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1.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12859, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early life is a critical window for adiposity programming. Metabolic-profile in early life may reflect this programming and correlate with later life adiposity. We investigated if metabolic-profile at 3 months of age is predictive for body composition at 2 years and if there are differences between boys and girls and between infant feeding types. METHODS: In 318 healthy term-born infants, we determined body composition with skinfold measurements and abdominal ultrasound at 3 months and 2 years of age. High-throughput-metabolic-profiling was performed on 3-month-blood-samples. Using random-forest-machine-learning-models, we studied if the metabolic-profile at 3 months can predict body composition outcomes at 2 years of age. RESULTS: Plasma metabolite-profile at 3 months was found to predict body composition at 2 years, based on truncal: peripheral-fat-skinfold-ratio (T:P-ratio), with a predictive value of 75.8%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%. Predictive value was higher in boys (Q2  = 0.322) than girls (Q2  = 0.117). Of the 15 metabolite variables most strongly associated with T:P-ratio, 11 were also associated with visceral fat at 2 years of age. CONCLUSION: Several plasma metabolites (LysoPC(22:2), dimethylarginine and others) at 3 months associate with body composition outcome at 2 years. These results highlight the importance of the first months of life for adiposity programming.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1968598, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of obesity are rising in South Africa, notably among adolescent females. Excessive energy-dense diets and physical inactivity are among the factors contributing to this increase. Given that these factors are largely behavioural, understanding young people's views of obesity can contribute to more targeted behavioural interventions. Yet little is known of how rural South African adolescents view obesity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore rural South African adolescents' views of obesity, including their understanding of its causes, consequences, and solutions. METHODS: This qualitative study took place within the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) study area, in rural northeast South Africa. Three focus group discussions were held with male (n = 16) and female adolescents (n = 15), aged 14-19 years in 2018. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Social Cognitive Theory used to frame the findings. RESULTS: Participants presented conflicting views of obesity, with both positive and negative opinions expressed. Causes of obesity were seen to be multifactorial, including genetics, diet, lack of physical activity, and HIV treatment. Adolescents proposed medication and hospitalisation as ways to address obesity. When discussing interventions to address obesity, adolescents expressed the need for more information, suggesting that providing information to both themselves and their family members as part of interventions would be important. CONCLUSIONS: Rural South African adolescents have a complex perspective of obesity, likely driven in part by the current nutrition transition underway and do not inherently see individual behaviour as a driver or mitigator of obesity. Complex interventions including the involvement of other household members are needed to change adolescents' views on the role of the individual, and ultimately, change both individual and household behaviour to prevent obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade , População Rural , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371987

RESUMO

It was previously observed that in a population of a high-income country, dietary multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and increased offspring size at birth. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether similar changes are observed with dietary iron supplementation. For this we used the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study with records of maternal GDM status, nutrient supplementation, and extensive offspring birth size measurements. Maternal iron supplementation in pregnancy was associated with GDM development (risk ratio 1.67 (1.01-2.77), p = 0.048, n = 677) as well as offspring size and adiposity (n = 844-868) at birth in terms of weight (ß' = 0.078 (0.024-0.133); p = 0.005), head circumference (ß' = 0.060 (0.012-0.107); p = 0.02), body mass index (ß' = 0.067 (0.014-0.119); p = 0.01), and various skinfold thicknesses (ß' = 0.067-0.094; p = 0.03-0.003). In a subset of participants for whom GDM statuses were available, all these associations were attenuated by adjusting for GDM. Iron supplementation also attenuated the associations between multiple micronutrient supplementation and these same measures. These results suggest that iron supplementation may mediate the effects associated with multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy in a high-income country, possibly through the increased risk of developing GDM.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445039

