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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034397

RESUMO

Although myocardial ischaemia usually manifests as a consequence of atherosclerosis-dependent obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease, a significant percentage of patients suffer ischaemic events in the absence of epicardial coronary artery obstruction. Experimental and clinical evidence highlight the abnormalities of the coronary microcirculation as a main cause of myocardial ischaemia in patients with 'normal or near normal' coronary arteries on angiography. Coronary microvascular disturbances have been associated with early stages of atherosclerosis even prior to any angiographic evidence of epicardial coronary stenosis, as well as to other cardiac pathologies such as myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. The main objectives of the manuscript are (i) to provide updated evidence in our current understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of microvascular dysfunction in the heart; (ii) to report on the current knowledge on the relevance of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbid conditions for microcirculatory dysfunction; and (iii) to evidence the relevance of the clinical consequences of microvascular dysfunction. Highlighting the clinical importance of coronary microvascular dysfunction will open the field for research and the development of novel strategies for intervention will encourage early detection of subclinical disease and will help in the stratification of cardiovascular risk in agreement with the new concept of precision medicine.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2173, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034227

RESUMO

Extensive application of coronary intravascular procedures has led to the increased need of understanding the injury inflicted to the coronary arterial wall. We aimed to investigate acute and prolonged coronary endothelial injury as a result of guidewire use, repeated intravascular imaging and stenting. These interventions were performed in swine (N = 37) and injury was assessed per coronary segment (n = 81) using an Evans Blue dye-exclusion-test. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were then used to visualize the extent and nature of acute (<4 hours) and prolonged (5 days) endothelial injury. Guidewire and imaging injury was mainly associated with denudation and returned to control levels at 5 days. IVUS and OCT combined (Evans Blue staining 28 ± 16%) did not lead to more acute injury than IVUS alone (33 ± 15%). Stent placement caused most injury (85 ± 4%) and despite early stent re-endothelialization at 5 days, the endothelium proved highly permeable (97 ± 4% at 5 days; p < 0.001 vs acute). Imaging of in-stent neointima at 28 days after stent placement did not lead to neointimal rupture. Guidewire, IVUS and OCT induce acute endothelial cell damage, which does not increase during repeated imaging, and heals within 5 days. Interestingly, endothelial permeability increases 5 days post stenting despite near complete re-endothelialization.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926020

RESUMO

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is commonly present in patients with metabolic derangements and is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to myocardial ischemia, both in the presence and absence of epicardial coronary atherosclerosis. The latter condition is termed 'ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries' (INOCA). Notwithstanding the high prevalence of INOCA, effective treatment remains elusive. Although to date there is no animal model for INOCA, animal models of CMD, one of the hallmarks of INOCA, offer excellent test models for enhancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of CMD and for investigating novel therapies. This article presents an overview of currently available experimental models of CMD - with an emphasis on metabolic derangements as risk factors - in dogs, swine, rabbits, rats and mice. In all the available animal models, metabolic derangements are most often induced by a high fat diet and/or diabetes mellitus via injection of alloxan or streptozotocin, but there is also a wide variety of spontaneous as well as transgenic animal models which develop metabolic derangements. Depending on number, severity and duration of exposure to risk factors - all these animal models show perturbations in coronary microvascular (endothelial) function and structure, similar to what has been observed in patients with INOCA and co-morbid conditions. The use of these animal models will be instrumental in identifying novel therapeutic targets and for the subsequent development and testing of novel therapeutic interventions to combat ischemic heart disease, the number one cause of death worldwide.

