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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1596, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005901

RESUMO

Diabetes has been associated with cognitive changes and an increased risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, but it is unclear whether there are associations between diabetes and early alterations in cognitive performance. The present study consisted of a cross-section analysis of 14,444 participants aged 35-74 years and from a developing country at baseline in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil); these participants were recruited between 2008 and 2010. We investigated whether there was an association between diabetes and early changes in the cognitive performance of this Brazilian population. To assess cognitive domains, we used the word-list learning, word-list delayed recall and word recognition tests along. Phonemic verbal fluency tests included semantic phonemic test (animals) and a phonemic test (words beginning with the letter F). Executive functions associated with attention, concentration and psychomotor speed were evaluated using the Trail Making Test B. The exposure variable in the study was defined as diabetes. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between diabetes and cognitive performance. The results were adjusted for age, sex, education, hypertension, coronary disease, depression, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the cholesterol/HDL-C ratio. We found a significant association between diabetes and decreased memory, language and executive function (attention, concentration and psychomotor speed) performance in this population from a country with a distinct epidemiological profile, even after adjusting for the main intervening variables.

2.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(1): 68-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740697

RESUMO

The degree to which weight reduction leads to the remission of hypertension in population studies is not clear. We investigated whether the changes in adiposity measures predicted the remission of hypertension in a racially admixed population over a mean 4-year follow-up. All 4847 hypertensive individuals at baseline (2008-2010) from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were included. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), or body mass index (BMI) (reduction or increase ≥5% from baseline values, vs stability) and remission of hypertension (SBP < 140 and DBP < 90 mmHg and no use of antihypertensive medication at follow-up visit, in 2012-2014) were investigated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Proportional attributable benefit was additionally calculated. Analyses were stratified by sex and antihypertensive medication use at baseline. Remission of hypertension was 11.3% (n = 546). Among men, after adjustments, the reduction of weight (OR = 1.52 95% CI 1.10-2.10), WC (OR = 1.56 95% CI 1.04-2.35) or BMI (OR = 1.60 95% CI 1.13-2.27) was associated with the remission of hypertension. Among those not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, after adjustments, the reduction of weight (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.18-2.27), WC (OR = 1.76 95% CI 1.18-2.61) or BMI (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.10-2.25) was associated with the remission of hypertension. Proportional attributable benefit among those with adiposity reduction was about 30%, indicating its potential for prevention. In conclusion, our study reinforces the role of adiposity-reducing strategies (e.g., healthy diet and regular physical activity) for the treatment and prevention of hypertension, which might have potential applications for clinical practice.

3.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(5): 804-811.e2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Martin/Hopkins low-density lipoprotein cholesterol equation (LDL-CN) was previously demonstrated as more accurate than Friedewald LDL-C estimation (LDL-CF) in a North American database not able to take race into account. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that LDL-CN would be more accurate than LDL-CF and correlate better with LDL particle number (LDL-P) in a racially diverse Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 4897 participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, assessing LDL-CF and LDL-CN accuracy via overlap with ultracentrifugation-based measurement among clinical guideline LDL-C categories as well as mg/dL and percent error differences. We analyzed by triglyceride categories and correlated LDL-C estimation with LDL-P. RESULTS: LDL-CN demonstrated improved accuracy at 70 to <100 and <70 mg/dL (P < .001), with large errors ≥20 mg/dL about 9 times more frequent in LDL-CF at LDL-C <70 mg/dL, mainly due to underestimation. Among individuals with LDL-C <70 mg/dL and triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, 65% vs 100% of ultracentrifugation-based low-density lipoprotein cholesterol calculation fell within appropriate categories of estimated LDL-CF and LDL-CN, respectively (P < .001). Similar results were observed when analyzed for age, sex, and race. Participants at LDL-C <70 and 70 to <100 mg/dL with discordantly elevated LDL-CN vs LDL-CF had a 58.5% and 41.5% higher LDL-P than those with concordance (P < .0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse Brazilian cohort, LDL-CN was more accurate than LDL-CF at low LDL-C and high triglycerides. LDL-CN may avoid underestimation of LDL-C and better reflect atherogenic lipid burden in low particle size, high particle count states.

