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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030689, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget's disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11616770.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525280

RESUMO

Novel anabolic drug targets are needed to treat osteoporosis. Having established a large national cohort with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), we aimed to identify a novel monogenic cause of HBM and provide insight into a regulatory pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We investigated a pedigree with unexplained HBM in whom previous sequencing had excluded known causes of monogenic HBM. Whole exome sequencing identified a rare (minor allele frequency 0.0023), highly evolutionarily conserved missense mutation in SMAD9 (c.65T>C, p.Leu22Pro) segregating with HBM in this autosomal dominant family. The same mutation was identified in another two unrelated individuals both with HBM. In silico protein modeling predicts the mutation severely disrupts the MH1 DNA-binding domain of SMAD9. Affected individuals have bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores +3 to +5, mandible enlargement, a broad frame, torus palatinus/mandibularis, pes planus, increased shoe size, and a tendency to sink when swimming. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurement demonstrates increased trabecular volumetric BMD and increased cortical thickness conferring greater predicted bone strength; bone turnover markers are low/normal. Notably, fractures and nerve compression are not found. Both genome-wide and gene-based association testing involving estimated BMD measured at the heel in 362,924 white British subjects from the UK Biobank Study showed strong associations with SMAD9 (PGWAS = 6 × 10-16 ; PGENE = 8 × 10-17 ). Furthermore, we found Smad9 to be highly expressed in both murine cortical bone-derived osteocytes and skeletal elements of zebrafish larvae. Our findings support SMAD9 as a novel HBM gene and a potential novel osteoanabolic target for osteoporosis therapeutics. SMAD9 is thought to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent target gene transcription to reduce osteoblast activity. Thus, we hypothesize SMAD9 c.65T>C is a loss-of-function mutation reducing BMP inhibition. Lowering SMAD9 as a potential novel anabolic mechanism for osteoporosis therapeutics warrants further investigation. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes, with multiple causative genes. Some MODY subtypes can be treated with sulfonylureas instead of insulin, improving glycemic control, complication rates, quality of life (QoL), and costs. Using massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we recently determined the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic MODY variants in an Australian pediatric diabetes cohort. Here, these data are used to estimate cost-effectiveness of using MPS for MODY in all pediatric diabetes cases compared with standard practice (sequencing limited to individuals with specific clinical features). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Markov decision model was developed to estimate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of MPS screening, modeled over 30 years. We used our observed prevalence of 2.14% compared with 0.7% for standard practice, based on published data. The probabilities and utility weightings of long-term diabetes complications were based on HbA1c and estimated from published data. A series of one-way sensitivity analyses were performed using the net monetary benefit framework. RESULTS: Routine MPS screening for MODY was more effective and less costly than standard care screening, with 26 QALYs gained and 1,016,000 AUD (782,000 USD) saved per 1,000 patients. Cost of screening was fully offset within 10 years. Routine MPS screening remained dominant until MODY prevalence fell to <1.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Routine MPS screening for MODY in the pediatric population with diabetes could reduce health system costs and improve patient QoL. Our results make a compelling argument for routine genetic screening in all children with presumed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(12): 2089-2090, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496611
7.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in one of 13 confirmed genes. Estimates of MODY prevalence vary widely, as genetic screening is usually restricted based on clinical features, even in population studies. We aimed to determine prevalence of MODY variants in a large and unselected pediatric diabetes cohort. METHODS: MODY variants were assessed using massively parallel sequencing in the population-based diabetes cohort (n = 1363) of the sole tertiary pediatric diabetes service for Western Australia (population 2.6 million). All individuals were screened, irrespective of clinical features. MODY variants were also assessed in a control cohort (n = 993). RESULTS: DNA and signed consent were available for 821 children. Seventeen children had pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in MODY genes, two diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, four diagnosed with antibody-negative type 1 diabetes (T1DM), three diagnosed with antibody-positive T1DM, and eight previously diagnosed with MODY. Prevalence of MODY variants in the sequenced cohort was 2.1%, compared to 0.3% of controls. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive study of MODY variants in an unselected population-based pediatric diabetes cohort. The observed prevalence, increasing access to rapid and affordable genetic screening, and significant clinical implications suggest that genetic screening for MODY could be considered for all children with diabetes, irrespective of other clinical features.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 729-734, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until recently, determining penetrance required large observational cohort studies. Data from the Exome Aggregate Consortium (ExAC) allows a Bayesian approach to calculate penetrance, in that population frequencies of pathogenic germline variants should be inversely proportional to their penetrance for disease. We tested this hypothesis using data from two cohorts for succinate dehydrogenase subunits A, B and C (SDHA-C) genetic variants associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PC/PGL). METHODS: Two cohorts were 575 unrelated Australian subjects and 1240 unrelated UK subjects, respectively, with PC/PGL in whom genetic testing had been performed. Penetrance of pathogenic SDHA-C variants was calculated by comparing allelic frequencies in cases versus controls from ExAC (removing those variants contributed by The Cancer Genome Atlas). RESULTS: Pathogenic SDHA-C variants were identified in 106 subjects (18.4%) in cohort 1 and 317 subjects (25.6%) in cohort 2. Of 94 different pathogenic variants from both cohorts (seven in SDHA, 75 in SDHB and 12 in SDHC), 13 are reported in ExAC (two in SDHA, nine in SDHB and two in SDHC) accounting for 21% of subjects with SDHA-C variants. Combining data from both cohorts, estimated lifetime disease penetrance was 22.0% (95% CI 15.2% to 30.9%) for SDHB variants, 8.3% (95% CI 3.5% to 18.5%) for SDHC variants and 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.8%) for SDHA variants. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic variants in SDHB are more penetrant than those in SDHC and SDHA. Our findings have important implications for counselling and surveillance of subjects carrying these pathogenic variants.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 218(12): 2006-2015, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099516