4.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(1): H11-H24, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702972

RESUMO

Recognition that coronary blood flow is tightly coupled with myocardial metabolism has been appreciated for well over half a century. However, exactly how coronary microvascular resistance is tightly coupled with myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇o2) remains one of the most highly contested mysteries of the coronary circulation to this day. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for local metabolic control of coronary blood flow has been confounded by continued debate regarding both anticipated experimental outcomes and data interpretation. For a number of years, coronary venous Po2 has been generally accepted as a measure of myocardial tissue oxygenation and thus the classically proposed error signal for the generation of vasodilator metabolites in the heart. However, interpretation of changes in coronary venous Po2 relative to MV̇o2 are quite nuanced, inherently circular in nature, and subject to confounding influences that remain largely unaccounted for. The purpose of this review is to highlight difficulties in interpreting the complex interrelationship between key coronary outcome variables and the arguments that emerge from prior studies performed during exercise, hemodilution, hypoxemia, and alterations in perfusion pressure. Furthermore, potential paths forward are proposed to help to facilitate further dialogue and study to ultimately unravel what has become the Gordian knot of the coronary circulation.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15586, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666598

RESUMO

Microvascular homeostasis is strictly regulated, requiring close interaction between endothelial cells and pericytes. Here, we aimed to improve our understanding of how microvascular crosstalk affects pericytes. Human-derived pericytes, cultured in absence, or presence of human endothelial cells, were studied by RNA sequencing. Compared with mono-cultured pericytes, a total of 6704 genes were differentially expressed in co-cultured pericytes. Direct endothelial contact induced transcriptome profiles associated with pericyte maturation, suppression of extracellular matrix production, proliferation, and morphological adaptation. In vitro studies confirmed enhanced pericyte proliferation mediated by endothelial-derived PDGFB and pericyte-derived HB-EGF and FGF2. Endothelial-induced PLXNA2 and ACTR3 upregulation also triggered pericyte morphological adaptation. Pathway analysis predicted a key role for TGFß signaling in endothelial-induced pericyte differentiation, whereas the effect of signaling via gap- and adherens junctions was limited. We demonstrate that endothelial cells have a major impact on the transcriptional profile of pericytes, regulating endothelial-induced maturation, proliferation, and suppression of ECM production.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710673

RESUMO

Early mechanical reperfusion of the epicardial coronary artery by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the guideline-recommended treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Successful restoration of epicardial coronary blood flow can be achieved in over 95% of PCI procedures. However, despite angiographically complete epicardial coronary artery patency, in about half of the patients perfusion to the distal coronary microvasculature is not fully restored, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The exact pathophysiological mechanism of post-ischaemic coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is still debated. Therefore, the current review discusses invasive and non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis and quantification of CMD in STEMI in the clinical setting as well as results from experimental in-vitro and in-vivo models focussing on ischaemic-, reperfusion- and inflammatory damage to the coronary microvascular endothelial cells. Finally, we discuss future opportunities to prevent or treat CMD in STEMI patients.

7.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 141(1): 64-69, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640919