4.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(7): e3175, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062488

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether heart rate variability (HRV) is a predictor for the incidence of diabetes in a 4-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HRV of 9192 participants free of diabetes was analysed in time and frequency domains and stratified based on the reference values presented in the literature. The participants were then allocated to one of three groups, according to age-specific value distributions for each HRV domain: lower than the 25th percentile, between the 25th and 75th percentiles, and higher than the 75th percentile. The association between HRV and diabetes incidence at 4-year follow-up was analysed using Poisson regression models with robust estimator. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-four participants (6.90%) developed diabetes within 4 years and five out of six HRV analysed indices showed increased relative risk of developing diabetes associated with low HRV: SDNN (RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09-1.52; .003), pNN50 (RR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11-1.58; .001), RMSSD (RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09-1.53; .004), LF (RR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48; .012), and HF (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16-1.63; .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that both overall variability and changes in parasympathetic modulation precede the incidence of diabetes. For four HRV indices below the 25th percentile, the risk for incident diabetes was 68% higher than for those participants who presented none. We concluded that HRV is an independent risk predictor of diabetes in a 4-year period.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216653, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095585

RESUMO

Ethnic-racial classification criteria are widely recognized to vary according to historical, cultural and political contexts. In Brazil, the strong influence of individual socio-economic factors on race/colour self-classification is well known. With the expansion of genomic technologies, the use of genomic ancestry has been suggested as a substitute for classification procedures such as self-declaring race, as if they represented the same concept. We investigated the association between genomic ancestry, the racial composition of census tracts and individual socioeconomic factors and self-declared race/colour in a cohort of 15,105 Brazilians. Results show that the probability of self-declaring as black or brown increases according to the proportion of African ancestry and varies widely among cities. In Porto Alegre, where most of the population is white, with every 10% increase in the proportion of African ancestry, the odds of self-declaring as black increased 14 times (95%CI 6.08-32.81). In Salvador, where most of the population is black or brown, that increase was of 3.98 times (95%CI 2.96-5.35). The racial composition of the area of residence was also associated with the probability of self-declaring as black or brown. Every 10% increase in the proportion of black and brown inhabitants in the residential census tract increased the odds of self-declaring as black by 1.33 times (95%CI 1.24-1.42). Ancestry alone does not explain self-declared race/colour. An emphasis on multiple situational contexts (both individual and collective) provides a more comprehensive framework for the study of the predictors of self-declared race/colour, a highly relevant construct in many different scenarios, such as public policy, sociology and medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Brasil , Cidades/etnologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 11: 23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867683

RESUMO

Background: The aims of this study were to estimate the mortality due to diabetes mellitus attributed to physical inactivity in Brazil, to analyze these estimate in three points in time (1990, 2006 and, 2016), and to analyze these estimates according to the socioeconomic status of Brazilian states. Methods: All deaths and diseases recorded in Brazil during this period were analyzed. Surveys of the general adult population using random sampling procedures evaluating self-reported physical activity in all life domains in Brazil were included. The total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths, and population-attributable fraction (PAF) for diabetes mellitus attributed to physical inactivity in the years 1990, 2006, and 2016 were estimated. Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI) was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status of Brazilian states. Results: In relation to mortality due to diabetes mellitus attributed to physical inactivity, 736 deaths were estimated in 1990, 1337 deaths were estimated in 2006, and 1897 in 2016, which represented, in 1990, an age-standardized mortality rate (per 100,000 inhabitants) of 1.2, 2.1 in 2006, and 1.1 in 2016. Approximately 3.0% (PAF) of deaths due to diabetes mellitus could be avoided if the Brazilian population were physically active. In 2006 and 2016, Brazilian states with worst socioeconomic indicators had higher age-standardized mortality rate by diabetes mellitus due to physical inactivity. Conclusion: These findings are the first to estimate the burden of diabetes mellitus due to physical inactivity in Brazil and support the promotion of physical activity in the Brazilian population to prevent and manage diabetes mellitus.

