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1.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CASTLE-AF trial, catheter ablation reduced the risk of death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF by 40%. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the generalizability of CASTLE-AF to routine clinical practice. METHODS: Using a large US administrative database, we identified 289,831 patients with AF and HF treated with ablation (N=7,465) or medical therapy alone (N=282,366) from 1/1/2008-8/31/2018. Patients were divided into three groups based on trial eligibility: (1) eligible for CASTLE-AF; (2) failing to meet the inclusion criterion; and (3) meeting ≥1 of the exclusion criteria. Propensity score overlap weighting was used to balance ablated and drug-treated patients on 90 baseline characteristics. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare ablation to medical therapy for the primary outcome, a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. RESULTS: Only 7.8% of patients would have been eligible for the trial, 91.0% failed to meet the trial inclusion criteria, and 15.5% met the exclusion criteria. Ablation was associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome in the overall cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81 [0.76-0.87], p<0.001), in the trial-eligible cohort (HR 0.82 [0.70-0.96], p=0.01), and in patients who failed to meet inclusion criteria (HR 0.79 [0.73-0.86], p<0.001), but not in patients who met exclusion criteria (HR 0.97 [0.81-1.17]). The relative risk reduction was consistent regardless of whether patients had HFrEF. CONCLUSIONS: The benefit associated with ablation appears to be more modest in practice than that reported in the CASTLE-AF trial.

2.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined characteristics of depressive symptoms in patients who received left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) to assess their effects on negative outcomes post-implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 203 adults with pre-operative PHQ-9 scores who underwent LVAD placement as bridge to transplant (BTT) or destination therapy (DT). We analyzed effects of PHQ-9 total, somatic, and cognitive/affective scores and proportion of patients with clinical depression on all-cause mortality, rehospitalization, major bleeding, and neurologic events post-implantation, controlling for demographics and other medical comorbidities. RESULTS: Mean total PHQ-9 scores did not differ between 81 BTT and 122 DT patients (BTT 6.4 vs. DT 7.5, p = 0.12). A higher proportion of DT patients had clinical depression (BTT 22% vs. DT 39%, p = 0.015). Somatic symptoms accounted for three-quarters of total scores in both groups. PHQ-9 domains were not associated with negative outcomes post-implantation. CONCLUSION: Depression severity did not differ based on implant strategy, but more DT patients had clinical depression. Somatic symptoms were the biggest contributor to depressive symptoms. Pre-implantation PHQ-9 scores were not associated with outcomes, possibly because depression was mild in both groups. Additional work is needed in LVAD patients to better characterize depressive symptoms and their unique effects on clinical course and well-being.

3.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(2): e006661, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies evaluating regional disparities in the care of acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the National Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2016, we identified adults with a primary diagnosis of AMI and concomitant CS admitted to the United States census regions of Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Interhospital transfers were excluded. End points of interest included in-hospital mortality, use of coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, mechanical circulatory support, hospitalization costs, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Multivariable regression was used to adjust for potential confounding. Of the 402 825 AMI-CS admissions, 16.8%, 22.5%, 39.3%, and 21.4% were admitted to the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West, respectively. Higher rates of ST-elevation AMI-CS were noted in the Midwest and West. Admissions to the Northeast were on average characterized by a higher frequency of whites, Medicare beneficiaries, and lower rates of cardiac arrest. Admissions to the Northeast were less likely to receive coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and mechanical circulatory support, despite the highest rates of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Compared with the Northeast, in-hospital mortality was lower in the Midwest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]; P<0.001) and West (aOR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.94-0.98]; P=0.001) but higher in the South (aOR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.06]; P=0.002). The Midwest (aOR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.62-1.74]; P<0.001), South (aOR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.80-1.92]; P<0.001), and West (aOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.86-2.00]; P<0.001) had higher discharges to home. CONCLUSIONS: There remain significant regional disparities in the management and outcomes of AMI-CS.

4.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(1): 25-29, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of and trends in hospitalizations after heart failure (HF) diagnosis in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during 1987-2015. METHODS: The study included a retrospectively identified population-based cohort of patients with incident HF and prior RA (age≥18 years, 1987 ACR criteria) and a cohort of incident HF patients without RA matched 3:1 on age, sex, and year of HF diagnosis. Hospitalizations at the time of HF diagnosis were excluded. All subjects were followed until death, migration, or 12/31/2015. RESULTS: The study included 212 patients with RA (mean age at HF diagnosis 78.3 years; 68% female) and 636 non-RA patients (mean age at HF diagnosis 78.6 years; 68% female). The hospitalization rate after HF diagnosis was higher in RA vs non-RA (rate ratio [RR] 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.26). Hospitalization rates in both groups have been declining since 2005 and the difference between patients with and without RA may be decreasing after 2010. The magnitude of the increase was similar in both sexes and across all ages. Patients with RA were more likely to be hospitalized for non-cardiovascular causes (RR 1.26; 95%CI 1.14-1.39), but not for HF or other cardiovascular causes compared to non-RA patients. CONCLUSIONS: The hospitalization rate following HF diagnosis was higher in RA versus non-RA patients regardless of sex and age. Increased hospitalization risk in patients with RA was driven by increased rates of non-cardiovascular hospitalization.