RESUMO

Activation of both adenosine A2A and A2B receptors (A2BR) contributes to coronary vasodilation. We previously demonstrated that uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) is a novel vasodilator in the porcine coronary microcirculation, acting mainly on A2AR in smooth muscle cells (SMC). We further investigated whether activation of A2BR is involved in Up4A-mediated coronary SMC relaxation. Both A2AR and A2BR may stimulate H2O2 production leading to activation of KATP channels in SMCs, we also studied the involvement of H2O2 and KATP channels in Up4A-mediated effect. Coronary small arteries dissected from the apex of porcine hearts were mounted on wire myograph for Up4A concentration responses. Up4A-induced coronary SMC relaxation was attenuated by A2AR but not A2BR antagonism or non-selective P2R antagonism, despite greater endogenous A2BR expression vs. A2AR in both coronary small arteries and primary cultured coronary SMCs. Moreover, Up4A-induced coronary SMC relaxation was blunted by H2O2 catabolism. This effect was not altered by KATP channel blockade. Combination of H2O2 catabolism and A2AR antagonism attenuated Up4A-induced coronary SMC relaxation to the similar extent as A2AR antagonism alone. Collectively, Up4A-induced porcine coronary SMC relaxation is mediated by activation of A2AR-H2O2 pathway. This process does not involve A2BR, P2R or KATP channels.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(11): 2338-2352, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In an adult porcine model of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), coronary plaque development was characterized. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the observed inter-individual variation in disease severity, detailed lipoprotein profiles were determined. Approach and Results: FH pigs (3 years old, homozygous LDLR R84C mutation) received an atherogenic diet for 12 months. Coronary atherosclerosis development was monitored using serial invasive imaging and histology. A pronounced difference was observed between mildly diseased pigs which exclusively developed early lesions (maximal plaque burden, 25% [23%-34%]; n=5) and advanced-diseased pigs (n=5) which developed human-like, lumen intruding plaques (maximal plaque burden, 69% [57%-77%]) with large necrotic cores, intraplaque hemorrhage, and calcifications. Advanced-diseased pigs and mildly diseased pigs displayed no differences in conventional risk factors. Additional plasma lipoprotein profiling by size-exclusion chromatography revealed 2 different LDL (low-density lipoprotein) subtypes: regular and larger LDL. Cholesterol, sphingosine-1-phosphate, ceramide, and sphingomyelin levels were determined in these LDL-subfractions using standard laboratory techniques and high-pressure liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry analyses, respectively. At 3 months of diet, regular LDL of advanced-diseased pigs contained relatively more cholesterol (LDL-C; regular/larger LDL-C ratio 1.7 [1.3-1.9] versus 0.8 [0.6-0.9]; P=0.008) than mildly diseased pigs, while larger LDL contained more sphingosine-1-phosphate, ceramides, and sphingomyelins. Larger and regular LDL was also found in plasma of 3 patients with homozygous FH with varying LDL-C ratios. CONCLUSIONS: In our adult FH pig model, inter-individual differences in atherosclerotic disease severity were directly related to the distribution of cholesterol and sphingolipids over a distinct LDL profile with regular and larger LDL shortly after the diet start. A similar LDL profile was detected in patients with homozygous FH.

9.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551803

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) co-exist, and it is estimated that about 50% of HF patients suffer from CKD. Although studies have been performed on the association between CKD and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), less is known about the link between CKD and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Approximately, 50% of all patients with HF suffer from HFpEF, and this percentage is projected to rise in the coming years. Therapies for HFrEF are long established and considered quite successful. In contrast, clinical trials for treatment of HFpEF have all shown negative or disputable results. This is likely due to the multifactorial character and the lack of pathophysiological knowledge of HFpEF. The typical co-existence of HFpEF and CKD is partially due to common underlying comorbidities, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Macrovascular changes accompanying CKD, such as hypertension and arterial stiffening, have been described to contribute to HFpEF development. Furthermore, several renal factors have a direct impact on the heart and/or coronary microvasculature and may underlie the association between CKD and HFpEF. These factors include: (1) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, (2) anemia, (3) hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and increased levels of FGF-23, and (4) uremic toxins. This review critically discusses the above factors, focusing on their potential contribution to coronary dysfunction, left ventricular stiffening, and delayed left ventricular relaxation. We further summarize the directions of novel treatment options for HFpEF based on the contribution of these renal drivers.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504238