8.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(4): 502-509, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861624

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor, predicting cardiovascular mortality in the general population. High salt consumption is a major contributor of increased BP and hypertension. However, there is a controversy on whether BP response to salt intake would be sex-specific. Thus, we aimed to verify the changes in BP according to different salt intake in men and women in a large sample of adults. The present analysis refers to 12 813 participants (from 35 to 64 years) with a validated 12-hour overnight urine collection in which salt intake was estimated. A set of questionnaires, clinical examination, and laboratory tests were carried out during a single visit to one of the six investigation centers involved. Salt intake was 12.9 ± 5.9 g/d in men and 9.3 ± 4.3 g/d in women. BP increases as salt intake increases, regardless of using BP-lowering medication. The slope of increase in BP elicited by salt intake was significantly higher in women than in men. Thus, the increase in BP by salt intake was stepper in women even after controlling for confounders, regardless of using BP-lowering medication or being hypertensive. In conclusion, salt intake is elevated in this large sample of Brazilian adults in which only a few participants are compliant with the recommendation. Also, women have a higher responsiveness of BP according to salt intake than men, and it is not associated with age, BP level, or the use of BP-lowering medication.

9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(4): 267-277, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of diabetes is increasing worldwide and diabetes can be prevented with intervention in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Intermediate hyperglycaemia defined without an oral glucose tolerance test as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and high HbA1c are also used to characterise risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic properties of five definitions of intermediate hyperglycaemia (also known as prediabetes) on the basis of their ability to predict who will progress to diabetes. METHODS: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is an occupational cohort study of active or retired civil servants, aged 35-74 years, recruited from public universities and research institutes in six state capital cities in Brazil. We excluded participants who provided insufficient information to ascertain diabetes status, those without information on relevant covariates, and those with diabetes. We classified type 2 diabetes on the basis of self-report, medication use, measures of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose, and HbA1c. We used five laboratory definitions of intermediate hyperglycaemia: IGT (2 h plasma glucose ≥7·8 mmol/L [≥140 mg/dL]); IFG based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (FPG ≥5·5 mmol/L [≥100 mg/dL]); IFG based on WHO criteria (FPG ≥6·1 mmol/L [≥110 mg/dL]); HbA1c based on ADA criteria (HbA1c ≥39 mmol/mol [5·7%]); and HbA1c based on International Expert Committee criteria, IEC-HbA1c, (HbA1c ≥42 mmol/mol [6·0%]). We estimated risk of each definition using Cox regression and overall predictability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) using logistic regression. FINDINGS: We recruited 15 105 participants from Aug 18, 2008, to Dec 20, 2010, and followed up for a mean of 3·7 (SD 0·63) years. Diabetes incidence rate was 2·0 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1·8-2·1). Among the 11 199 eligible participants, 6563 (59%) presented with some form of intermediate hyperglycaemia. ADA-IFG (4870/11 199 [43·5%), IEC-HbA1c (1005 [9·0%]), and ADA-HbA1c (2299 [20·5%]) poorly predicted diabetes (3·5-3·6 per 100 person-years). WHO-IFG (1140 [10·2%]) and IGT (2245 [20·0%]) predicted greater conversion (7·5 per 100 person-years and 5·8 per 100 person-years, respectively). All definitions presented either low sensitivity or specificity. Combinations of tests improved prognostic properties, with the combination of IGT or WHO-IFG showing the best, but still insufficient, predictability (sensitivity 67·7%, 95% CI 64·5-70·1; specificity 77·9%, 77·1-78·7). The AUC for the three underlying glycaemic tests was 65·0% (95% CI 63·0-66·9) for HbA1c, 74·6% (72·7-76·4) for FPG, and 77·1% (75·4-78·8) for 2 h plasma glucose, whereas the AUC for a score composed of clinical information was 71·6% (69·8-73·3). When this score was combined with results of an oral glucose tolerance test, the AUC reached 82·4% (80·9-83·9). INTERPRETATION: IFG based on WHO criteria and IGT predict diabetes progression better than do the other three definitions of intermediate hyperglycaemia, but their sensitivity is low. IFG based on ADA criteria has better sensitivity than the others, but classifies almost half of adults as having intermediate hyperglycaemia and poorly predicts diabetes. Combining glycaemic results with clinical information improves prognostic properties of those at risk. FUNDING: The Brazilian Ministry of Health (Science and Technology Department), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES).

