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1.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 16(1): 1990197, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749597

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous literature has applied system-focused structures to understand the success of First Nations Peoples' nutrition and exercise group programmes. Existing system-focused measures have included biomedical outcomes, access and service utilization. By broadening the focus of programme success beyond the system, we can evaluate programmes from a First Nations Peoples' lifeworld perspective. Critical hermeneutics and yarning using a lens of Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action to the literature has the potential to transform understandings of "success" in First Nations Peoples' nutrition and exercise group programmes. METHODS: In this literature interpretation, we explored the critical success factors from a lifeworld perspective, giving scope to go beyond a system perspective to include a cultural, social or personal perspective. RESULTS: Our yarning led us to understand that there is a communicative relationship between explicit system structures and implicit lifeworld concepts that are critical success factors for First Nations nutrition and exercise group programmes. We have developed a set of reflective questions to guide others in considering a lifeworld perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings represent a shift away from success measured by the dominant power structure to respect the lifeworld culture, knowledges and values of First Nations Peoples towards shared understanding and mutual decision-making.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Povos Indígenas , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371903

RESUMO

Nutrition during pregnancy has lifelong impacts on the health of mother and child. However, this life stage presents unique challenges to healthy cooking and eating. Cooking interventions show promising results, but often lack theoretical basis and rigorous evaluation. The objective of this formative, qualitative study was to explore motivators, strategies, and barriers related to healthy cooking during pregnancy. Pregnant individuals' preferences for a cooking education program were also explored. We conducted five focus groups with pregnant individuals (n = 20) in Southeast Michigan in 2019. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, then double coded by two members of the research team. Mean gestational age was 18.3 ± 9.6 weeks. Common motivators included feeding other children, avoiding pregnancy complications, promoting fetal growth, and avoiding foodborne illness. Challenges included pregnancy symptoms, navigating nutrition recommendations, mental energy of meal planning, family preferences, and time constraints. Strategies employed were meal planning and including a variety of foods. Participants identified organizational strategies, recipes, nutrition information, and peer support as important components of a cooking intervention during pregnancy. This study characterized multiple challenges to healthy home cooking during pregnancy, providing novel insight to inform the development of cooking skills education programs during this important life stage.


Assuntos
Culinária , Dieta Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Motivação , Valor Nutritivo , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Michigan , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recomendações Nutricionais
3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(6): 953-968, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This scoping review aims to describe the body of nutrition intervention and dietary assessment research undertaken with Khmer populations in Cambodia, as well as summarise the nutrition knowledge base and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS: Five databases and the grey literature were searched, following PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Studies involving dietary assessment or nutrition interventions published after 1992 were identified using specific search terms and extracted to a customised data extraction table for categorisation and analysis. Study participants were Khmer people of any age and gender, living in rural or urban Cambodia. RESULTS: Of the 100 included studies, 58 were dietary assessment only studies, 24 were nutrition interventions only, and 18 studies involved both assessment of intake and an intervention. Sixty-eight percent of study populations were mothers and young children, of which 52 studies focused on children aged under 5 years. Nineteen interventions involved supplementation and six trialled fortification of rice or fish sauce. Anaemia was the most common nutrition condition studied (n = 17), followed by malnutrition (n = 15) and malnutrition risk factors (n = 11). General nutrition status was explored in 25 studies, and individual micronutrients that were studied included iron (n = 27), zinc (n = 6), vitamin A (n = 4) and thiamine (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: Diet-related research in Khmer populations in Cambodia has predominantly focused on dietary assessment or evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing malnutrition and resolving micronutrient deficiencies. Areas identified as emerging needs included non-communicable diseases, the ageing population and non-iron deficiency anaemia.