RESUMO

AIMS: Atherosclerotic plaque development has been associated with wall shear stress (WSS). However, the multidirectionality of blood flow, and thus of WSS, is rarely taken into account. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively compare five metrics that describe (multidirectional) WSS behaviour and assess how WSS multidirectionality affects coronary plaque initiation and progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult familial hypercholesterolemic pigs (n = 10) that were fed a high-fat diet, underwent imaging of the three main coronary arteries at three time points (3 (T1), 9 (T2) and 10-12 (T3) months). A 3D-geometry of the arterial lumen, in combination with local flow velocity measurements, was used to calculate WSS at T1 and T2. For analysis, arteries were divided into 3mm/45° sectors (n = 3648). Changes in wall thickness, and final plaque composition were assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy-intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and histology. Both in pigs with advanced and mild disease, the highest plaque progression rate was exclusively found at low TAWSS or high multidirectional WSS regions at both T1 and T2. However, the eventually largest plaque growth was located in regions with initial low time-averaged WSS or high multidirectional WSS, that, over time, became exposed to high time-averaged WSS or low multidirectional WSS at T2. Besides plaque size, also the presence of vulnerable plaque components at the last time point was related to low and multidirectional WSS. Almost all WSS metrics had good predictive values for the development of plaque (47-50%), and for advanced fibrous cap atheroma development (59-61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that low and multidirectional WSS promote both initiation and progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The high predictive values of the multidirectional WSS metrics for fibrous cap atheroma development indicate their potential as an additional clinical marker for vulnerable disease. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in coronary atherosclerotic plaque development and destabilization. However, the multidirectionality of WSS is rarely taken into account. In this pre-clinical study, we demonstrated that both plaque initiation and progression were related to low and multidirectional WSS. Therefore, regions exposed to low and/or multidirectional WSS regions throughout disease development, continue to be at risk for further plaque progression. The high predictive values of almost all multidirectional WSS metrics for plaque progression and advanced plaque composition demonstrated the potential of multidirectional WSS as an additional predictive clinical marker for vulnerable disease.

11.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(4): H840-H850, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398061

RESUMO

Assessing right ventricular (RV) functional reserve is important for determining clinical status and prognosis in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this study, we aimed to establish RV oxygen (O2) delivery as a determinant for RV functional reserve during exercise in swine with chronic PH. Chronic PH was induced by pulmonary vein banding (PVB), with sham operation serving as control. RV function and RV O2 delivery were measured over time in chronically instrumented swine, up to 12 wk after PVB at rest and during exercise. At rest, RV afterload (pulmonary artery pressure and arterial elastance) and contractility (Ees and dP/dtmax) were higher in PH compared with control with preserved cardiac index and RV O2 delivery. However, RV functional reserve, as measured by the exercise-induced relative change (Δ) in cardiac index, dP/dtmax, and end-systolic elastance (Ees), was decreased in PH, and RV pulmonary arterial coupling was lower both at rest and during exercise in PH. Furthermore, the increase in RV O2 delivery was attenuated in PH during exercise principally due to a lower systolic coronary blood flow in combination with an attenuated increase in aorta pressure while arterial O2 content was not significantly altered in PH. Moreover, RV O2 delivery reserve correlated with RV functional reserve, Δcardiac index (r2 = 0.85), ΔdP/dtmax (r2 = 0.49), and ΔEes (r2 = 0.70), all P < 0.05. The inability to sufficiently increase RV O2 supply to meet the increased O2 demand during exercise is principally due to the reduced RV perfusion relative to healthy control values and likely contributes to impaired RV contractile function and thereby to the limited exercise capacity that is commonly observed in patients with PH.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired right ventricular (RV) O2 delivery reserve is associated with reduced RV functional reserve during exercise in a swine model of pulmonary hypertension (PH) induced by pulmonary vein banding. Our data suggest that RV function and exercise capacity might be improved by improving RV O2 delivery.

12.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409013

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a result of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is extremely difficult to treat. The ideal therapy should not target the high-pressure/low-flow (HP/LF) vasculature that drains into stenotic veins, but only the high-pressure/high-flow (HP/HF) vasculature draining into unaffected pulmonary veins, reducing vascular resistance and pressure without risk of pulmonary oedema. We aimed to assess the activity of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in PVS during the development of PH, and investigate whether interventions in the NO pathway differentially affect vasodilation in the HP/HF vs. HP/LF territories. Swine underwent pulmonary vein banding (PVB; n = 7) or sham surgery (n = 6) and were chronically instrumented to assess progression of PH. Pulmonary sensitivity to exogenous NO (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and the contribution of endogenous NO were assessed bi-weekly. The pulmonary vasodilator response to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibition was assessed 12 weeks after PVB or sham surgery. After sacrifice, 12 weeks post-surgery, interventions in the NO pathway on pulmonary small arteries isolated from HP/LF and HP/HF territories were further investigated. There were no differences in the in vivo pulmonary vasodilator response to SNP and the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibition up to 8 weeks after PVB as compared to the sham group. However, at 10 and 12 weeks post-PVB, the in vivo pulmonary vasodilation in response to SNP was larger in the PVB group. Similarly, the vasoconstriction to eNOS inhibition was larger in the PVB group, particularly during exercise, while pulmonary vasodilation in response to PDE5 inhibition was larger in the PVB group both at rest and during exercise. In isolated pulmonary small arteries, sensitivity to NO donor SNP was similar in PVB vs. sham groups irrespective of HP/LF and HP/HF, while sensitivity to the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was lower in PVB HP/HF and sensitivity to bradykinin was lower in PVB HP/LF. In conclusion, both NO availability and sensitivity were increased in the PVB group. The increased nitric oxide sensitivity was not the result of a decreased PDE5 activity, as PDE5 activity was even increased. Some vasodilators differentially effect HP/HF vs. HP/LF vasculature.