10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 220, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child malnutrition in Angola is still very high, and little is known about its associated factors. The aim of this study was to identify these factors in children under 2 years in a suburban area of the country's capital city. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in 2010. The outcomes studied were stunting and underweight. Multivariable analysis was conducted; prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: Of the children studied (N = 749), 232 [32.0% (95% CI: 28.7-35.5%)] were stunted and 109 [15.1% (95% CI: 12.6-17.9%)] were underweight. In multivariable analysis, occurrence of diarrhea (PR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.07-1.87]) and the death of other children in the household (PR 1.52 [95% CI: 1.01-2,29]) were associated with stunting and underweight, respectively. In the model composed only of distal and intermediate factors, the primary caregiver not being the mother increased the prevalence of stunting by 42% (PR 1.42 [95% CI: 1.10-1.84], and a mother's working outside the house while not being self-employed was associated with its reduced prevalence (PR 0.55 [95% CI: 0.34-0.89]). In the intermediate model, each additional month of delay in the onset of prenatal care increased the relative prevalence of underweight by 20% (PR 1.20 [95% CI: 1.03-1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence rates of stunting and underweight, relatively few risk factors were identified for these conditions, suggesting that collective exposures are likely to play a major role in causing malnutrition in Angola. The individual factors identified can be useful for the development of strategies to deal with this public health problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Angola/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Morte , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/complicações , Emprego , Características da Família , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mães , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , População Suburbana , Magreza/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness has been associated with renal dysfunction and its progression, but the pathophysiological relation underlying this association has not been fully established, particularly among individuals without hypertension and diabetes. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between arterial stiffness and renal function in adults without cardiovascular disease, and whether this association remained among subjects without hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: All eligible participants from ELSA-Brasil (2008-2010), aged 35 to 74 years (N = 13,586) were included, of whom 7,979 were free from hypertension and diabetes. The response variables were: 1) low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2) estimated by CKD-EPI; 2) increased albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR ≥30mg/g); and 3) chronic kidney disease (CKD). Arterial stiffness was ascertained by the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The covariates were sex, age, race/color, level of schooling, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol/HDL-c glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: After all adjustments, 1 m/s increase in PWV was associated with ORs equal to 1.10 (95%CI: 1.04-1.16), 1.10 (95%CI: 1.05-1.16) and 1.12 (95%CI: 1.08-1.17) of low eGFR, high ACR, and CKD, respectively. In subjects without hypertension and diabetes, these ORs were 1.19 (95%CI: 1.07-1.33), 1.20 (95%CI: 1.07-1.32) and 1.21 (95%CI: 1.11-1.30), respectively. CONCLUSION: The increase in PWV was associated with all renal dysfunction markers, even in individuals without hypertension and diabetes, suggesting a relation that is not completely mediated by the presence of these conditions.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/complicações , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344509

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes is increasing among the young, and gestational diabetes (GDM) offers a unique opportunity for diabetes prevention. We aimed to systematically review postpartum randomized trials to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions for women with previous GDM. Methods:We searched for RCTs involving women with previous GDM that compared lifestyle interventions-diet, physical activity or breastfeeding-at postpartum with usual care up to May 2018. Results:Of 1,895 abstracts identified, we selected 15 studies investigating incidence of diabetes or changes in glycemia. Most interventions focused on changes in diet and physical activity, only one also on incentive to breastfeeding. Meta-analysis of 8 studies investigating incidence of diabetes revealed a homogeneous (I2 = 10%), reduction of 25% (RR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.55-1.03) borderline statistically significant. Only trials offering intervention soon after delivery (< 6 months post-partum) were effective (RR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0.40-0.94; p for subgroup comparison = 0.11). Overall, no benefit was found regarding measures of glycemia. Although moderate reductions in weight (MD = -1.07 kg; -1.43-0.72 kg); BMI (MD = -0.94 kg/m2; -1.79 -0.09 kg/m2); and waist circumference (MD = -0.98 cm; -1.75 -0.21 cm) were observed, effects were larger with longer follow-up. Conclusions:Summary results of the available evidence support benefits of lifestyle interventions at postpartum for women with previous GDM. Benefits, although smaller than those of major trials based in older subjects receiving intensive interventions, appear clinically relevant for this young subset of woman. Further studies are needed to improve the quality of the evidence and to further tailor interventions to this specific setting.

