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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105163, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848354

RESUMO

An in-depth knowledge of the molecular evolution of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is critical for the success of the current global eradication program. For this reason, a molecular evolutionary analysis of PPRVs circulating in Bangladesh over a decade (2008-2020) was performed. The complete genome sequencing of three PPRV isolates from 2008 (BD2), 2015 (BD12) and 2017 (BD17) as well as full length nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and fusion (F) gene sequencing of seven more samples from 2015 to 2020 was performed. Phylogenetic analysis classified all ten PPRVs from Bangladesh as members of lineage IV and showed that they were closely related to PPRV strains detected in China and Tibet during 2007-2008, and India during 2014-2018. Time scale Bayesian Maximum Clade Credibility (MCC) phylogenetic analysis of the three complete genomes revealed a mean Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of 2000. Comparative deduced amino acid residue analysis at various functional motifs of PPRVs related to virus structure and function, virulence and host adaptation, receptor binding sites and polymerase activity revealed conserved residues among the PPRVs from Bangladesh. In total sixteen epitopes were predicted from four immunogenic proteins i.e. N, M, F and haemagglutinin (H). Interestingly, the predicted epitopes from the N and M proteins shared conserved epitopes with two vaccine strains currently being used, indicating that the strains from Bangladesh could be potentially used as alternative local vaccines.

2.
Vet Res Commun ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750750

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has been associated with an assortment of clinical conditions in pigs and has been reported in many countries worldwide. In Africa there is no data on the presence of PCV-3. In this study, DNA samples collected from 91 pigs between 2011 and 2019 in nine of the ten provinces of Mozambique in the context of African swine fever (ASF) monitoring were further screened for the presence of PCV-3. Of these samples, 7 (7.5%) animals were positive for PCV-3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein gene (ORF2) of the PCV-3s provided evidence of epidemiological links with PCV-3s identified in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. This is the first identification of PCV-3 in Mozambique (and Africa) and the first evidence of co-infection of PCV-3 and ASF virus. It should provide a starting point for further investigations into the presence and impact of PCV-3 in Africa.

3.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826000

RESUMO

Archival swine DNA samples from Indonesia and Mongolia, some of which were previously shown to be positive for African swine fever virus, were screened for the presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) and porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) by PCR. Samples from both countries were positive for PCV-2 (three from Mongolia and two from Indonesia), while none were positive for PCV-3. The PCV-2 amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PCV-2 strains belonged to four different genotypes: PCV-2a (Mongolia), PCV-2b (Mongolia and Indonesia), PCV-2d (Indonesia), and PCV-2g (Mongolia). This is the first report of ASFV/PCV-2 coinfection in pigs and the first report of the presence of PCV-2 in Mongolia.

4.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832558

RESUMO

For several years after its discovery, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) represented a major threat to the swine industry through economic losses due to the associated clinical syndromes, decreased production performances in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals and disease management costs. Widespread vaccination administration has largely reduced the impact of this infection and represents the most effective control measure. The efficacy of vaccination is threatened by the emergence of novel (or uncommon) PCV-2 genotypes. In addition to domestic pigs, PCV-2 has been detected in several other species, a fact which could have an impact on new variant emergence and maintenance. Considering this, the present study assessed the distribution of the minor PCV-2c genotype in non-Suidae ungulates in Namibia. Red hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) (n = 44), kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (n = 10) and oryxes (Oryx gazella) (n = 54), whose mediastinal lymph nodes were sampled after slaughtering during the period 2019-2021, were included in the study. Two oryxes (3.7%; 95% CI = 0.45-12.75%) were PCV-2-positive by PCR. Complete genome sequence was obtained for the two samples identifying them as PCV-2c genotype. The sequences were identical and shared a high percentage of identity (~99.9%) with those recently obtained from warthogs living in the same area. The present study confirms the presence of the PCV-2c genotype (previously considered extinct) in Namibian wild animal populations and demonstrates greater than expected PCV-2 host plasticity. Because of the role these niches can have in the maintenance and evolution of minor PCV-2 genotypes, more extensive and dedicated studies should be performed to prepare authorities to promptly react to potential emerging threats from these viruses.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812571

