (n = 4,452; mean age = 11 years) was conducted. The outcomes were defined as skinfold thickness >or= 90th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics reference curve. The prevalence rates for elevated TSF and SSF were 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively, in boys and 14.2% and 10.5% in girls. The strongest factor associated with adiposity in boys was socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), whereas among girls it was maternal body mass index (p < 0.001). Low physical activity (< 300 minutes/week) was associated with elevated SSF only among girls, while schooling was associated with increased TSF and SSF only among boys. Diet, skin color, and sedentary behavior were not associated with any of the outcomes. We concluded that the main predictors of adiposity were maternal and socioeconomic characteristics. We recommend that further studies on this issue apply other methods to estimate body composition in order to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Pregas Cutâneas , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Pigmentação da Pele , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 24(1): 113-121, jan. 2008. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-471814

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar as pregas cutâneas triciptal (PCT) e subescapular (PCS) de acordo com características demográficas, sócio-econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas em adolescentes de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo transversal aninhado a uma coorte de nascimentos (N = 4.452; média de idade = 11 anos). Os desfechos foram apresentar prega cutânea maior ou igual ao percentil 90 da curva de referência do National Center for Health Statistics. A prevalência de PCT e PCS elevada foi, respectivamente, de 20,2 por cento e 17,3 por cento nos meninos e de 14,2 por cento e 10,5 por cento nas meninas. O fator mais fortemente associado com adiposidade nos meninos foi o nível econômico (p < 0,001) e entre as meninas foi o índice de massa corporal materno (p < 0,001). Baixo nível de atividade física (< 300 minutos/semana) esteve associado com PCS elevadas somente entre as meninas, enquanto que escolaridade se associou à PCT e PCS elevada somente entre os meninos. Dieta, cor da pele e comportamento sedentário não se associaram com nenhum dos desfechos. Concluiu-se que os principais preditores de adiposidade foram características maternas e sócio-econômicas. Recomendam-se investigações utilizando-se outras técnicas de composição corporal para confirmação dos achados deste estudo.


The objective of this study was to describe and compare the tricipital (TSF) and subscapular skinfold (SSF) thickness according to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological characteristics in adolescents from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort (n = 4,452; mean age = 11 years) was conducted. The outcomes were defined as skinfold thickness > 90th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics reference curve. The prevalence rates for elevated TSF and SSF were 20.2 percent and 17.3 percent, respectively, in boys and 14.2 percent and 10.5 percent in girls. The strongest factor associated with adiposity in boys was socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), whereas among girls it was maternal body mass index (p < 0.001). Low physical activity (< 300 minutes/week) was associated with elevated SSF only among girls, while schooling was associated with increased TSF and SSF only among boys. Diet, skin color, and sedentary behavior were not associated with any of the outcomes. We concluded that the main predictors of adiposity were maternal and socioeconomic characteristics. We recommend that further studies on this issue apply other methods to estimate body composition in order to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Antropometria , Comportamento Alimentar , Atividade Motora , Obesidade , Pregas Cutâneas , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 10(3): 301-307, 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-489581

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca dos estudos que investigaram os estágios de mudança de comportamento para a prática de atividades físicas em adultos. Para isto, foi efetuada uma pesquisa nas seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas: Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. Os descritores utilizados foram: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combinados com “physical activity” ou “exercise”. Quando apropriado, empregaram-se seus termos correspondentes em português. Foram selecionados apenas artigos originais ou de revisão que tratassem sobre o assunto, sendo excluídos outros tipos de trabalhos. Os pontos discutidos neste artigo abordam os tópicos a seguir: origem e evolução dos estágios; formas de operacionalização e de análise dos estágios; validade e reprodutibilidade dos instrumentos utilizados para medir os estágios; e os fatores associados aos estágios. Conclui-se, ressaltando a importância do modelo dos estágios de mudança de comportamento para promover a prática de atividade física na população.


The aim of the present study was to carry out a review of the literature about studies that investigated the stages of change for physical activity among adults. The search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Medline/ Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. The terms used were: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combined with “physical activity” or “exercise”; when appropriated, the equivalent terms in Portuguese were used. Only original or reviews articles were selected, and other type of works were excluded. The issues discussed in this article addressed the background and the temporal evolution of the stages of change, ways of operationalize and analyze the stages, validity and reliability of the instruments applied to measure the stages, and the factors associated with the stages. In conclusion, the importance of the stages of change model to promote physical activity practice was highlighted.

20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 41(3): 453-60, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17516000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central and High Wire), non-indexed Brazilian journals, query by specific authors, and contact with other researchers. The inclusion criteria were: the sample should be representative of a defined population; sample size equal to or greater than 500 individuals; data collection in Brazil; measurement of physical activity; and report of data on this variable. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies were reviewed. The first study was published in 1990, and there has been a clear growth in the number of publications since 2000. Great regional disparities were seen and most studies were carried out in the Southeast and South regions. Almost all studies (93%) used questionnaires but operational definitions of sedentary lifestyle and questionnaires used varied markedly across studies preventing result comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Although the literature on physical activity in Brazil has quantitatively increased, methodological limitations make it difficult to compare study results. Therefore, standardization of instruments and definitions is essential for the improvement of scientific knowledge in the area.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bibliometria , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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