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, and we recently reported human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles showing strong associations with cervical neoplasia risk and protection. HLA ligands are recognized by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on a range of immune cell subsets, governing their proinflammatory activity. We hypothesized that the inheritance of particular HLA-KIR combinations would increase cervical neoplasia risk. Methods: Here, we used HLA and KIR dosages imputed from single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data from 2143 cervical neoplasia cases and 13858 healthy controls of European decent. Results: The following 4 novel HLA alleles were identified in association with cervical neoplasia, owing to their linkage disequilibrium with known cervical neoplasia-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles: HLA-DRB3*9901 (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; P = 2.49 × 10-9), HLA-DRB5*0101 (OR, 1.29; P = 2.26 × 10-8), HLA-DRB5*9901 (OR, 0.77; P = 1.90 × 10-9), and HLA-DRB3*0301 (OR, 0.63; P = 4.06 × 10-5). We also found that homozygosity of HLA-C1 group alleles is a protective factor for human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-related cervical neoplasia (C1/C1; OR, 0.79; P = .005). This protective association was restricted to carriers of either KIR2DL2 (OR, 0.67; P = .00045) or KIR2DS2 (OR, 0.69; P = .0006). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HLA-C1 group alleles play a role in protecting against HPV16-related cervical neoplasia, mainly through a KIR-mediated mechanism.

10.
Bone ; 114: 62-71, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generalised high bone mass (HBM), associated with features of a mild skeletal dysplasia, has a prevalence of 0.18% in a UK DXA-scanned adult population. We hypothesized that the genetic component of extreme HBM includes contributions from common variants of small effect and rarer variants of large effect, both enriched in an extreme phenotype cohort. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adults with either extreme high or low BMD. Adults included individuals with unexplained extreme HBM (n = 240) from the UK with BMD Z-scores ≥+3.2, high BMD females from the Anglo-Australasian Osteoporosis Genetics Consortium (AOGC) (n = 1055) with Z-scores +1.5 to +4.0 and low BMD females also part of AOGC (n = 900), with Z-scores -1.5 to -4.0. Following imputation, we tested association between 6,379,332 SNPs and total hip and lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. For potential target genes, we assessed expression in human osteoblasts and murine osteocytes. RESULTS: We observed significant enrichment for associations with established BMD-associated loci, particularly those known to regulate endochondral ossification and Wnt signalling, suggesting that part of the genetic contribution to unexplained HBM is polygenic. Further, we identified associations exceeding genome-wide significance between BMD and four loci: two established BMD-associated loci (5q14.3 containing MEF2C and 1p36.12 containing WNT4) and two novel loci: 5p13.3 containing NPR3 (rs9292469; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.33%) associated with lumbar spine BMD and 11p15.2 containing SPON1 (rs2697825; MAF = 0.17%) associated with total hip BMD. Mouse models with mutations in either Npr3 or Spon1 have been reported, both have altered skeletal phenotypes, providing in vivo validation that these genes are physiologically important in bone. NRP3 regulates endochondral ossification and skeletal growth, whilst SPON1 modulates TGF-ß regulated BMP-driven osteoblast differentiation. Rs9292469 (downstream of NPR3) also showed some evidence for association with forearm BMD in the independent GEFOS sample (n = 32,965). We found Spon1 was highly expressed in murine osteocytes from the tibiae, femora, humeri and calvaria, whereas Npr3 expression was more variable. CONCLUSION: We report the most extreme-truncate GWAS of BMD performed to date. Our findings, suggest potentially new anabolic bone regulatory pathways that warrant further study.