4.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978558

RESUMO

Early life, including the establishment of the intestinal microbiome, represents a critical window of growth and development. Postnatal factors affecting the microbiome, including mode of delivery, feeding type, and antibiotic exposure have been widely investigated, but questions remain regarding the influence of exposures in utero on infant gut microbiome assembly. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence on exposures before birth, which affect the early intestinal microbiome. Five databases were searched in August 2019 for studies exploring pre-pregnancy or pregnancy 'exposure' data in relation to the infant microbiome. Of 1,441 publications identified, 76 were included. Factors reported influencing microbiome composition and diversity included maternal antibiotic and probiotic uses, dietary intake, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), diabetes, mood, and others. Eleven studies contributed to three meta-analyses quantifying associations between maternal intrapartum antibiotic exposure (IAP), BMI and GWG, and infant microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon Index). IAP, maternal overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were all associated with reduced diversity. Most studies were observational, few included early recruitment or longitudinal follow-up, and the timing, frequency, and methodologies related to stool sampling and analysis were variable. Standardization and collaboration are imperative to enhance understanding in this complex and rapidly evolving area.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800668

RESUMO

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of gut-brain interaction, characterised by upper gastrointestinal symptom profiles that differentiate FD from the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the two conditions often co-exist. Despite food and eating being implicated in FD symptom induction, evidence-based guidance for dietetic management of FD is limited. The aim of this narrative review is to collate the possible mechanisms for eating-induced and food-related symptoms of FD for stratification of dietetic management. Specific carbohydrates, proteins and fats, or foods high in these macronutrients have all been reported as influencing FD symptom induction, with removal of 'trigger' foods or nutrients shown to alleviate symptoms. Food additives and natural food chemicals have also been implicated, but there is a lack of convincing evidence. Emerging evidence suggests the gastrointestinal microbiota is the primary interface between food and symptom induction in FD, and is therefore a research direction that warrants substantial attention. Objective markers of FD, along with more sensitive and specific dietary assessment tools will contribute to progressing towards evidence-based dietetic management of FD.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dispepsia/dietoterapia , Dispepsia/etiologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos
6.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147771

RESUMO

Background and aims: Chronic disease, particularly inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), requires a multifaceted approach to managing patients, but it is apparent that primary care pharmacists are being underutilized. To demonstrate the benefits of pharmacist interventions in primary care, a systematic review was conducted of interventions in asthma and type 2 diabetes where pharmacists have a defined role in chronic disease management. We also explored potential opportunities for primary care pharmacists to deliver tailored care to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The search strategy retrieved original research articles from seven databases; eligible articles were assessed for inclusion. Quality appraisal was performed independently by two reviewers. Results: Thirty-seven included studies were grouped into four categories of interventions: education/counseling (43%), medication management (34%), monitoring/follow-up (17%), and screening/risk prevention (6%). Education plus counseling was reported as the main intervention delivered by pharmacists. Three measurable outcomes were identified: clinical, humanistic (e.g., quality of life), and economic. Clinical outcomes (63%) were reported more commonly than humanistic (26%) and economic (11%) outcomes. Pharmacist interventions led to statistically significant improvements in control of disease, severity, and medication adherence, as well as improvements in overall patient satisfaction, quality of life among patients with asthma and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible sources of primary health care, pharmacists are well-placed to minimize the impact of chronic diseases on patients and communities. Evidence suggests there are opportunities for primary care pharmacists to play a more active role in the management of chronic diseases such as IBD.

7.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 22(10): 51, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797313

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Here, we aimed to examine the evidence for immune responses to food in FD and overlap with food hypersensitivity conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: A feature of FD in a subset of patients is an increase in mucosal eosinophils, mast cells, intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells and systemic gut-homing T cells in the duodenum, suggesting that immune dysfunction is characteristic of this disease. Rates of self-reported non-celiac wheat/gluten sensitivity (NCW/GS) are higher in FD patients. FD patients commonly report worsening symptoms following consumption of wheat, fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, or polyols (FODMAPs), high-fat foods and spicy foods containing capsaicin. Particularly, wheat proteins and fructan in wheat may drive symptoms. Immune mechanisms that drive responses to food in FD are still poorly characterised but share key effector cells to common food hypersensitivities including non-IgE-mediated food allergy and eosinophilic oesophagitis.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Capsaicina/imunologia , Gorduras na Dieta/imunologia , Dissacarídeos/imunologia , Duodeno/imunologia , Duodeno/patologia , Dispepsia/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Monossacarídeos/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/imunologia , Polímeros , Triticum/imunologia
8.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629906

