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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645608

RESUMO

CD271 (NGFR) is a neurotrophin receptor that belongs to the tumor necrosis receptor (TNFR) family. Upon ligand binding, CD271 can mediate either survival or cell death. While the role of CD271 as a marker of tumor-initiating cells is still a matter of debate, its role in melanoma progression has been well documented. Moreover, CD271 has been shown to be upregulated after exposure to both chemotherapy and targeted therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of CD271 by a short ß-amyloid-derived peptide (Aß(25-35)) in combination with either chemotherapy or MAPK inhibitors induces apoptosis in 2D and 3D cultures of 8 melanoma cell lines. This combinatorial treatment significantly reduced metastasis in a zebrafish xenograft model and led to significantly decreased tumor volume in mice. Administration of Aß(25-35) in ex vivo tumors from immunotherapy- and targeted therapy-resistant patients significantly reduced proliferation of melanoma cells, showing that activation of CD271 can overcome drug resistance. Aß(25-35) was specific to CD271-expressing cells and induced CD271 cleavage and phosphorylation of JNK (pJNK). The direct protein-protein interaction of pJNK with CD271 led to PARP1 cleavage, p53 and caspase activation, and pJNK-dependent cell death. Aß(25-35) also mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) accumulation, which induced CD271 overexpression. Finally, CD271 upregulation inhibited mROS production, revealing the presence of a negative feedback loop in mROS regulation. These results indicate that targeting CD271 can activate cell death pathways to inhibit melanoma progression and potentially overcome resistance to targeted therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sonidegib is a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor approved to treat locally advanced basal cell carcinoma and, depending on regulatory approval, metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Results from the BOLT study demonstrated robust efficacy and continued tolerability through 42 months. This analysis evaluated the impact of sonidegib dose reductions and interruptions in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma through 42 months. METHODS: BOLT was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase 2 study. Adults with no previous Hedgehog pathway inhibitor therapy were randomized 1:2 to sonidegib 200 or 800 mg once daily. Primary endpoint was objective response rate. Dose modifications were permitted in patients unable to tolerate the dosing schedule or if a treatment-related adverse event was suspected. RESULTS: The incidence of dose interruptions was similar between the 200- and 800-mg groups (68.4% vs 65.3%, respectively). Dose reductions occurred more frequently in patients receiving sonidegib 800 mg (36.7%) than 200 mg (16.5%). Overall response rate for all patients receiving sonidegib 200 mg daily was 48.1% and was similar to those of patients without dose reduction or interruption (48.5%) and patients with at least one dose reduction or interruption (46.2%). CONCLUSION: Dose reductions and interruptions were practical and did not impact the efficacy of sonidegib. In patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma who necessitate long-term treatment, dose interruptions may be beneficial for continued treatment and disease control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01327053.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(13): 1196-1206, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is a disease that is distinct from cutaneous melanoma, with a low tumor mutational burden and a 1-year overall survival of approximately 50% in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Data showing a proven overall survival benefit with a systemic treatment are lacking. Tebentafusp is a bispecific protein consisting of an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor fused to an anti-CD3 effector that can redirect T cells to target glycoprotein 100-positive cells. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned previously untreated HLA-A*02:01-positive patients with metastatic uveal melanoma in a 2:1 ratio to receive tebentafusp (tebentafusp group) or the investigator's choice of therapy with single-agent pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, or dacarbazine (control group), stratified according to the lactate dehydrogenase level. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 378 patients were randomly assigned to either the tebentafusp group (252 patients) or the control group (126 patients). Overall survival at 1 year was 73% in the tebentafusp group and 59% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.71; P<0.001) in the intention-to-treat population. Progression-free survival was also significantly higher in the tebentafusp group than in the control group (31% vs. 19% at 6 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.94; P = 0.01). The most common treatment-related adverse events in the tebentafusp group were cytokine-mediated events (due to T-cell activation) and skin-related events (due to glycoprotein 100-positive melanocytes), including rash (83%), pyrexia (76%), and pruritus (69%). These adverse events decreased in incidence and severity after the first three or four doses and infrequently led to discontinuation of the trial treatment (2%). No treatment-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with tebentafusp resulted in longer overall survival than the control therapy among previously untreated patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. (Funded by Immunocore; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03070392; EudraCT number, 2015-003153-18.).