13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(5): 905-909, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633446

RESUMO

Insulin gene (INS) mutations cause a rare form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant diabetes with at least 14 confirmed causative genes. Here, we describe a family with MODY due to a novel INS mutation, detected using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). The proband presented aged 11 years with mild diabetic ketoacidosis. She was negative for IA2 and GAD antibodies. She had a strong family history of diabetes affecting both her two siblings and her mother, none of whom had ketosis but who were considered to have type 1 diabetes and managed on insulin, and her maternal grandfather, who was managed for decades on sulfonylureas. Of note, her younger sister had insulin deficiency but an elevated fasting proinsulin:insulin ratio of 76% (ref 5%-30%). Sanger sequencing of HNF4A, HNF1A, and HNF1B in the proband was negative. Targeted MPS using a custom-designed amplicon panel sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq detected a heterozygous INS mutation c.277G>A (p.Glu93Lys). Sanger sequencing confirmed the variant segregated with diabetes within the family. Structural analysis of this variant suggested disruption of a critical hydrogen bond between insulin and the insulin receptor; however, the clinical picture in some individuals also suggested abnormal insulin processing and insulin deficiency. This family has a novel INS mutation and demonstrated variable insulin deficiency. MPS represents an efficient method of MODY diagnosis in families with rarer gene mutations.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(7): 1260-1271, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669177

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone disorder characterized by fractures, low bone mass, and skeletal fragility. It most commonly arises from dominantly inherited mutations in the genes COL1A1 and COL1A2 that encode the chains of type I collagen. A number of recent reports have suggested that mutations affecting the carboxyl-terminal propeptide cleavage site in the products of either COL1A1 or COL1A2 give rise to a form of OI characterized by unusually dense bones. We have assembled clinical, biochemical, and molecular data from 29 individuals from 8 families with 7 different mutations affecting the C-propeptide cleavage site. The phenotype was generally mild: The median height was ∼33th centile. Eighty percent of subjects had their first fracture by the age of 10 years, and one-third had a femoral or tibial fracture by the age of 25 years. Fractures continued into adulthood, though rates varied considerably. Healing was normal and rarely resulted in long bone deformity. One-third of subjects older than 15 years had scoliosis. The teeth and hearing were normal in most, and blue sclerae were not observed. Other features noted included fibro-osseous dysplasia of the mandible and Achilles tendon calcification. The mean spinal bone mineral density Z-score was +2.9 (SD 2.1) compared with -2.2 (0.7) in subjects with COL1A1 haploinsufficiency mutations. Bone mineral density distribution, assessed by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in bone showed higher levels of mineralization than found in any other disorder. Bone histology showed high trabecular volume and increased cortical thickness, with hyperosteoidosis and delayed mineralization. In vitro studies with cultured skin fibroblasts suggested that these mutations interfere with processing of the chain in which the sequence alteration occurs, but the C-propeptide is eventually cleaved (and detectable in blood), suggesting there are alternative sites of cleavage. The precise mechanism of the bony pathology is not yet clear. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(3): e001978, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD)-structural abnormalities of the heart that arise during embryonic development-is the most common inborn malformation, affecting ≤1% of the population. However, currently, only a minority of cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The goal of this study was to identify disease-causal genetic variants in 30 families affected by CHD. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed with the DNA of multiple family members. We utilized a 2-tiered whole-exome variant screening and interpretation procedure. First, we manually curated a high-confidence list of 90 genes known to cause CHD in humans, identified predicted damaging variants in genes on this list, and rated their pathogenicity using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. RESULTS: In 3 families (10%), we found pathogenic variants in known CHD genes TBX5, TFAP2B, and PTPN11, explaining the cardiac lesions. Second, exomes were comprehensively analyzed to identify additional predicted damaging variants that segregate with disease in CHD candidate genes. In 10 additional families (33%), likely disease-causal variants were uncovered in PBX1, CNOT1, ZFP36L2, TEK, USP34, UPF2, KDM5A, KMT2C, TIE1, TEAD2, and FLT4. CONCLUSIONS: The pathogenesis of CHD could be explained using our high-confidence CHD gene list for variant filtering in a subset of cases. Furthermore, our unbiased screening procedure of family exomes implicates additional genes and variants in the pathogenesis of CHD, which suggest themselves for functional validation. This 2-tiered approach provides a means of (1) identifying clinically actionable variants and (2) identifying additional disease-causal genes, both of which are essential for improving the molecular diagnosis of CHD.