13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(10): 6666-6678, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368189

RESUMO

Obesity and hypertension are prevalent comorbidities in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. To clarify if and how interaction between these comorbidities contributes to development of diastolic dysfunction, lean and obese ZSF1 rats were treated with deoxycorticosterone acetate implants and a high-salt diet (DS) to induce severe hypertension, or with placebo. In addition to echocardiographic, metabolic and hemodynamic analyses, immunohistochemistry and RNAseq were performed on left ventricular tissue. Obesity negatively affected cardiac output, led to an elevated E/e' ratio and mildly reduced ejection fraction. DS-induced hypertension did not affect cardiac output and minimally elevated E/e' ratio. Diastolic derangements in placebo-treated obese rats developed in absence of inflammation and fibrosis, yet in presence of oxidative stress and hypertrophic remodelling. In contrast, hypertension triggered apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, with limited synergy of the comorbidities observed for inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional data suggested that these comorbidities exerted opposite effects on mitochondrial function. In placebo-treated obese rats, genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were up-regulated, whereas DS-induced a down-regulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Overall, limited interaction was observed between these comorbidities in development of diastolic dysfunction. Importantly, differences in obesity- and hypertension-induced cardiac remodelling emphasize the necessity for comorbidity-specific phenotypical characterization.

14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382511

RESUMO

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is an accumulative protein-bound uremic toxin found in patients with kidney disease. It is reported that IS impairs the vascular endothelium, but a comprehensive overview of all mechanisms active in IS-injury currently remains lacking. Here we performed RNA sequencing in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after IS or control medium treatment and identified 1293 genes that were affected in a IS-induced response. Gene enrichment analysis highlighted pathways involved in altered vascular formation and cell metabolism. We confirmed these transcriptome profiles at the functional level by demonstrating decreased viability and increased cell senescence in response to IS treatment. In line with the additional pathways highlighted by the transcriptome analysis, we further could demonstrate that IS exposure of HUVECs promoted tubule formation as shown by the increase in total tubule length in a 3D HUVECs/pericytes co-culture assay. Notably, the pro-angiogenic response of IS and increased ROS production were abolished when CYP1B1, one of the main target genes that was highly upregulated by IS, was silenced. This observation indicates IS-induced ROS in endothelial cells is CYP1B1-dependent. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IS promotes angiogenesis and CYP1B1 is an important factor in IS-activated angiogenic response.