RESUMO

Introduction: Functional dyspepsia (FD), characterised by symptoms of epigastric pain or early satiety and post prandial distress, has been associated with duodenal eosinophilia, raising the possibility that it is driven by an environmental allergen. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) has also been associated with both dyspeptic symptoms and duodenal eosinophilia, suggesting an overlap between these two conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of wheat (specifically gluten and fructans) in symptom reduction in participants with FD in a pilot randomized double-blind, placebo controlled, dietary crossover trial. Methods: Patients with Rome III criteria FD were recruited from a single tertiary centre in Newcastle, Australia. All were individually counselled on a diet low in both gluten and fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) by a clinical dietitian, which was followed for four weeks (elimination diet phase). Those who had a >30% response to the run-in diet, as measured by the Nepean Dyspepsia Index, were then re-challenged with 'muesli' bars containing either gluten, fructan, or placebo in randomised order. Those with symptoms which significantly reduced during the elimination diet, but reliably reappeared (a mean change in overall dyspeptic symptoms of >30%) with gluten or fructan re-challenge were deemed to have wheat induced FD. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled in the study (75% female, mean age 43 years). Of the initial cohort, nine participants completed the elimination diet phase of whom four qualified for the rechallenge phase. The gluten-free, low FODMAP diet led to an overall (albeit non-significant) improvement in symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the diet elimination phase (mean NDI symptom score 71.2 vs. 47.1, p = 0.087). A specific food trigger could not be reliably demonstrated. Conclusions: Although a gluten-free, low-FODMAP diet led to a modest overall reduction in symptoms in this cohort of FD patients, a specific trigger could not be identified. The modified Salerno criteria for NCG/WS identification trialled in this dietary rechallenge protocol was fit-for-purpose. However, larger trials are required to determine whether particular components of wheat induce symptoms in functional dyspepsia.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Dispepsia/dietoterapia , Intolerância Alimentar/dietoterapia , Triticum/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Intolerância Alimentar/complicações , Frutanos/administração & dosagem , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640756

RESUMO

Domestic cooking education programs are typically designed to improve an individual's food and cooking skills, although not necessarily diet quality. Currently, there are no comprehensive models to guide the planning, implementation and evaluation of domestic cooking education programs that focus on improving diet and health. Our aim was to address this through development of the Cooking Education ("Cook-EdTM") model, using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model as the underlying Cook-EdTM framework. A review of the food and cooking skills education literature informed the content of the Cook-EdTM model. Cook-EdTM was critiqued by experts in consumer behaviour, cooking and nutrition education research and education until consensus on model content and format was reached. Cook-EdTM leads cooking program developers through eight distinct stages, engaging key stakeholders in a co-design process from the outset to tailor programs to address the need of individuals and inform the development of program content, program delivery, and evaluation. A Cook-EdTM scenario applied in practice is described. The proposed Cook-EdTM model has potential to be adapted for use in domestic cooking education programs delivered in clinical, community, school or research settings. Further research will establish Cook-EdTM's utility in enhancing program development and in improving food and cooking skills, dietary patterns and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Dieta , Educação em Saúde , Modelos Organizacionais , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/normas , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
10.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(6): 999-1003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560227

RESUMO

Aim: To determine the effect of bulking and osmotic laxation regimens on reducing rectal gas in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.Methods: A single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants assigned to the intervention group (IG) were instructed to consume a bulking laxative and probiotic and the standard care group (SC) instructed to consume an osmotic laxative. Both groups followed a standard low gas diet. Rectal gas ratings were determined from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Dietary and laxative compliance, bowel habits, fiber and fluid intakes were determined from food diaries.Results: Demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the two treatment arms. The mean age was 74 years. Participants were randomized into the IG (n = 8) and SC group (n = 9). Analysis of 433 CBCT scans indicate the odds of a higher rectal gas rating were significantly increased for the IG compared with the SC group (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.77-5.78, P < 0.001).Conclusions: The osmotic laxative was more effective at achieving lower rectal gas levels than a bulking laxative with probiotic in this study. Larger studies of commonly used laxatives are required to develop recommendations for bowel preparation during radiotherapy to the prostate.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia
11.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661839