16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 135: 93-101, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154913

RESUMO

The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2011). Breastfeeding confers many short- and long-term benefits for infants and mothers, including reduced childhood obesity and lower maternal body weight (Infant feeding survey, 2010; CDC National immunization surveys, 2012 and 2013; Sorkio et al., 2010; Hummel et al., 2014; Finkelstein et al., 2013). Exclusive breastfeeding is also recommended in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), for at least four months (Nucci et al., 2017). However, the impact of breastfeeding on mothers with T1DM, and, conversely, the impact of maternal T1DM on breastfeeding, is not clear. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and physiology of breastfeeding in women with T1DM. In particular, it highlights the relationship between breastfeeding and glycaemia. Potential areas for future research are also identified.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(3): 378-385, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify genetic determinants of susceptibility to clinical vertebral fractures, which is an important complication of osteoporosis. METHODS: Here we conduct a genome-wide association study in 1553 postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures and 4340 controls, with a two-stage replication involving 1028 cases and 3762 controls. Potentially causal variants were identified using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from transiliac bone biopsies and bioinformatic studies. RESULTS: A locus tagged by rs10190845 was identified on chromosome 2q13, which was significantly associated with clinical vertebral fracture (P=1.04×10-9) with a large effect size (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.6). Bioinformatic analysis of this locus identified several potentially functional SNPs that are associated with expression of the positional candidate genes TTL (tubulin tyrosine ligase) and SLC20A1 (solute carrier family 20 member 1). Three other suggestive loci were identified on chromosomes 1p31, 11q12 and 15q11. All these loci were novel and had not previously been associated with bone mineral density or clinical fractures. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel genetic variant that is associated with clinical vertebral fractures by mechanisms that are independent of BMD. Further studies are now in progress to validate this association and evaluate the underlying mechanism.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 377(6): 544-552, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations can be manifested as combinations of phenotypes that co-occur more often than expected by chance. In many such cases, it has proved difficult to identify a genetic cause. We sought the genetic cause of cardiac, vertebral, and renal defects, among others, in unrelated patients. METHODS: We used genomic sequencing to identify potentially pathogenic gene variants in families in which a person had multiple congenital malformations. We tested the function of the variant by using assays of in vitro enzyme activity and by quantifying metabolites in patient plasma. We engineered mouse models with similar variants using the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system. RESULTS: Variants were identified in two genes that encode enzymes of the kynurenine pathway, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (HAAO) and kynureninase (KYNU). Three patients carried homozygous variants predicting loss-of-function changes in the HAAO or KYNU proteins (HAAO p.D162*, HAAO p.W186*, or KYNU p.V57Efs*21). Another patient carried heterozygous KYNU variants (p.Y156* and p.F349Kfs*4). The mutant enzymes had greatly reduced activity in vitro. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is synthesized de novo from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. The patients had reduced levels of circulating NAD. Defects similar to those in the patients developed in the embryos of Haao-null or Kynu-null mice owing to NAD deficiency. In null mice, the prevention of NAD deficiency during gestation averted defects. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of NAD synthesis caused a deficiency of NAD and congenital malformations in humans and mice. Niacin supplementation during gestation prevented the malformations in mice. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others.).


Assuntos
3-Hidroxiantranilato 3,4-Dioxigenase/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidrolases/genética , NAD/deficiência , Niacina/uso terapêutico , 3-Hidroxiantranilato 3,4-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Canal Anal/anormalidades , Animais , Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esôfago/anormalidades , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Rim/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , NAD/biossíntese , NAD/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Traqueia/anormalidades
20.
Am J Pathol ; 187(9): 1923-1934, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675805

RESUMO

Multicentric carpal-tarsal osteolysis; multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy; and Winchester syndromes, skeletal dysplasias characterized by carpal/tarsal and epiphyseal abnormalities, are caused by mutations in v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene ortholog B (MAFB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP14, respectively; however, the underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Osteoclast-mediated osteolysis has been regarded as the main mechanism, but does not explain the skeletal distribution. We hypothesized that MAFB, MMP-2, and MMP-14 have integral roles in carpal/tarsal and epiphyseal bone development. Normal neonatal mouse forepaws were imaged by micro-computed tomography and examined histologically. Murine forepaw ossification occurred sequentially. Subarticular regions of endochondral ossification showed morphologic and calcification patterns that were distinct from archetypical physeal endochondral ossification. This suggests that two different forms of endochondral ossification occur. The skeletal sites showing the greatest abnormality in the carpal-tarsal osteolysis syndromes are regions of subarticular ossification. Thus, abnormal bone formation in areas of subarticular ossification may explain the site-specific distribution of the carpal-tarsal osteolysis phenotype. MafB, Mmp-2, and Mmp-14 were expressed widely, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining notably was absent in the subarticular regions of the cartilage anlagen and entheses at a time point most relevant to the human osteolysis syndromes. Thus, abnormal peri-articular skeletal development and modeling, rather than excessive bone resorption, may be the underlying pathophysiology of these skeletal syndromes.


Assuntos
Ossos do Carpo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Osteólise/patologia , Animais , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Ossos do Carpo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Carpo/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Lâmina de Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Lâmina de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Liases Intramoleculares , Fator de Transcrição MafB/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 14 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteogênese , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteólise/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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