13.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(7): 524-530, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178577

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La disfunción sistólica subclínica es uno de los mecanismos propuestos para el aumento del riesgo cardiovascular asociado con el síndrome metabólico (SM). Este estudio investigó la asociación entre SM y deterioro del strain longitudinal global (SLG) del ventrículo izquierdo y el papel de cada criterio de SM en esta asociación. Métodos: Se analizó una muestra aleatoria del Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) después de excluir a aquellos con cardiopatía prevalente. Resultados: De los 1.055 participantes que cumplían los criterios de inclusión (el 53% mujeres; edad, 52 ± 9 años), 444 (42%) reunían criterios de SM. Aquellos con SM presentaron un SLG más reducido (-18,0 ± 2,5%) que aquellos sin SM (-19,0 ± 2,4%; p < 0,0001). En los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, el SM se asoció con SLG más reducido después de ajustar por varios factores de riesgo (diferencia de SLG, 0,86%; p < 0,0001), incluso después de incluir el índice de masa corporal. Las TP ajustadas para los participantes con SLG reducido evaluados con 3 puntos de corte (1, 1,5 y 2 desviaciones estándar) fueron más altas entre aquellos con SM que sin este: SLG -16,1% (TP = 1,76; IC95%, 1,30-2,39); SLG -14,8% (TP = 2,35; IC95%, 1,45-3,81), y SLG -13,5% (TP = 2,07; IC95%, 0,97-4,41). Después de incluir el índice de masa corporal en los modelos, estas asociaciones se atenuaron; lo que indica que la obesidad puede mediar, al menos en parte, estas asociaciones. En los análisis de regresión cuantílica, la circunferencia de cintura aumentada fue el único componente del SM que se halló independientemente asociado con el SLG a lo largo de todo el rango de valores. Conclusiones: El SM se asocia de manera independiente con alteración del SLG. Entre los criterios de SM, la obesidad central describe mejor la relación entre el trastorno metabólico y la función cardiaca


Introduction and objectives: Subclinical systolic dysfunction is one of the proposed mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the association between MS and impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the role of each MS criteria in this association. Methods: We analyzed a random sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) after excluding participants with prevalent heart disease. Results: Among the 1055 participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria (53% women; 52 ± 9 years), 444 (42%) had MS. Those with MS had worse GLS (-18.0% ± 2.5%) than those without (-19.0% ± 2.4%; P < .0001). In multiple linear regression models, MS was associated with worse GLS after adjustment for various risk factors (GLS difference = 0.86%; P < .0001), even after inclusion of body mass index. Adjusted PR for impaired GLS as assessed by 3 cutoffs (1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations) were higher among participants with than without MS: GLS -16.1% (PR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.30-2.39); GLS -14.8% (PR, 2.35; 95%CI, 1.45-3.81); and GLS -13.5% (PR, 2.07; 95%CI, 0.97-4.41). After inclusion of body mass index in the models, these associations were attenuated, suggesting that they may, at least in part, be mediated by obesity. In quantile regression analyses, elevated waist circumference was the only MS component found to be independently associated with GLS across the whole range of values. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome is independently associated with impaired GLS. Among the MS criteria, central obesity best depicted the link between metabolic derangement and cardiac function