RESUMO

Growth and nutrition during early life have been strongly linked to future health and metabolic risks. The Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), a longitudinal birth cohort of 2229 mother-infant pairs, was set up in 2001 to investigate early life determinant factors of infant growth and body composition in the UK setting. To carry out extensive profiling of breastmilk intakes and composition in relation to infancy growth, the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF) was established upon the original CBGS. The strict inclusion criteria were applied, focusing on a normal birth weight vaginally delivered infant cohort born of healthy and non-obese mothers. Crucially, only infants who were exclusively breastfed for the first 6 weeks of life were retained in the analysed study sample. At each visit from birth, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, longitudinal anthropometric measurements and blood spot collections were conducted. Infant body composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 weeks and 3 months of age. Breast milk was collected for macronutrients and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) measurements. Breast milk intake volume was also estimated, as well as sterile breastmilk and infant stool collection for microbiome study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Leite Humano , Valor Nutritivo , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Ganho de Peso
5.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 962-971, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127860

RESUMO

We report the largest and most diverse genetic study of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to date (61,427 participants), yielding 78 genome-wide-significant (P < 5 × 10-8) regions, including 36 that are new. We define credible sets of T1D-associated variants and show that they are enriched in immune-cell accessible chromatin, particularly CD4+ effector T cells. Using chromatin-accessibility profiling of CD4+ T cells from 115 individuals, we map chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci and identify five regions where T1D risk variants co-localize with chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci. We highlight rs72928038 in BACH2 as a candidate causal T1D variant leading to decreased enhancer accessibility and BACH2 expression in T cells. Finally, we prioritize potential drug targets by integrating genetic evidence, functional genomic maps and immune protein-protein interactions, identifying 12 genes implicated in T1D that have been targeted in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases. These findings provide an expanded genomic landscape for T1D.


Assuntos
Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genômica , Autoimunidade/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas
6.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1852-1859, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the link between HLA polymorphisms that predispose to type 1 diabetes and birth size, infancy growth, and/or circulating IGF-I in a general population-based birth cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study is a prospective observational birth cohort study that recruited 2,229 newborns for follow-up in infancy. Of these, 612 children had DNA available for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA region that capture the highest risk of type 1 diabetes: rs17426593 for DR4, rs2187668 for DR3, and rs7454108 for DQ8. Multivariate linear regression models at critical ages (cross-sectional) and mixed-effects models (longitudinal) were performed under additive genetic effects to test for associations between HLA polymorphisms and infancy weight, length, skinfold thickness (indicator of adiposity), and concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). RESULTS: In longitudinal models, the minor allele of rs2187668 tagging DR3 was associated with faster linear growth (P = 0.007), which was more pronounced in boys (P = 3 × 10-7) than girls (P = 0.07), and was also associated with increasing IGF-I (P = 0.002) and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.003) concentrations in infancy. Cross-sectionally, the minor alleles of rs7454108 tagging DQ8 and rs17426593 tagging DR4 were associated with lower IGF-I concentrations at age 12 months (P = 0.003) and greater skinfold thickness at age 24 months (P = 0.003), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The variable associations of DR4, DR3, and DQ8 alleles with growth measures and IGF-I levels in infants from the general population could explain the heterogeneous growth trajectories observed in genetically at-risk cohorts. These findings could suggest distinct mechanisms involving endocrine pathways related to the HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR3/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR4 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(11): e12818, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropometry-based equations are commonly used to estimate infant body composition. However, existing equations were designed for newborns or adolescents. We aimed to (a) derive new prediction equations in infancy against air-displacement plethysmography (ADP-PEA Pod) as the criterion, (b) validate the newly developed equations in an independent infant cohort and (c) compare them with published equations (Slaughter-1988, Aris-2013, Catalano-1995). METHODS: Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), UK, had anthropometry data at 6 weeks (N = 55) and 3 months (N = 64), including skinfold thicknesses (SFT) at four sites (triceps, subscapular, quadriceps and flank) and ADP-derived total body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Prediction equations for FM and FFM were developed in CBGS using linear regression models and were validated in Sophia Pluto cohort, the Netherlands, (N = 571 and N = 447 aged 3 and 6 months, respectively) using Bland-Altman analyses to assess bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA). RESULTS: CBGS equations consisted of sex, age, weight, length and SFT from three sites and explained 65% of the variance in FM and 79% in FFM. In Sophia Pluto, these equations showed smaller mean bias than the three published equations in estimating FM: mean bias (LOA) 0.008 (-0.489, 0.505) kg at 3 months and 0.084 (-0.545, 0.713) kg at 6 months. Mean bias in estimating FFM was 0.099 (-0.394, 0.592) kg at 3 months and -0.021 (-0.663, 0.621) kg at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: CBGS prediction equations for infant FM and FFM showed better validity in an independent cohort at ages 3 and 6 months than existing equations.