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is associated with several disease syndromes in domestic pigs that have a significant impact on global pig production and health. Currently, little is known about the status of PCV-2 in Africa. In this study, a total of 408 archived DNA samples collected from pigs in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia between 2000 and 2018 were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2. Positive amplicons of the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (ORF2) were sequenced to determine the genotypes circulating in each country. Four of the nine currently known genotypes of PCV-2 were identified (i.e. PCV-2a, PCV-2b, PCV-2d and PCV-2 g) with more than one genotype being identified in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Mozambique, Senegal and Zambia. Additionally, a phylogeographic analysis which included 38 additional ORF2 gene sequences of PCV-2s previously identified in Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa from 2014 to 2016 and 2019 to 2020 and available in public databases, demonstrated the existence of several African-specific clusters and estimated the approximate time of introduction of PCV-2s into Africa from other continents. This is the first in-depth study of PCV-2 in Africa and it has important implications for pig production at both the small-holder and commercial farm level on the continent.

6.
J Wildl Dis ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699593

RESUMO

In April 2020, two Whooper Swans (Cygnus cygnus) and one Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) were found dead at three different locations in western Mongolia. Virus isolation from organs taken from the carcasses and full genome sequencing revealed that all three birds were positive for highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (HPAIV) belonging to subclade 2.3.4.4h. Confirming similar reports from central Mongolia and western China, these findings have important implications for the monitoring, control, and management of HPAIVs in wild bird and commercial poultry populations in Mongolia.

7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452513

RESUMO

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in humans from a yet unidentified animal reservoir and the capacity of the virus to naturally infect pets, farmed animals and potentially wild animals has highlighted the need for serological surveillance tools. In this study, the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS), employing the spike (S) and nucleocapsid proteins (N) of SARS-CoV-2, was used to examine the suitability of the assay for antibody detection in different animal species. Sera from SARS-CoV-2 naturally-infected mink (n = 77), SARS-CoV-2 experimentally-infected ferrets, fruit bats and hamsters and a rabbit vaccinated with a purified spike protein were examined for antibodies using the SARS-CoV-2 N and/or S proteins. From comparison with the known neutralization status of the serum samples, statistical analyses including calculation of the Spearman rank-order-correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa agreement were used to interpret the antibody results and diagnostic performance. The LIPS immunoassay robustly detected the presence of viral antibodies in naturally infected SARS-CoV-2 mink, experimentally infected ferrets, fruit bats and hamsters as well as in an immunized rabbit. For the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-S assay, there was a good level of discrimination between the positive and negative samples for each of the five species tested with 100% agreement with the virus neutralization results. In contrast, the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-N assay did not consistently differentiate between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative sera. This study demonstrates the suitability of the SARS-CoV-2-LIPS-S assay for the sero-surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a range of animal species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/veterinária , Vison/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Quirópteros/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Furões/imunologia , Imunoprecipitação , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Coelhos/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114200, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087339

RESUMO

Transmission mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 requires the availability of accurate and sensitive detection methods. There are several commercial ad hoc molecular diagnostic kits currently on the market, many of which have been evaluated by different groups. However, in low resource settings the availability and cost of these commercial kits can be a limiting factor for many diagnostic laboratories. In such cases alternatives need to be identified. With this in mind, eight commercial reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) master mixes from Applied Biosystems (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Bio-Rad, Biotech Rabbit, Promega, Qiagen, QuantaBio, Invitrogen (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and Takara using the same commercial primer and probe mix [LightMix® Modular SARS and Wuhan CoV E-gene mix (TIB MolBiol, Germany)] were evaluated. Three ad hoc molecular diagnostic kits [GeneFinder™ COVID-19 Plus RealAmp kit (Osang Healthcare); genesig® Real-Time PCR Coronavirus COVID-19 (Primerdesign); and ViroReal® Kit SARS-CoV-2 & SARS-CoV (Ingenetix)] were also included in the study. The limit of detection was calculated for each assay using serial dilutions of a defined clinical sample. The performances of the assays were compared using a panel of 178 clinical samples and their analytical specificity assessed against a panel of human betacoronaviruses. Inter assay agreement was assessed using statistical tests (Bland-Altman, Fleiss-Kappa and Cohen's Kappa) and was shown to be excellent to good in all cases. We conclude that all of the assays evaluated in this study can be used for the routine detection of SARS-CoV-2 and that the RT-qPCR master mixes are a valid alternative to ad hoc molecular diagnostic kits.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(3): 708-711, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961035