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipertrigliceridemia/diagnóstico
14.
Atherosclerosis ; 274: 61-66, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are low remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis among individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL. METHODS: We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohorts. To optimize accuracy, LDL-C was calculated by the validated Martin/Hopkins equation that uses an adjustable factor for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We defined subclinical atherosclerosis as a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score >0 in the combined cohort or common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in the 4th quartile, using cohort-specific cIMT distributions at baseline. Logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional associations of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Among 9411 participants not on lipid lowering therapy, 263 (3%) had LDL-C <70 mg/dL (MESA: 206, ELSA: 57). Mean age in this population was 58 (SD 12) years, with 43% men, and 41% Black. The prevalence of CAC >0 in those with untreated LDL-C<70 mg/dL was 30%, and 18% were in 4th quartile of cIMT. In demographically adjusted models, only ever smoking was significantly associated with both CAC and cIMT. Similar results were obtained in risk factor-adjusted models (smoking: OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.10-4.80 and OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.41-8.37 for CAC and cIMT, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among middle-aged to older individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL, subclinical atherosclerosis remains moderately common and is associated with cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etnologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/etnologia
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 251: 90-95, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18.5 or ≥25kg/m2, current and former smokers, and those with self-report of previous cardiovascular disease. After exclusions, the sample consisted of 2158 healthy adults (1412 women). Although cf-PWV predictors were similar between sex (age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate), cf-PWV was higher in men (8.74±1.15 vs. 8.31±1.13m/s; adjusted for age and MAP, P<0.001) for all age intervals. When divided by MAP categories, cf-PWV was significantly higher in those which MAP ≥85mmHg, regardless of sex, and for all age intervals. Risk factors for arterial stiffening in the entire ELSA-Brasil population (n=15,105) increased by twice the age-related slope of cf-PWV growth, regardless of sex (0.0919±0.182 vs. 0.0504±0.153m/s per year for men, 0.0960±0.173 vs. 0.0606±0.139m/s per year for women). CONCLUSIONS: cf-PWV is different between men and women and even in an optimal and normal range of MAP and free of other classical risk factors for arterial stiffness, reference values for cf-PWV should take into account MAP levels. Also, the presence of major risk factors in the general population doubles the age-related rise in cf-PWV.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 71(7): 524-530, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Subclinical systolic dysfunction is one of the proposed mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the association between MS and impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the role of each MS criteria in this association. METHODS: We analyzed a random sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) after excluding participants with prevalent heart disease. RESULTS: Among the 1055 participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria (53% women; 52±9 years), 444 (42%) had MS. Those with MS had worse GLS (-18.0%±2.5%) than those without (-19.0%±2.4%; P<.0001). In multiple linear regression models, MS was associated with worse GLS after adjustment for various risk factors (GLS difference=0.86%; P <.0001), even after inclusion of body mass index. Adjusted PR for impaired GLS as assessed by 3 cutoffs (1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations) were higher among participants with than without MS: GLS -16.1% (PR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.30-2.39); GLS -14.8% (PR, 2.35; 95%CI, 1.45-3.81); and GLS -13.5% (PR, 2.07; 95%CI, 0.97-4.41). After inclusion of body mass index in the models, these associations were attenuated, suggesting that they may, at least in part, be mediated by obesity. In quantile regression analyses, elevated waist circumference was the only MS component found to be independently associated with GLS across the whole range of values. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome is independently associated with impaired GLS. Among the MS criteria, central obesity best depicted the link between metabolic derangement and cardiac function.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 24(6): 559-566, nov.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-900583

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Se han propuesto técnicas ecocardiográficas avanzadas como el strain longitudinal global por ecocardiografía bidimensional speckle tracking para la detección de alteraciones precoces de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo. La evaluación de la reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global es fundamental para su aplicación clínica en diferentes escenarios. Objetivo: Estimar la reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo en individuos de un estudio de cohorte del Brasil. Métodos: La reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo fue evaluada mediante lectura y análisis de imágenes de ecocardiografía de una muestra aleatoria de 50 participantes de la línea de base del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Resultados: Los participantes tenían una edad promedio de 49,7 ± 7,3 años, 54% eran mujeres y la media del strain longitudinal global fue -19,5% ± 1,9%. La reproducibilidad interobservador de la medida del strain longitudinal global mostró un coeficiente de variación de 7,4% y un coeficiente de correlación intraclase de 0,76 (IC 95%: 0,61, 0,86). El análisis del acuerdo interobservador de las medidas del strain longitudinal global mediante el método de Bland & Altman evidenció un promedio de diferencias de 0,1% ± 1,4% y unos límites de acuerdo superior de 2,9 e inferior de -2,7. Conclusiones: Hubo una reproducibilidad adecuada de las medidas del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo en participantes del ELSA-Brasil y los valores fueron similares a los reportados en otros estudios epidemiológicos longitudinales. Los hallazgos refuerzan la utilidad del strain longitudinal global como un índice clínico de deformación miocárdica, capaz de detectar alteraciones subclínicas de la contractilidad miocárdica.