8.
Glycobiology ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142145

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are indigestible carbohydrates with prebiotic, pathogen decoy, and immunomodulatory activities that are theorized to substantially impact infant health. The objective of this study was to monitor HMO concentrations over one year to develop a long-term longitudinal dataset. HMO concentrations in the breast milk of healthy lactating mothers of the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF) were measured at birth, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. HMO quantification was conducted by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection using a newly validated "dilute-and-shoot" method. This technique minimizes sample losses and expedites throughput, making it particularly suitable for the analysis of large sample sets. Varying patterns of individual HMO concentrations were observed with changes in lactation timepoint and maternal secretor status, with the most prominent temporal changes occurring during the first 3 months. This data provides valuable information for the development of human milk banks in view of targeted distribution of donor milk based on infant age. Maternal FUT2 genotype was determined based on identification at single-nucleotide polymorphism rs516246 and compared with the genotype expected based on phenotypic markers in the HMO profile. Surprisingly, two mothers genotyped as secretors produced milk that displayed very low levels of 2'-fucosylated moieties. This unexpected discrepancy between genotype and phenotype suggests that differential enzyme expression may cause substantial variation in HMO profiles between genotypically similar mothers, and current genotypic methods of secretor status determination may require validation with HMO markers from milk analysis.

9.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 160, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with increased offspring size at birth and adiposity, as well as with maternal gestational diabetes risk, in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. In this study we therefore investigated whether folic acid supplementation specifically is associated with similar changes, to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation mediates such changes. RESULTS: The majority of mothers who reported supplementing with folic acid in pregnancy (n = 776 in total, 526 of which took multiple micronutrient preparations) did so either from pre- (n = 139) or post-conception (n = 637) largely for all or just the first half of pregnancy. A minority of mothers (n = 198) reported not supplementing with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was not associated with birth weight [ß' = - 0.003, p = 0.9], height [ß' = - 0.013, p = 0.6], head circumference [ß' = 0.003, p = 0.09] or adiposity (ponderal index [ß' = 0.020, p = 0.5], skinfolds thicknesses [ß' = - 0.029 to + 0.008, p = 0.4-0.9]). Neither was it associated with the development of maternal gestational diabetes (risk ratio 1.2 [0.6‒2.2], p = 0.6). These results suggest that folic acid supplementation in pregnancy did not mediate the previously observed increases in offspring size at birth and adiposity, or the raised gestational diabetes risk, in response to supplementation with multiple micronutrients.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Micronutrientes , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(6): e2413-e2422, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640968