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 214-224, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have activity across many tumor types, but activation of the immune system may also lead to significant, often steroid-refractory immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We sought to determine the activity of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, in treatment or prevention of auto-immune irAE in ICI-treated patients. METHODS: Institutional databases from 2 melanoma centers were reviewed for patients treated with ICIs and tocilizumab. Longitudinal assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) and assessment of clinical improvement or prevention of flare of pre-existing auto-immune conditions were utilised to evaluate the benefit of tocilizumab. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were identified. Two were treated prophylactically. Twenty were treated for management of irAEs. Median time to irAE onset from ICI start was 48 days (range 8-786) and from irAE onset to tocilizumab 32 days (range 1-192). Median time to irAE resolution from tocilizumab was 6.5 days (range 1-93). Clinical improvement/benefit was demonstrated in 21/22 patients. Median CRP prior to ICI administration was 32 mg/l (range 0.3-99), at the onset of irAE 49.5 mg/L (range 0.3-251, P = 0.047) and after tocilizumab 18 mg/L (range 0.3-18, P = 0.0011). Tocilizumab was well tolerated with self-limiting and transient toxicities in 11 (50%) patients. From start of ICI, median progression-free survival was 6 months (range 3.9-18.8) and median overall survival was not reached. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab was a well-tolerated and effective steroid-sparing treatment for both management of irAEs, as well as prevention of flare of pre-existing auto-immune disorders. Prospective trials to evaluate its efficacy and impact on cancer outcomes compared with standard strategies are required.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507350

RESUMO

The primary analysis of the phase 3 ALCANZA trial showed significantly-improved objective responses lasting ≥4 months (ORR4; primary endpoint) and progression-free survival (PFS) with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice (methotrexate or bexarotene) in CD30-expressing mycosis fungoides (MF) or primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (C-ALCL). Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas often cause pruritus and pain; brentuximab vedotin improved skin symptom burden with no negative effects on quality of life. We report final data from ALCANZA (median follow-up 45.9 months). Adults with previously treated CD30-expressing MF/C-ALCL were randomized to brentuximab vedotin (n = 64) or physician's choice (n = 64). Final data demonstrated improved responses per independent review facility with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice: ORR4, 54.7% vs 12.5% (P < .001); complete response, 17.2% vs 1.6% (P = .002). Median PFS with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice was 16.7 months vs 3.5 months (P< .001). Median time to next treatment was significantly longer with brentuximab vedotin than with physician's choice (14.2 vs 5.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42; P < .001). Of 44 patients in the brentuximab vedotin arm who experienced any-grade peripheral neuropathy (PN), (grade 3, n = 6; grade 4, n = 0), 86% (38/44) had complete resolution (26/44) or improvement to grade 1-2 (12/44). PN was ongoing in 18 patients (all grade 1-2). These final analyses confirm improved, clinically meaningful, durable responses and longer PFS with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice in CD30-expressing MF or C-ALCL. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01578499 as #NCT01578499.

7.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446805

RESUMO

CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T cells can be regarded as one of the most relevant predictive biomarkers in immune-oncology. Highly infiltrated tumors, referred to as inflamed (clinically "hot"), show the most favorable response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in contrast to tumors with a scarce immune infiltrate called immune desert or excluded (clinically "cold"). Nevertheless, quantitative and reproducible methods examining their prevalence within tumors are lacking. We therefore established a computational diagnostic algorithm to quantitatively measure spatial densities of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells by digital pathology within the three known tumor compartments as recommended by the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group in 116 prospective metastatic melanomas of the Swiss Tumor Profiler cohort. Workflow robustness was confirmed in 33 samples of an independent retrospective validation cohort. The introduction of the intratumoral tumor center compartment proved to be most relevant for establishing an immune diagnosis in metastatic disease, independent of metastatic site. Cut-off values for reproducible classification were defined and successfully assigned densities into the respective immune diagnostic category in the validation cohort with high sensitivity, specificity, and precision. We provide a robust diagnostic algorithm based on intratumoral and stromal CD8+ T-cell densities in the tumor center compartment that translates spatial densities of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells into the clinically relevant immune diagnostic categories "inflamed", "excluded", and "desert". The consideration of the intratumoral tumor center compartment allows immune phenotyping in the clinically highly relevant setting of metastatic lesions, even if the invasive margin compartment is not captured in biopsy material.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5056, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417458