RESUMO

Nasal swabs collected from 40 wild ruminants in Namibia were analyzed by PCR for the presence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) DNA. One sample from an asymptomatic eland (Taurotragus oryx) tested positive, providing the first evidence of the presence of LSDV DNA in an eland.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2787-2794, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818903

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a severe haemorrhagic disease of domestic and wild pigs caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). In recent years, ASF has steadily spread towards new geographical areas, reaching Europe and Asia. On January 15th, 2019, Mongolia reported its first ASF outbreak to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), becoming, after China, the second country in the region affected by the disease. Following an event of unusual mortality in domestic pigs in Bulgan Province, a field team visited four farms and a meat market in the region to conduct an outbreak investigation and collect samples for laboratory analysis. Different organs were examined for ASF associated lesions, and total nucleic acid was extracted for real-time PCR, virus isolation and molecular characterization. The real-time PCR results confirmed ASFV DNA in 10 out of 10 samples and ASFV was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis established that ASFVs from Mongolia belong to genotype II and serogroup 8. The viruses were identical to each other, and to domestic pig isolates identified in China and Russia, based on the comparison of five genomic targets. Our results suggest a cross-border spread of ASFV, without indicating the source of infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Mongólia , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2890-2896, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725423

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and contagious viral haemorrhagic disease of domestic and wild pigs, caused by the ASF virus (ASFV). After entering China in 2018, the disease has continued to spread through Asia. In September 2019, a team from the Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Bogor, investigated outbreaks in backyard pigs in the Dairi and Humbang Hasundutan districts of North Sumatra province. In January 2020, three pigs purchased from a pig seller in Bogor District, West Java province were also tested. Real-time PCR results confirmed ASFV DNA in sixteen out of twenty-nine samples, with nine positive samples from North Sumatra and seven from West Java. Four partial or full-length genes (i.e. p72, p54, pB602L and CD2v) and a 356-bp fragment between the I73R and I329L genes were sequenced from representative samples. Phylogenetic analysis established that the ASFV in the samples from both North Sumatra and West Java were identical, indicating a common source of infection, and that they belonged to the p72 genotype II and serogroup 8. The sequences from the Indonesian ASFVs were also identical to other genotype II ASFV from domestic pigs in Vietnam, China and Russia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(6): 1723-1728, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721098

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is the causative agent of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). A study was undertaken to determine whether PCV-2 was present in samples collected from commercial pigs (n = 46) and warthogs (n = 42) in Namibia between 2019 and 2020. Twenty-three of the collected samples were positive by PCR (13 from pigs and 10 from warthogs), and a phylogenetic analysis of ORF2 identified three genotypes (PCV-2b and PCV-2d in pigs and PCV-2c in warthogs). This is the first time that PCV-2 has been identified in warthogs and in Namibia. It is also the first report of PCV-2c in Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Genótipo , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
13.
Virus Genes ; 57(1): 100-105, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130962

RESUMO

The causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) of poultry is the avian paramyxovirus-1, also commonly known as ND virus (NDV). Like in many developing countries, ND is endemic in Niger and has significant economic impact on commercial and backyard poultry production. NDVs were characterized in Niger between 2006 and 2008 and shown to belong to genotypes XIV.1 and XVII. In order to determine the current situation regarding the virus in Niger, tracheas (n = 384) were collected for the detection of NDV from both healthy (n = 335) and sick (n = 49) backyard poultry in 2019. Of these samples, 24 from sick chickens were positive for NDV by conventional RT-PCR. Sequencing of the fusion protein gene and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viruses belonged to either genotype XIV.2 or XVIII.2. No NDVs of genotype XIV.1 or XVII were identified in the current study highlighting the dynamic nature of NDV circulation in Niger and the region.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Genótipo , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Níger/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1253-1262, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770642