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Delta like noncanonical notch ligand 1 (DLK1) is a paternally expressed imprinted gene that encodes an epidermal growth factor repeat-containing transmembrane protein. A bioactive, truncated DLK1 protein is present in the circulation and has roles in development and metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate links between maternal pregnancy circulating DLK1 concentrations and: (1) maternal and fetal DLK1 genotypes, (2) maternal insulin resistance and secretion, and (3) offspring size at birth. PATIENTS, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We measured third-trimester maternal serum DLK1 concentrations and examined their associations with parentally transmitted fetal and maternal DLK1 genotypes, indices of maternal insulin resistance and secretion derived from 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests performed around week 28 of pregnancy, and offspring size at birth in 613 pregnancies from the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. RESULTS: Maternal DLK1 concentrations were associated with the paternally transmitted fetal DLK1 rs12147008 allele (P = 7.8 × 10-3) but not with maternal rs12147008 genotype (P = 0.4). Maternal DLK1 concentrations were positively associated with maternal prepregnancy body mass index (P = 3.5 × 10-6), and (after adjustment for maternal body mass index) with both maternal fasting insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance: P = 0.01) and measures of maternal insulin secretion in response to oral glucose (insulinogenic index: P = 1.2 × 10-3; insulin disposition index: P = 0.049). Further positive associations were found with offspring weight (P = 0.02) and head circumference at birth (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with a partial paternal or placental origin for the maternal circulating DLK1 which may lead to increased maternal circulating DLK1 concentrations, stimulation of maternal insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia during pregnancy, and the promotion of fetal growth.

11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 282-291, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe a new method for identifying and quantifying the magnitude and rate of short-term weight faltering episodes, and assess how (a) these episodes relate to broader growth outcomes, and (b) different data collection intervals influence the quantification of weight faltering. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We apply this method to longitudinal growth data collected every other day across the first year of life in Gambian infants (n = 124, males = 65, females = 59). Weight faltering episodes are identified from velocity peaks and troughs. Rate of weight loss and regain, maximum weight loss, and duration of each episode were calculated. We systematically reduced our dataset to mimic various potential measurement intervals, to assess how these intervals affect the ability to derive information about short-term weight faltering episodes. We fit linear models to test whether metrics associated with growth faltering were associated with growth outcomes at 1 year, and generalized additive mixed models to determine whether different collection intervals influence episode identification and metrics. RESULTS: Three hundred weight faltering episodes from 119 individuals were identified. The number and magnitude of episodes negatively impacted growth outcomes at 1 year. As data collection interval increases, weight faltering episodes are missed and the duration of episodes is overestimated, resulting in the rate of weight loss and regain being underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: This method identifies and quantifies short-term weight faltering episodes, that are in turn negatively associated with growth outcomes. This approach offers a tool for investigators interested in understanding how short-term weight faltering relates to longer-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Antropologia Física , Gâmbia , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Emaciação
12.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(1): 74-76, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862699

RESUMO

The UK Turner syndrome (TS) study examined the effect on final height of oxandrolone 0.05 mg/kg/day (maximum dose 2.5 mg) versus placebo from 9 years of age; and delaying ethinylestradiol induction of puberty by 2 years from 12 (E12) to 14 (E14) years in growth hormone-treated girls with TS. The study ran from 1999 to 2013. By 2011, eighty-two of 92 participants had reached final height and an interim analysis using the Super-Imposition by Translation And Rotation model showed significant increases in final height with both oxandrolone and E14. The analysis has been repeated now that all 92 patients have reached final height. Oxandrolone still significantly increased final height by 4.1 cm (95% CI 1.6 to 6.6, n=92) compared with 4.6 cm previously. However, the E14 effect was no longer significant at 2.7 cm (95% CI -0.8 to 6.1, n=56) compared with 3.8 cm previously.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Oxandrolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Turner/tratamento farmacológico , Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Estatura , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxandrolona/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
13.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(7): 876-883, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism is more prevalent in males than in females. Hypotheses related to the extreme male brain theory of autism suggest that heightened androgen exposure during early development contributes to autistic traits. Whilst prior research focused mostly on the prenatal period, the current study tests the influences of androgen exposure during both the prenatal and the early postnatal periods on autistic traits during childhood. METHODS: Anthropometric measures that are putative biomarkers of early androgen exposure were employed. Anogenital distance (AGD) was measured at birth and 3 months of age in boys and girls. Penile length at birth and 3 months of age was also measured in boys. When the children were 9-13 years old, a parent-reported questionnaire (the 10-item children's version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient; AQ-10 Child) was used to assess autistic traits in 97 boys and 110 girls. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between any of the AGD or penile length measures and scores on the AQ-10 Child in boys, girls or the entire sample. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides the first test of whether early measurements of AGD and/or penile length predict subsequent autistic traits. The current findings do not support a relationship between prenatal or early postnatal androgen exposure and autistic traits. The current study augments prior research showing no consistent relationship between early androgen exposure and autistic traits.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198145