RESUMO

Melanoma cells rely on developmental programs during tumor initiation and progression. Here we show that the embryonic stem cell (ESC) factor Sall4 is re-expressed in the Tyr::NrasQ61K; Cdkn2a-/- melanoma model and that its expression is necessary for primary melanoma formation. Surprisingly, while Sall4 loss prevents tumor formation, it promotes micrometastases to distant organs in this melanoma-prone mouse model. Transcriptional profiling and in vitro assays using human melanoma cells demonstrate that SALL4 loss induces a phenotype switch and the acquisition of an invasive phenotype. We show that SALL4 negatively regulates invasiveness through interaction with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 and direct co-binding to a set of invasiveness genes. Consequently, SALL4 knock down, as well as HDAC inhibition, promote the expression of an invasive signature, while inhibition of histone acetylation partially reverts the invasiveness program induced by SALL4 loss. Thus, SALL4 appears to regulate phenotype switching in melanoma through an HDAC2-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Adesão Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Micrometástase de Neoplasia , Ligação Proteica , Carga Tumoral
9.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 61, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446710

RESUMO

Primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphomas that present in the skin with no evidence of extracutaneous disease at the time of diagnosis. CTCL subtypes demonstrate a variety of clinical, histological, and molecular features, and can follow an indolent or a very aggressive course. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet entirely understood. The pathophysiology of CTCL is complex and a single initiating factor has not yet been identified. Diagnosis is based on clinicopathological correlation and requires an interdisciplinary team. Treatment decision is made based on short-term and long-term goals. Therapy options comprise skin-directed therapies, such as topical steroids or phototherapy, and systemic therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies or chemotherapy. So far, the only curative treatment approach is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Novel therapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells, monoclonal antibodies or small molecules, are being investigated in clinical trials. Patients with CTCL have reduced quality of life and a lack of effective treatment options. Further research is needed to better identify the underlying mechanisms of CTCL development and course as well as to better tailor treatment strategies to individual patients.

10.
Eur J Cancer ; 156: 149-163, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have a poor prognosis. Systemic treatments that have improved outcomes in advanced melanoma have been shown to have an intracranial (IC) effect. We studied the efficacy and outcomes of combined immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab/nivolumab (Combi-ICI) or targeted therapy (Combi-TT) as first-line treatment in MBM. METHODS: MBM patients treated with Combi-ICI or Combi-TT within 3 months after MBM diagnosis. Endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: 53 patients received Combi-ICI, 32% had symptomatic MBM and 33.9% elevated LDH. 71.7% required local treatment. The disease control rate was 60.3%. IC response rate (RR) was 43.8% at 3-months with durable responses at 6- (46.5%) and 12-months (53.1%). Extracranial (EC) RR was 44.7% at 3-months and 50% at 12-months. Median PFS was 9.6 months (95% CI 3.6-NR) and median overall survival (mOS) 44.8 months (95% CI; 26.2-NR). 63 patients received Combi-TT, 55.6% of patients had symptomatic MBM, 57.2% of patients had elevated LDH and 68.3% of patients required local treatment. The disease control rate was 60.4%. ICRR was 50% at 3-months, but dropped at 6-months (20.9%). ECRR was 69.2% at 3-months and 17.6% at 12-months. Median PFS was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.2-7.6) and mOS 14.2 months (95% CI 8.99-26.8). In BRAFV600 patients, 26.7% of patients received Combi-ICI and 73.3% Combi-TT with OS (p = 0.0053) and mPFS (p = 0.03) in favour to Combi-ICI. CONCLUSION: Combi-ICI showed prolonged mOS with sustainable IC and EC responses. Despite the initially increased efficacy, Combi-TT responses at 12 months were low. Combi-ICI appeared superior to Combi-TT for OS and PFS in BRAFV600 patients. Other clinical factors are determinants for first-line treatment choice.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359730