15.
J Physiol ; 597(17): 4465-4480, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194256

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Right ventricle (RV) function is the most important determinant of survival and quality of life in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The changes in right and left ventricle gene expression that contribute to ventricular remodelling are incompletely investigated. RV remodelling in our CTEPH swine model is associated with increased expression of the genes involved in inflammation (TGFß), oxidative stress (ROCK2, NOX1 and NOX4), and apoptosis (BCL2 and caspase-3). Alterations in ROCK2 expression correlated inversely with RV contractile reserve during exercise. Since ROCK2 has been shown to be involved in hypertrophy, oxidative stress, fibrosis and endothelial dysfunction, ROCK2 inhibition may present a viable therapeutic target in CTEPH. ABSTRACT: Right ventricle (RV) function is the most important determinant of survival and quality of life in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The present study investigated whether the increased cardiac afterload is associated with (i) cardiac remodelling and hypertrophic signalling; (ii) changes in angiogenic factors and capillary density; and (iii) inflammatory changes associated with oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis. CTEPH was induced in eight chronically instrumented swine by chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and up to five weekly pulmonary embolizations. Nine healthy swine served as a control. After 9 weeks, RV function was assessed by single beat analysis of RV-pulmonary artery (PA) coupling at rest and during exercise, as well as by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Subsequently, the heart was excised and RV and left ventricle (LV) tissues were processed for molecular and histological analyses. Swine with CTEPH exhibited significant RV hypertrophy in response to the elevated PA pressure. RV-PA coupling was significantly reduced, correlated inversely with pulmonary vascular resistance and did not increase during exercise in CTEPH swine. Expression of genes associated with hypertrophy (BNP), inflammation (TGFß), oxidative stress (ROCK2, NOX1 and NOX4), apoptosis (BCL2 and caspase-3) and angiogenesis (VEGFA) were increased in the RV of CTEPH swine and correlated inversely with RV-PA coupling during exercise. In the LV, only significant changes in ROCK2 gene-expression occurred. In conclusion, RV remodelling in our CTEPH swine model is associated with increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that these processes contribute to RV remodelling and dysfunction in CTEPH and hence represent potential therapeutic targets.

16.
Microcirculation ; 26(6): e12539, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Swine with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) exhibit attenuated exercise-induced systemic vasodilation that is restored by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition. Whether the impacts of FH and PDE5 inhibition to impair and restore exercise-induced vasodilation, respectively, results from tissue-specific or generalized effects remains unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that FH induces generalized impairment of skeletal muscle vasodilation that would be alleviated by PDE5 inhibition. METHODS: Systemic vascular responses to exercise were assessed in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine before and after PDE5 inhibition with EMD360527. Skeletal muscle and organ blood flows and conductances were determined via the microsphere technique. RESULTS: As previously reported, vs normal swine, FH swine have pronounced elevation of total cholesterol and impaired exercise-induced vasodilation that is restored by PDE5 inhibition. Blood flows to several, not all, skeletal muscle vascular beds were severely impaired by FH associated with reduced blood flow to many visceral organs. PDE5 inhibition differentially impacted skeletal muscle and organ blood flows in normal and FH swine. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that FH induces regional, not generalized, vasomotor dysfunction and that FH and normal swine exhibit unique tissue blood flow responses to PDE5 inhibition thereby adding to accumulating evidence of vascular bed-specific dysfunction in co-morbid conditions.

18.
J Physiol ; 597(4): 1157-1173, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799120

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Passive, isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left heart disease may progress to combined pre- and post-capillary or 'active' PH This 'activation' of post-capillary PH significantly increases morbidity and mortality, and is still incompletely understood. In this study, pulmonary vein banding gradually produced post-capillary PH with structural and functional microvascular remodelling in swine. Ten weeks after banding, the pulmonary endothelin pathway was upregulated, likely contributing to pre-capillary aspects in the initially isolated post-capillary PH. Inhibition of the endothelin pathway could potentially stop the progression of early stage post-capillary PH. ABSTRACT: Passive, isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (IpcPH) secondary to left heart disease may progress to combined pre- and post-capillary or 'active' PH (CpcPH) characterized by chronic pulmonary vascular constriction and remodelling. The mechanisms underlying this 'activation' of passive pulmonary hypertension (PH) remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET) in the progression from IpcPH to CpcPH in a swine model for post-capillary PH. Swine underwent pulmonary vein banding (PVB; n = 7) or sham-surgery (Sham; n = 6) and were chronically instrumented 4 weeks later. Haemodynamics were assessed for 8 weeks, at rest and during exercise, before and after administration of the ET receptor antagonist tezosentan. After sacrifice, the pulmonary vasculature was investigated by histology, RT-qPCR and myograph experiments. Pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance increased significantly over time. mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 in the lung was increased, while ETA expression was unchanged and ETB expression was downregulated. This was associated with increased plasma ET levels from week 10 onward and a more pronounced vasodilatation to in vivo administration of tezosentan at rest and during exercise. Myograph experiments showed decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to Substance P and increased vasoconstriction to KCl in PVB swine consistent with increased muscularization observed with histology. Moreover, maximal vasoconstriction to ET was increased whereas ET sensitivity was decreased. In conclusion, PVB swine gradually developed PH with structural and functional vascular remodelling. From week 10 onward, the pulmonary ET pathway was upregulated, likely contributing to pre-capillary activation of the initially isolated post-capillary PH. Inhibition of the ET pathway could thus potentially provide a pharmacotherapeutic target for early stage post-capillary PH.