RESUMO

Multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has previously been associated with positive effects on fetal growth, but its value in high-income countries remains controversial. In this study, we investigated effects of pregnancy MMS on offspring size at birth and adiposity, along with risks of various maternal outcomes of pregnancy, using the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Maternal MMS was reported in 528 out of 970 women who completed pregnancy questionnaires. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was assessed using results from 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests at week 28 of pregnancy. Offspring size at birth was assessed using standard anthropometric measurements and adiposity using skinfold calipers. MMS was associated with increased risk of developing GDM (risk ratio = 1.86 (1.13-3.08), p = 0.02), as well as increased offspring size at birth in terms of weight (p = 0.03), head circumference (p = 0.04), and flank, and subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses (p = 0.04, 0.03, and 0.003, respectively). There was no association with quadriceps skinfold thickness (p = 0.2), suggesting that the increased adiposity was partially regionalized. In women who underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, nearly all of these associations were attenuated by adjusting for GDM. These results suggest that the increased offspring size at birth, including (regionalized) adiposity associated with pregnancy, and MMS may be partially related to the development of GDM.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Peso ao Nascer , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
15.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1734-1743, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100044

RESUMO

An increased albumin-creatinine ratio within the normal range can identify adolescents at higher risk of developing adverse cardio-renal outcomes as they progress into adulthood. Utilizing a parallel randomized controlled trial and observational cohort study, we characterized the progression of vascular phenotypes throughout this important period and investigated the effect of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and statins in high-risk adolescents. Endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation and reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity) were assessed in 158 high-risk participants recruited to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 2×2 factorial trial (randomized, placebo-controlled trial) of ACE inhibitors and/or statins in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (AdDIT [Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial]). Identical measures were also assessed in 215 lower-risk individuals recruited to a parallel observational study. In the randomized, placebo-controlled trial, high-risk patients randomized to ACE inhibitors had improved flow-mediated dilation after 2 to 4 years of follow-up (mean [95% CI]: 6.6% [6.0-7.2] versus 5.3% [4.7-5.9]; P=0.005), whereas no effect was observed following statin use (6.2% [5.5-6.8] versus 5.8% [5.1-6.4]; P=0.358). In the observational study, patients classed as high-risk based on albumin-creatinine ratio showed evidence of endothelial dysfunction at the end of follow-up (flow-mediated dilation=4.8% [3.8-5.9] versus 6.3% [5.8-6.7] for high-risk versus low-risk groups; P=0.015). Neither reactive hyperemia index nor pulse wave velocity were affected by either treatment (P>0.05 for both), but both were found to increase over the duration of follow-up (0.07 [0.03-0.12]; P=0.001 and 0.5 m/s [0.4-0.6]; P<0.001 for reactive hyperemia index and pulse wave velocity, respectively). ACE inhibitors improve endothelial function in high-risk adolescents as they transition through puberty. The longer-term protective effects of this intervention at this early age remain to be determined. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT01581476.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Albuminúria/urina , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Creatinina/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 637-645, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107439