RESUMO

Food ingestion is heavily implicated in inducing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD), which affect over one-third of adults in developed countries. The primary aim of this paper was to assess the alignment of dietary assessment and symptom-reporting capture periods in diet-related studies on IBS or FD in adults. Secondary aims were to compare the degree of alignment, validity of symptom-reporting tools and reported significant associations between food ingestion and symptoms. A five-database systematic literature search resulted in 40 included studies, from which data were extracted and collated. The food/diet and symptom capture periods matched exactly in 60% (n = 24/40) of studies, overlapped in 30% (n = 12/40) of studies and were not aligned in 10% (n = 4/40) of studies. Only 30% (n = 12/40) of studies that reported a significant association between food and global gastrointestinal symptoms used a validated symptom-reporting tool. Of the thirty (75%) studies that reported at least one significant association between individual gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intake, only four (13%) used a validated symptom tool. Guidelines to ensure that validated symptom-reporting tools are matched with fit-for-purpose dietary assessment methods are needed to minimise discrepancies in the alignment of food and symptom tools, in order to progress functional gastrointestinal disorder research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Dieta , Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos
12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514395

RESUMO

The increase in packaged food and beverage portion sizes has been identified as a potential factor implicated in the rise of the prevalence of obesity. In this context, the objective of this systematic scoping review was to investigate how healthy adults perceive and interpret serving size information on food packages and how this influences product perception and consumption. Such knowledge is needed to improve food labelling understanding and guide consumers toward healthier portion size choices. A search of seven databases (2010 to April 2019) provided the records for title and abstract screening, with relevant articles assessed for eligibility in the full-text. Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria, with relevant data extracted by one reviewer and checked for consistency by a second reviewer. Twelve studies were conducted in North America, where the government regulates serving size information. Several studies reported a poor understanding of serving size labelling. Indeed, consumers interpreted the labelled serving size as a recommended serving for dietary guidelines for healthy eating rather than a typical consumption unit, which is set by the manufacturer or regulated in some countries such as in the U.S. and Canada. Not all studies assessed consumption; however, larger labelled serving sizes resulted in larger self-selected portion sizes in three studies. However, another study performed on confectionary reported the opposite effect, with larger labelled serving sizes leading to reduced consumption. The limited number of included studies showed that labelled serving size affects portion size selection and consumption, and that any labelled serving size format changes may result in increased portion size selection, energy intake and thus contribute to the rise of the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Research to test cross-continentally labelled serving size format changes within experimental and natural settings (e.g., at home) are needed. In addition, tailored, comprehensive and serving-size-specific food literacy initiatives need to be evaluated to provide recommendations for effective serving size labelling. This is required to ensure the correct understanding of nutritional content, as well as informing food choices and consumption, for both core foods and discretionary foods.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Porção de Referência , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aust J Rural Health ; 27(5): 392-397, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the Rural Research Capacity Building Program on self-reported research experience of rural health workers. DESIGN: A repeat cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-reported research experience at the commencement and completion of a novice researcher development program. SETTING: Candidates in the Rural Research Capacity Building Program are health workers employed in the rural NSW public health service who have not completed research higher degrees. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and thirty candidates of the Rural Research Capacity Building Program from the 2006 to 2013 cohorts were participated. INTERVENTIONS: The Rural Research Capacity Building Program is an experiential learning program in which candidates gain research experience by undertaking a new, self-selected, local health service endorsed research project over a 2-year period, supported by 10 days face-to-face teaching, weekly teleconferencing and mentoring. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in self-assessed research experience using a validated 10-item measurement tool known as the Research Spider which measures 10 domains of research experience. RESULTS: Reported research experience demonstrated statistically significant increases across all 10 domains of research experience. The largest change was 'writing and presenting a research report' and 'writing a research protocol'. CONCLUSIONS: Significant increases in Research Spider results across all 10 domains demonstrated that completing the Rural Research Capacity Building Program significantly improves self-assessed research experience. Rural health workers who are experienced and confident to undertake research are more capable of studying health problems and finding solutions unique to the rural setting.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde da População Rural/educação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959779