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate, whether 18F-2-fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans performed at baseline (time point 0; TP 0) and three months after initiation of immunotherapy (time point 1; TP 1) can be used on a metastasis- and patient-level to predict the response to immune-checkpoint inhibition using FDG-PET/CT six months after treatment start (time point 2; TP 2) in metastatic melanoma patients. This single-center retrospective study considered metastatic melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition from TP 0 to TP 2. An analysis on a metastasis- and patient-level was carried out. Tumor volume, standardized uptake values SUV (mean, maximum, and peak), metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of each included metastasis were recorded at each time point, respectively TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Total tumor volume, total metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis per patient were also calculated at TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Treatment response was assessed at metastasis- and patient-level based on FDG-PET/CT scans at TP 2. 612 melanoma metastases in 111 patients were included. The analysis on a metastasis-level showed that metastatic SUVpeak at TP 1 and volume variation between TP 0 and TP 1 were the strongest negative predictive biomarkers for response. However, at TP 0, metastatic SUVmean and SUVpeak indicated a low negative prediction power, whereas initial metastatic volume was not a predictive biomarker. Also, melanoma metastases located in bone structures had a negative influence on the outcome at TP 2, particularly in women. The analysis on a patient-level showed, that total tumor volume, total metastatic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis of all metastases three months after treatment initiation were strong negative predictive biomarkers for response to immunotherapy six months after initiation. Age and female sex were also found to be negative predictive biomarkers with lower predictive power. Interestingly, total tumor volume at TP 0 and number of metastases at TP 0 as well as the occurrence of early immune-related adverse events between TP 0 and TP 2 did not have any predictive value for early treatment response. FDG-PET/CT performed for treatment response assessment three months after initiation of immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma patients can also be used to predict early response to treatment. On a metastasis-level SUV peak and volume variation of metastases are strong outcome predictive biomarkers. On a patient-level total tumor volume and semiquantitative parameters such as total metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of all metastases are promising outcome predictive biomarkers. Also, early complete response on a metastasis- and patient-level seems to be predictive for lasting complete response.

13.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405807

RESUMO

Skin cancer is the most common malignancy with rising incidence. Although early detection can be lifesaving, prevention programmes are under-utilized. In 2008, a group of board-certified dermatologists in Switzerland established a website aimed at educating about skin cancer risk factors and providing guidance on self-assessment. To present the data of this programme over the last 10 years with regards to representation of the targeted groups and sustained impact on primary skin cancer prevention. A comprehensive web-based health promotion campaign was established for education and guidance on self-assessment. Teledermatological evaluation was offered and participants were then interviewed. In total, 11,171 digital photos were evaluated during 2008-2018; 54.3% (n = 6,067) from females and 45.7% (n = 5,104) from males. In 26.7% (n = 2,983), clinical examination was recommended. Of the participants, 1,874 replied revealing 103 malignancies (9.2% of the lesions were presented to a physician): 34 melanomas in situ, six squamous cell carcinomas, 53 basal cell carcinomas and 10 malignant lesions (not further specified). Of the participants, 40.5% (n = 683) changed their attitude towards sun exposure, 48.7% (n = 820) used more sunscreen, and 57.5% (n = 966) improved sunscreen measures. Web-based educational programmes raise public awareness, enhance prevention, and support early diagnosis of skin cancer. Teledermatology might contribute to reducing skin cancer mortality rates.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202213