Abstract Introduction: Advanced echocardiography techniques, such as the global longitudinal strain using two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking, have been proposed for the detection of early changes in the left ventricular systolic function. The evaluation of the reproducibility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain is essential for its clinical application in different scenarios. Objective: To determine the reproducibility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in individuals from a Brazil cohort study. Methods: The reproducibility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain was evaluated by the reading and analysis of echocardiograph images of a random sample of 50 participants of the baseline Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Results: The mean age of the participants was 49.7 ± 7.3 years, of whom 54% were women, and the mean global longitudinal strain was -19.5% ± 1.9%. The inter-observer reproducibility of the mean global longitudinal strain, had a coefficient of variation of 7.4%, and an intra-class correlation of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61 - 0.86). The analysis of the inter-observer agreement of the global longitudinal strain measurements using the Bland and Altman method showed a mean differences of 0.1% ± 1.4%, and upper and lower limits of agreement of 2.9 and -2.7, respectively. Conclusions: There was adequate reproducibility of the left ventricular global longitudinal strain measurements in participants of the ELSA-Brasil study, and the values were similar to those reported in other longitudinal epidemiological studies. The findings reinforce the use of the global longitudinal strain as a clinical marker of myocardial deformation, capable of detecting subclinical changes in myocardial contractility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ecocardiografia , Contração Miocárdica
18.
Popul Health Metr ; 15(1): 39, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable data on cause of death (COD) are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states. Reduced mortality due to diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and other infectious diseases contributed the most for increasing life expectancy in most states from the North and Northeast regions. Reduced mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was the highest contributor in the South, Southeast, and Center West regions. However, among men, intentional injuries reduced life expectancy in 17 out of 27 states. Although age-standardized rates due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease declined over time, these remained the leading CODs in the country and states. In contrast, leading causes of premature mortality changed substantially - e.g., diarrheal diseases moved from 1st to 13th and then the 36th position in 1990, 2005, and 2015, respectively, while violence moved from 7th to 1st and to 2nd. Overall, the total age-standardized years of life lost (YLL) rate was reduced from 1990 to 2015, bringing the burden of premature deaths closer to expected rates given the country's Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In 1990, IHD, stroke, diarrhea, neonatal preterm birth complications, road injury, and violence had ratios higher than the expected, while in 2015 only violence was higher, overall and in all states, according to the SDI. CONCLUSIONS: A widespread reduction of mortality levels occurred in Brazil from 1990 to 2015, particularly among children under 5 years old. Major shifts in mortality rates took place among communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders. The mortality profile has shifted to older ages with increases in non-communicable diseases as well as premature deaths due to violence. Policymakers should address health interventions accordingly.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Carga Global da Doença , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade Prematura , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
N Engl J Med ; 377(1): 13-27, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(6)2017 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (ß=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P<0.001) and carotid intima-media thickness (ß=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P<0.001) and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 (odds ratio: 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-3.08; P<0.001) and CAC >0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P<0.001). Among former and current smokers, pack-years of smoking (burden) were significantly associated with hsCRP (P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively) and CAC (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Among former smokers, hsCRP and carotid intima-media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting (P<0.01). Among current smokers, number of cigarettes per day (intensity) was positively associated with hsCRP (P<0.001) and CAC >0 (P=0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be used for the further study and regulation of traditional and novel tobacco products.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Doenças Assintomáticas , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
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