RESUMO

Shared plate eating is a defining feature of the way food is consumed in some countries and cultures. Food may be portioned to another serving vessel or directly consumed into the mouth from a centralised dish rather than served individually onto a discrete plate for each person. Shared plate eating is common in some low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMIC). The aim of this narrative review was to synthesise research that has reported on the assessment of dietary intake from shared plate eating, investigate specific aspects such as individual portion size or consumption from shared plates and use of technology in order to guide future development work in this area. Variations of shared plate eating that were identified in this review included foods consumed directly from a central dish or shared plate food, served onto additional plates shared by two or more people. In some settings, a hierarchical sharing structure was reported whereby different family members eat in turn from the shared plate. A range of dietary assessment methods have been used in studies assessing shared plate eating with the most common being 24-h recalls. The tools reported as being used to assist in the quantification of food intake from shared plate eating included food photographs, portion size images, line drawings, and the carrying capacity of bread, which is often used rather than utensils. Overall few studies were identified that have assessed and reported on methods to assess shared plate eating, highlighting the identified gap in an area of research that is important in improving understanding of, and redressing dietary inadequacies in LLMIC.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Avaliação Nutricional , Tamanho da Porção , Humanos
15.
Curr Obes Rep ; 8(2): 53-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877574

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the issues related to the measurement and interpretation of dietary intake in individuals with overweight and obesity, as well as identifies future research priorities. RECENT FINDINGS: Some aspects of the assessment of dietary intake have improved through the application of technology-based methods and the use of dietary biomarkers. In populations with overweight and obesity, misreporting bias related to social desirability is a prominent issue. Future efforts should focus on combining technology-based dietary methods with the use of dietary biomarkers to help reduce and account for the impact of these biases. Future research will be important in terms of strengthening methods used in the assessment and interpretation of dietary intake data in the context of overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Viés , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Desejabilidade Social
16.
Children (Basel) ; 7(1)2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892113

RESUMO

One in five Australian pre-schoolers are overweight or obese, meaning the first years of life are vital for obesity primary prevention. Parent child feeding practices impact on children's dietary intake, which in turn impacts on their weight status. Parents' child feeding beliefs are heavily influenced by parenting peers. The aim of this cohort study is to evaluate the impact of the Parents in Child Nutrition Informing Community (PICNIC) study on parents feeding practices and diet quality. The secondary outcomes are the perceptions of trained peer educators and education recipients based on their involvement in PICNIC. One hundred parents with a child aged 0-2 years at time of recruitment will participate in peer educator training, then disseminate nutrition and child feeding content to other parents over an intervention period of 12 months, supported by project-specific, evidence-based social media pages and website. An additional 100 new parents, recruited by peer educators, will participate in the study as nutrition education recipients. Both peer educators and education recipients will complete quantitative child feeding surveys before and during the 12 month intervention and a dietary intake survey at a time point 12 months post intervention. Following the intervention, 30 education recipients will be asked to participate in semi-structured phone interviews about their experiences with PICNIC. Peer educators will contribute as co-researchers and active participants in the evolution of the PICNIC model. This study will contribute to enhanced understanding of contemporary health literacy strategies for communicating nutrition and feeding messages to new parents and the impact of these strategies on parents feeding practices and children's dietary intake in a community setting.

17.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep ; 16(7): 1495-1502, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995710

RESUMO

REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: To update an existing systematic review series of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that include a dietary intervention for the management of overweight or obesity in children or adolescents.Specifically, the review questions are: In randomized controlled trials of interventions which include a dietary intervention for the management of overweight or obesity in children or adolescents.