RESUMO

Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) are rare tumors developing in chronically sun-exposed skin. Clinicopathological features are similar, but they differ in prognosis, while PDS has a more aggressive course with a higher risk for local recurrence and metastases. In current clinical practice, they are diagnosed by exclusion using immunohistochemistry. Thus, stringent diagnostic criteria and correct differentiation are critical in management and treatment for optimal outcomes. This retrospective single-center study collected clinicopathological data and tumor samples of 10 AFX and 18 PDS. Extracted genomic DNA from tumor specimens was analyzed by a next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform (FoundationOne-CDx™). Among 65 identified mutations, TP53 inactivating mutations were observed in all tumor specimens. In both AFX and PDS, the known pathogenic gene alterations in CDKN2A, TERT promoter, and NOTCH1 were frequently present, along with high mutational burden and stable Micro-Satellite Instability status. The mutational profiles differed only in ASXL1, which was only present in AFX. Further differences were identified in likely pathogenic and unknown gene alterations. Similarities in their genomic signatures could help to distinguish them from other malignancies, but they are not distinguishable between each other using the FoundationOne-CDx™ NGS panel. Therefore, histological criteria to determine diagnosis remain valid. For further insight, performing deep tumor profiling may be necessary.

15.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 278, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193182

RESUMO

Advances in immune checkpoint therapy and targeted therapy have led to improvement in overall survival for patients with advanced melanoma. Single agent checkpoint PD-1 blockade and combination with BRAF/MEK targeted therapy demonstrated benefit in overall survival (OS). Superior response rates have been demonstrated with combined PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade, with a significant OS benefit compared with single-agent PD-1 blockade. Despite the progress in diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, correct classification of patients, selection of appropriate adjuvant and systemic therapies, and prediction of response to therapy remain real challenges in melanoma. Improved understanding of the tumor microenvironment, tumor immunity and response to therapy has prompted extensive translational and clinical research in melanoma. Development of novel biomarker platforms may help to improve diagnostics and predictive accuracy for selection of patients for specific treatment. There is a growing evidence that genomic and immune features of pre-treatment tumor biopsies may correlate with response in patients with melanoma and other cancers but they have yet to be fully characterized and implemented clinically. Overall, the progress in melanoma therapeutics and translational research will help to optimize treatment regimens to overcome resistance and develop robust biomarkers to guide clinical decision-making. During the Melanoma Bridge meeting (December 3rd-5th, 2020, Italy) we reviewed the currently approved systemic and local therapies for advanced melanoma and discussed novel biomarker strategies and advances in precision medicine.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Melanoma , Humanos , Itália , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208218

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which may result in treatment discontinuation. We sought to describe the onset, frequency, and kinetics of irAEs in melanoma patients in a real-life setting and to further investigate the prognostic role of irAEs in treatment outcomes. In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we included 249 melanoma patients. Onset, grade, and resolution of irAEs and their treatment were analyzed. A total of 191 (74.6%) patients in the non-adjuvant and 65 (25.3%) in the adjuvant treatment setting were identified. In the non-adjuvant setting, 29 patients (59.2%) with anti-CTLA4, 43 (58.1%) with anti-PD1, and 54 (79.4%) with anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 experienced some grade of irAE and these had an improved outcome. In the adjuvant setting, the frequency of irAEs was 84.6% in anti-CTLA4 and 63.5% in anti-PD1, but no correlation with disease relapse was observed. Patients with underlying autoimmune conditions have a risk of disease exacerbation. Immunomodulatory agents had no impact on treatment efficacy. IrAEs are correlated with increased treatment efficacy in the non-adjuvant setting. Application of steroids and immunomodulatory agents, such as anti-TNF-alpha or anti-IL6, did not affect ICI efficacy. These data support irAEs as possible prognostic markers for ICI treatment.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 234-241, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dabrafenib plus trametinib has demonstrated clinical benefit across multiple BRAF-mutant tumours, leading to approval for resected stage III and metastatic melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Pyrexia is a common adverse event in patients treated with dabrafenib plus trametinib. Here, we characterise the incidence, patterns and management of pyrexia in patients receiving dabrafenib plus trametinib in clinical trials. METHODS: Patients (N = 1076) included in the analysis received dabrafenib plus trametinib in the following clinical trials: phase II registration trial in advanced NSCLC (N = 82), phase III COMBI-AD study in resectable stage III melanoma (N = 435) and phase III COMBI-d and COMBI-v studies in unresectable or metastatic melanoma (N = 209 and N = 350, respectively). RESULTS: Among the 1076 patients enrolled in the clinical trials, 61.3% developed pyrexia, 5.7% developed grade 3/4 pyrexia and 15.6% developed a protocol-defined serious pyrexia event. Among the 660 patients with pyrexia, 33.0% had 1 occurrence, 19.8% had 2 occurrences and 47.1% had ≥3 occurrences. The incidence of pyrexia was highest early in treatment and decreased with time on treatment. Temporary dose interruption of dabrafenib or trametinib was the most common and effective management strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Pyrexia is the most common adverse event associated with dabrafenib plus trametinib but is manageable with dose interruption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (Phase II NSCLC, NCT01336634; COMBI-AD, NCT01682083; COMBI-d, NCT01584648; COMBI-v, NCT01597908).