RESUMO

Since November 2018, several countries in West and Central Africa have reported mortalities in donkeys and horses. Specifically, more than 66,000 horses and donkeys have succumbed to disease in Burkina Faso, Chad, Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal. Strangles caused by Streptococcus equi subsp equi, African Horse Sickness (AHS) virus, and Equine influenza virus (EIV) were all suspected as potential causative agents. This study reports the identification of EIV in field samples collected in Niger and Senegal. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed that the identified viruses belonged to clade 1 of the Florida sublineage and were very similar to viruses identified in Nigeria in 2019. Interestingly, they were also more similar to EIVs from recent outbreaks in South America than to those in Europe and the USA. This is one of the first reports providing detailed description and characterization of EIVs in West and Central Africa region.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Genes Virais , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Neuraminidase/genética , Níger/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Senegal/epidemiologia
15.
Virus Genes ; 56(5): 651-656, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696325

RESUMO

Although rabies is enzootic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there is very little molecular epidemiological information about the viruses circulating in animals. In this study, a fragment of the rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein gene was amplified and sequenced from 21 animal brain samples collected in two western provinces of the country between 2008 and 2017. The samples tested were from cat (n = 1), dog (n = 17), goat (n = 2), and sheep (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences generated were highly similar to each other and belonged to lineage Africa 1b clustering with a single sample identified in a canine in the Republic of Congo in 2014. This is the first molecular epidemiological study of RABV in the DRC and the data generated will assist authorities in the development of effective control strategies for rabies in the country.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Gatos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Cães , Cabras , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2147-2163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653984

RESUMO

Small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. Their husbandry is threatened by the highly infectious transboundary viral disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Given its social and economic impact, PPR is presently being targeted by international organizations for global eradication by 2030. Since its first description in Côte d'Ivoire in 1942, and particularly over the last 10 years, a large amount of molecular epidemiological data on the virus have been generated in Africa. This review aims to consolidate these data in order to have a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Africa, which will, in turn, assist authorities in global eradication attempts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
17.
Virus Genes ; 56(5): 646-650, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564183

RESUMO

Avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1), the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic and wild avian species, has recently been reported and characterized in five southern African countries (i.e. Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Since APMV-1s have never been characterized in Botswana, this study was undertaken to determine the genotype circulating in the country. Fourteen samples were collected from ND outbreaks in poultry in 2014, 2018 and 2019 and the complete fusion protein gene was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the viruses from Botswana clustered in genotype VII.2 (previously subgenotype VIIh) and that they were more related to viruses from South Africa and Mozambique than the other southern African countries (i.e. Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe).


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doença de Newcastle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/classificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 1008-1014, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650681

RESUMO

Five samples were collected from four suspected outbreaks of African swine fever in Namibia in 2018. Sequencing of the C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), the central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, the E183L gene (p54 protein) and the CD2v (used to determine the serogroup) was performed on DNA isolated from the samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the B646L (p72) revealed that one of the samples belonged to genotype I while the remaining samples could not be assigned to any currently known genotype. In contrast, by using the E183L gene three of the samples were shown to belong to genotype Id and only two were of unknown genotype. Based on the analysis of the partial CD2v amino acid sequences of four of the samples, one of the viruses clustered with serogroup 2 while the other three did not cluster within any of the eight known serogroups. Examination of the CVR identified three variants with 8, 18 and 24 tetrameric tandem repeat sequences. This study indicates that at least three different genetically distinct ASFV are currently present in Namibia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genótipo , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Suínos
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(1): 214-218, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483707

RESUMO

In January 2019, high mortalities were reported among African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in a breeding colony on Halifax Island, Namibia, Africa. Analysis of samples by reverse transcription quantitative PCR indicated the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes confirmed the presence of the virus in the birds and its high similarity to HPAI subtype H5N8 identified in South Africa in 2017. There have been no previous reports of HPAI H5N8 in Namibia.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Spheniscidae/virologia , Animais , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Namíbia/epidemiologia
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1388-1392, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838763

RESUMO

Like many West African countries, outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important disease of goats and sheep, are regularly reported in Niger. The causative virus, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), can be differentiated into four genetically distinct lineages. A publication in 2018 identified three PPRV lineages circulating in the country in 2001 (lineages I and II) and 2013 (lineage IV), respectively. In this present study, more recent samples were collected from goats and sheep in locations throughout Niger between 2011 and 2017. Twelve PPRV-positive samples were characterized by sequencing of a segment of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences identified viruses from lineages II and IV only. The analysis also indicated a shared origin of the viruses from Niger with PPRVs from neighbouring countries suggesting transboundary movement.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , África Ocidental , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/virologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Filogenia , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
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