RESUMO

Objective: First-line treatment of thyrotoxicosis in young people is thionamide anti-thyroid drug (ATD) in a blocking dose with levothyroxine replacement (block and replace, BR) or in a smaller dose tailored to render the patient euthyroid (dose titration, DT). Our objective was to determine which regimen provides more stable biochemical control. Design: A multi-centre phase III, open-label randomised trial comparing BR with DT in patients aged 2-17 years with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis at 15 UK centres. Methods: Patients were randomised shortly after diagnosis and treated for 3 years. The primary outcome was the percentage of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the reference range between 6 months and 3 years. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of Free thyroxine (FT4) levels in the reference range, adverse event frequency and 4 years outcome (remission/relapse). Results: Eighty-two patients were randomised, with details on clinical course in 81 (62 Female); 40 were allocated to BR (41 DT). Three withdrew with one ineligible. The mean percentage of serum TSH within reference range was 60.2% in BR and 63.8% in DT patients; adjusted difference 4.3%, 95% CI (-7.8 to 16.4); P = 0.48. Proportions for FT4 were 79.2% in BR and 85.7% in DT patients; adjusted difference 6.8%, (-0.2 to 15.6); P = 0.13. Three patients developed neutropenia - all on BR. 6 BR and 10 DT patients were in remission at 4y. Conclusion: This randomised trial has shown no evidence to suggest that BR, when managing the young patient with thyrotoxicosis, is associated with improved biochemical stability when compared to DT.


Assuntos
Antitireóideos/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Tireotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Tireotoxicose/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(7): 1322-1332, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify biomarkers of renal disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare findings in adults with T1D. METHODS: Twenty-five serum biomarkers were measured, using a Luminex platform, in 553 adolescents (median [interquartile range] age: 13.9 [12.6, 15.2] years), recruited to the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial. Associations with baseline and final estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), rapid decliner and rapid increaser phenotypes (eGFR slopes <-3 and > 3 mL/min/1.73m2 /year, respectively), and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed. Results were also compared with those obtained in 859 adults (age: 55.5 [46.1, 64.4) years) from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource. RESULTS: In the adolescent cohort, baseline eGFR was negatively associated with trefoil factor-3, cystatin C, and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) (B coefficient[95%CI]: -0.19 [-0.27, -0.12], P = 7.0 × 10-7 ; -0.18 [-0.26, -0.11], P = 5.1 × 10-6 ; -0.12 [-0.20, -0.05], P = 1.6 × 10-3 ), in addition to clinical covariates. Final eGFR was negatively associated with osteopontin (-0.21 [-0.28, -0.14], P = 2.3 × 10-8 ) and cystatin C (-0.16 [-0.22, -0.09], P = 1.6 × 10-6 ). Rapid decliner phenotype was associated with osteopontin (OR: 1.83 [1.42, 2.41], P = 7.3 × 10-6 ), whereas rapid increaser phenotype was associated with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) (1.59 [1.23, 2.04], P = 2.6 × 10-4 ). ACR was not associated with any of the biomarkers. In the adult cohort similar associations with eGFR were found; however, several additional biomarkers were associated with eGFR and ACR. CONCLUSIONS: In this young population with T1D and high rates of hyperfiltration, osteopontin was the most consistent biomarker associated with prospective changes in eGFR. FGF-23 was associated with eGFR increases, whereas trefoil factor-3, cystatin C, and B2M were associated with baseline eGFR.

18.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 93(2): 119-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in body composition and glucose metabolism according to childhood growth outcomes in a population-based sample of children born small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: A single-centre study of 259 children born SGA identified through hospital records and contacted when aged 4-7 years. Questionnaire data on pre/perinatal history and growth parameters during childhood was collected from the parents, and in a subgroup of 150 children face-to-face assessments were performed, including anthropometric parameters, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and C-peptide. RESULTS: Based on the questionnaires, few children had formal clinic follow-up of growth, but 7% of the cohort showed a height and weight of <-2SDS during childhood, and only 2 children met the criteria for growth hormone therapy. Out of the 150 children assessed at a mean age of 6.1 ± 0.8 years, 122 (81%) showed a catch-up growth in weight. Compared to those without weight catch-up, these children had a higher fat mass index (3.13 ± 1.36 vs. 2.56 ± 0.91 kg/m2, p = 0.04), trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio (0.63 ± 0.14 vs. 0.56 ± 0.08, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure SDS (0.09 ± 0.71 vs. -0.32 ± 0.63, p = 0.008), fasting glucose (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.03), and C-peptide (306 ± 116 vs. 256 ± 112 pmol/L, p = 0.08). Among children with weight catch-up growth, those with less height gain had a lower limb lean mass index (4.25 ± 0.48 vs. 4.48 ± 0.56 kg/m2, p = 0.02) and fat mass index (1.57 ± 0.59 vs. 1.83 ± 0.77 kg/m2, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Within this population-based sample of SGA children, catch-up growth in weight was associated with higher abdominal fat mass, blood pressure and glycemia; furthermore, in these children, less height gain was associated with reduced limb lean and fat mass.