18.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of 18F-2-Fluor-2-desoxy-D-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography FDG-PET/CT in clinical routine for staging, treatment response monitoring and post treatment surveillance in metastatic melanoma patients has noticeably increased due to significant improvement of the overall survival rate in melanoma patients. However, determining the dignity of the findings with increased metabolic activity on FDG-PET/CT can be sometimes challenging and may need further investigation. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the malignancy rate of indeterminate findings on FDG-PET/CT in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study included cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT in clinical routine between 2015 and 2017 with findings reported as indeterminate and therefore requiring further evaluation. The dignity of the included findings was determined by subsequent imaging and, if required, additional histopathology. The impact of the outcome on the clinical management was also reported. RESULTS: A total of 842 FDG-PET/CT reports of 244 metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients were reviewed. Sixty indeterminate findings were included. Almost half of all indeterminate findings were lymph nodes, lung nodules and cerebral lesions. In total, 43.3% of all included findings proved to be malignant. 81% of all malignant lesions were metastases of cutaneous melanoma, while 19% of all malignant lesions could be attributed to other primary malignancies, such as lung, breast, thyroid and colorectal cancers. Malignant findings influenced clinical management in 60% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Indeterminate findings on FDG-PET/CT in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients should be further investigated. Almost one out of every two indeterminate findings on FDG-PET/CT is malignant. The majority of the findings are melanoma manifestations, however, in a significant percentage, other primary tumors are found. Upon verification, patient management is changed in most cases.

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066913

RESUMO

Lung nodules are frequent findings in chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with metastatic melanoma. In this study, we assessed the frequency and compared morphologic differences of metastases and benign nodules. We retrospectively evaluated 85 patients with melanoma (AJCC stage III or IV). Inclusion criteria were ≤20 lung nodules and follow-up using CT ≥183 days after baseline. Lung nodules were evaluated for size and morphology. Nodules with significant growth, nodule regression in line with RECIST assessment or histologic confirmation were judged to be metastases. A total of 438 lung nodules were evaluated, of which 68% were metastases. At least one metastasis was found in 78% of patients. A 10 mm diameter cut-off (used for RECIST) showed a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 20% for diagnosing metastases. Central location (n = 122) was more common in metastatic nodules (p = 0.009). Subsolid morphology (n = 53) was more frequent (p < 0.001), and calcifications (n = 13) were solely found in non-metastatic lung nodules (p < 0.001). Our data show that lung nodules are prevalent in about two-thirds of melanoma patients (AJCC stage III/IV) and the majority are metastases. Even though we found a few morphologic indicators for metastatic or non-metastatic lung nodules, morphology has limited value to predict the presence of lung metastases.

20.
STAR Protoc ; 2(2): 100581, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151301

RESUMO

High cell viability and recovered cell concentration are typical quality control requirements for single-cell processing and quality data. This protocol describes procedures for sampling, live-cell biobanking, preprocessing for single-cell RNA sequencing, and analysis of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples of the skin. The minimally invasive nature of FNA collection is more accepted by patients and allows for frequent longitudinal sampling, resulting in high-quality single-cell sequencing data that capture cellular heterogeneity in clinical samples.

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