19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(5): 963-970, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vivo feasibility of aortography with one accurately timed diastolic low-volume contrast injection for quantitative assessment of aortic regurgitation (AR) post transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: With the rise of a minimalistic approach for TAVR, aortography (re)emerges as a pragmatic tool for AR assessment. In a mock circulation system, we have validated the accuracy of a single diastolic injection triggered by electrocardiogram (ECG) with low-contrast volume. METHODS: Two-phase experiment: first, a series of aortograms were performed in a porcine model, with 8 mL of contrast using the synchronized (SYNC) and the conventional non-synchronized (NS) injections. In a second phase, we developed a model of AR by inserting partially unsheathed Wallstents of 6-10 mm of diameter across the pig's aortic valve, performing SYNC injections with 8 mL of contrast and NS injections with 8 mL and 15 mL (rate: 20 mL/sec). Respective accuracies of SYNC vs. NS were assessed using Passing-Bablock regression. An angiography core laboratory performed quantitative AR assessment with videodensitometry (VD-AR). RESULTS: The SYNC injections produced higher opacification of the aortic root compared with NS injections (P = 0.04 for density). In the second phase, a regression line for predicting VD-AR based on the SYNC injection resulted in a lower intercept and a slope closer to the line of identity (y = 11.9 + 0.79x, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.94) with the NS-8 mL than with the NS-15 mL injection (y = 26.5 + 0.55x, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.81). CONCLUSION: Synchronized diastolic injection with low contrast volume produced denser images in the aortic root and more accurate than the conventional injection; thus, may be an appealing alternative for assessment of AR post TAVR.

20.
Pharmacol Res ; 141: 32-45, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553823

RESUMO

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A), biosynthesized by activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2, was initially identified as a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor in perfused rat kidney. Subsequently, the effect of Up4A on vascular tone regulation was intensively investigated in arteries isolated from different vascular beds in rodents including rat pulmonary arteries, aortas, mesenteric and renal arteries as well as mouse aortas, in which Up4A produces vascular contraction. In contrast, Up4A produces vascular relaxation in porcine coronary small arteries and rat aortas. Intravenous infusion of Up4A into conscious rats or mice decreases blood pressure, and intravenous bolus injection of Up4A into anesthetized mice increases coronary blood flow, indicating an overall vasodilator influence in vivo. Although Up4A is the first dinucleotide described that contains both purine and pyrimidine moieties, its cardiovascular effects are exerted mainly through activation of purinergic receptors. These effects not only encompass regulation of vascular tone, but also endothelial angiogenesis, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular calcification. Furthermore, this review discusses a potential role for Up4A in cardiovascular pathophysiology, as plasma levels of Up4A are elevated in juvenile hypertensive patients and Up4A-mediated vascular purinergic signaling changes in cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Better understanding the vascular effect of the novel dinucleotide Up4A and the purinergic signaling mechanisms mediating its effects will enhance its potential as target for treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos/fisiologia , Receptores Purinérgicos/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
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