Assuntos
Dietética/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Appetite ; 128: 50-57, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859775

RESUMO

Guidance for food consumption and portion control plays an important role in the global management of overweight and obesity. Carefully conceptualised serving size labelling can contribute to this guidance. However, little is known about the relationship between the information that is provided regarding serving sizes on food packages and levels of actual food consumption. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how serving size information on food packages influences food consumption. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence published between 1980 and March 2018. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts for relevance and assessed relevant articles for eligibility in full-text. Five studies were considered eligible for the systematic review. In three of the included studies, changes in serving size labelling resulted in positive health implications for consumers, whereby less discretionary foods were consumed, if serving sizes were smaller or if serving size information was provided alongside contextual information referring to the entire package. One study did not find significant differences between the conditions they tested and one study suggested a potentially negative impact, if the serving size was reduced. The influence of labelled serving size on consumption of non-discretionary foods remains unclear, which is partially due to the absence of studies specifically focusing on non-discretionary food groups. Studies that investigate the impact of serving size labels within the home environment and across a broad demographic cross-section are required.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Tamanho da Porção de Referência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 18(2): 4468, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased publication of clinician-led health research is important for improving patient care and health outcomes. The aim of this retrospective cohort study conducted in rural Australia was to determine the impact of a writing for publication (WFP) program delivered by teleconference on the publication rates and skill acquisition of novice researchers who have graduated from the New South Wales (NSW) Health Education and Training Institute Rural Research Capacity Building Program (RRCBP). METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, eight WFP 'bootcamp' programs were offered by the New South Wales Health Education and Training Institute to 112 RRCBP graduates, resulting in 50 participants completing at least one bootcamp. Participants completed a once-weekly WFP group teleconference for six consecutive weeks, and were expected to complete homework activities between sessions and participate in two follow-up teleconferences within 3 months of program conclusion. The primary outcome measure was manuscript publication resulting from participation in bootcamp, with secondary measures being changes in skills, knowledge and confidence in WFP, publication rate and cost per publication. RESULTS: Twenty-one participants (42%) published their bootcamp paper or a related paper that directly resulted from bootcamp WFP skills. Five other participants submitted their bootcamp manuscript for publication, but had not yet had it accepted for publication. The overall publication rate of RRCBP graduates who completed bootcamp was 0.80 compared to 0.23 who did not complete bootcamp. On a 1 to 5 scale, mean scores increased for writing (knowledge, experience, confidence) from 2.0 to 3.5 (p<0.01) and for publishing from 1.1 to 3.4 (p<0.01). The estimated cost incurred by the RRCBP to deliver the program was $230 per publication. CONCLUSION: WFP workshops delivered by teleconference support rural clinician researchers to improve their skills in writing and publishing. A remotely conducted WFP program was effective in increasing publication rates among novice researchers who had conducted a clinically based research project. This shows that novice researchers respond to similar intervention features as experienced researchers do when engaging with WFP, and that WFP outcomes can be increased substantially with modest investment of funding and resources by the host organisation.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Pesquisadores/educação , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Redação/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , New South Wales , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Autoeficácia
20.
Nutr Diet ; 75(3): 291-306, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446218

RESUMO

AIM: Grandparents are assuming increased child-caregiving responsibilities, which potentially influences the dietary intake of grandchildren. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the influence of grandparental care on the dietary intake, food-related behaviours, food choices and weight status of their preschool and school-aged grandchildren. METHODS: Six electronic health databases were searched in January 2017. Inclusion criteria were publication in English language, peer-reviewed journal between 2000 and 2017; children aged 2-12 years; study outcomes included child dietary intake/weight status, grandparent nutrition knowledge/beliefs or grandparent/parent feeding practices. Included studies were appraised for quality and bias. The review was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016047518. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were identified in the review, published between 2007 and 2016, with 15 assessed as moderate or high quality. Nine studies reported grandparental child feeding attitudes and behaviours that are considered to negatively influence child dietary intake, while three studies identified positive influences. Seven studies identified that differences in child feeding attitudes and behaviours between parents and grandparents created conflict and tensions between caregivers, often resulting in poor feeding practices. Statistically significant positive associations (odds ratio 1.47-1.72) between grandparent cohabitation and increased rates of child overweight and obesity were found in four studies. CONCLUSIONS: Grandparents in caregiving roles may negatively influence the dietary intake and weight status of their grandchildren. More rigorous, targeted studies are required to further define the mechanisms by which grandparents' knowledge, attitudes and feeding behaviours may influence child dietary intake. This review suggests that grandparents may be an important audience to target in future child nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Avós/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
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