19.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399500

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes is a common autoimmune disease due to destruction of pancreatic ß cells, resulting in lifelong need for insulin. Evidence suggest that maintaining residual ß-cell function can improve glucose control and reduce risk of hypoglycaemia and vascular complications. Non-clinical, preclinical and some preliminary clinical data suggest that low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy could block pancreatic ß cells destruction by increasing the number of functional regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibit islet-specific autoreactive effector T cells (Teffs). However, there is lack of data on the effect of low-dose IL-2 in newly diagnosed children and adolescents with T1D as well as lack of specific data on its potential effect on ß-cell function. The ' Interleukin-2 Therapy of Autoimmunity in Diabetes (ITAD)' is a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents (6-18 years; having detectable C-peptide) initiated within 6 weeks of T1D diagnosis. A total of 45 participants will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to receive either ultra-low dose IL-2 (aldesleukin), at a dose of 0.2 x 10 6 IU/m 2 twice-weekly, given subcutaneously, or placebo, for 6 months. The primary objective is to assess the effects of ultra-low dose aldesleukin administration on endogenous ß-cell function as measured by frequent home dried blood spot (DBS) fasting and post-prandial C-peptide in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed T1D. The secondary objectives are: 1) to assess the efficacy of regular dosing of aldesleukin in increasing Treg levels; 2) to confirm the clinical safety and tolerability of ultra-low dose aldesleukin; 3) to assess changes in the immune system indicating benefit or potential risk for future gains/loss in ß-cell function and immune function; 4) to assess treatment effect on glycaemic control. Trial registration: EudraCT 2017-002126-20 (06/02/2019).

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265838

RESUMO

The Karlberg model of human growth describes the infancy, childhood, and puberty (ICP) stages as continuous and overlapping, and defined by transitions driven by sequential additional effects of several endocrine factors that shape the growth trajectory and resultant adult size. Previous research has suggested that a delayed transition from the infancy to the childhood growth stage contributes to sub-optimal growth outcomes. A new method developed to analyze the structure of centile crossing in early life has emerged as a potential tool for identifying the infancy-childhood transition (ICT), through quantifying patterns of adjacent monthly weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) deviation correlations. Using this method, the infancy-childhood transition was identified as taking place at around 12 months of age in two cohorts of UK infants. Here, we apply this method to data collected as part of a longitudinal growth study in rural Gambia [the Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulators of Growth, or HERO-G study, N = 212 (F = 99, M = 113)], in order to identify the ICT and assess whether timing of this transition differs across groups based on sex or birth seasonality. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for adjacent monthly WAZ score deviations. Based on the patterns of change in the correlation structure over time, our results suggest that the infancy-childhood transition occurs at around 9 months of age in rural Gambian infants. This points to an accelerated ICT compared to UK infants, rather than a delayed ICT. A comparatively later transition, seen in UK infants, allows maximal extension of the high rates of growth during the infancy stage; an earlier transition as seen in Gambian infants cuts short this period of rapid growth, potentially impacting on growth outcomes in childhood while diverting energy into other processes critical to responses to acute infectious challenges. Growth in later developmental stages in this population offers an extended window for catch-up.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
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