5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 43-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to compare the effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in systolic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Sacubitril-valsartan reduced risks of death and hospitalization for HF versus enalapril in ambulatory patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Neprilysin Inhibitor with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in HF) trial. However, the comparative effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan and ACE/ARB in patients treated in routine clinical practice is unclear. METHODS: We identified patients with systolic HF in a U.S. administrative claims database treated with sacubitril-valsartan or ACE/ARB from July 1, 2015, to February 2, 2018. One-to-one propensity score matching was used to balance patients on 29 clinical variables. Cox models were used to compare outcomes between treatment groups. RESULTS: A total of 7,893 matched pairs were included; mean (SD) follow-up was 6.3 (5.4) months. Sacubitril-valsartan was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality or all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81 to 0.91; p < 0.001), all-cause mortality (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.97; p = 0.027), and all-cause hospitalization (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.91; p < 0.001), but not HF hospitalization (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.19; p = 0.26). A lower risk of the primary outcome with sacubitril-valsartan was observed in white patients (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.90) but not black patients (21% of population, HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.15; interaction p = 0.032). No statistically significant differences in treatment response by sex or age were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was associated with lower risks of death and hospitalization compared with ACE/ARB in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with systolic HF. However, our finding that outcomes with sacubitril-valsartan and ACE/ARBs were similar in black patients warrants further evaluation.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e005929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, there are limited large-scale national data. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2014, a retrospective cohort of AMI utilizing ECMO was identified. Use of percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was also identified in this population. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends in utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD), in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization. RESULTS: In ≈9 million AMI admissions, ECMO was used in 2962 (<0.01%) and implanted a median of 1 day after admission. ECMO was used in 0.5% and 0.3% AMI admissions complicated by cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest, respectively. ECMO was used more commonly in admissions that were younger, nonwhite, and with less comorbidity. ECMO use was 11× higher in 2014 as compared with 2000 (odds ratio, 11.37 [95% CI, 7.20-17.97]). Same-day percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 23.1%; intra-aortic balloon pump/percutaneous LVAD was used in 57.9%, of which 30.3% were placed concomitantly. In-hospital mortality with ECMO was 59.2% overall but decreased from 100% (2000) to 45.1% (2014). Durable LVAD and cardiac transplantation were performed in 11.7% as an exit strategy. Of the hospital survivors, 40.8% were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Older age, male sex, nonwhite race, and lower socioeconomic status were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality with ECMO use. CONCLUSIONS: In AMI admissions, a steady increase was noted in the utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD). In-hospital mortality remained high in AMI admissions treated with ECMO.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013108, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701791

RESUMO

Background The presence of a durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is associated with increased risk of vasoplegia in the early postoperative period following heart transplantation (HT). However, preoperative predictors of vasoplegia and its impact on survival after HT are unknown. We sought to examine predictors and outcomes of patients who develop vasoplegia after HT following bridging therapy with an LVAD. Methods and Results We identified 94 patients who underwent HT after bridging with continuous-flow LVAD from 2008 to 2018 at a single institution. Vasoplegia was defined as persistent low vascular resistance requiring ≥2 intravenous vasopressors within 48 hours after HT for >24 hours to maintain mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg. Overall, 44 patients (46.8%) developed vasoplegia after HT. Patients with and without vasoplegia had similar preoperative LVAD, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic parameters. Patients with vasoplegia were significantly older; had longer LVAD support, higher preoperative creatinine, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and higher Charlson comorbidity index; and more often underwent combined organ transplantation. In a multivariate logistic regression model, older age (odds ratio: 1.08 per year; P=0.010), longer LVAD support (odds ratio: 1.06 per month; P=0.007), higher creatinine (odds ratio: 3.9 per 1 mg/dL; P=0.039), and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (odds ratio: 1.83 per hour; P=0.044) were independent predictors of vasoplegia. After mean follow-up of 4.0 years after HT, vasoplegia was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 5.20; 95% CI, 1.71-19.28; P=0.003). Conclusions Older age, longer LVAD support, impaired renal function, and prolonged intraoperative CPB time are independent predictors of vasoplegia in patients undergoing HT after LVAD bridging. Vasoplegia is associated with worse prognosis; therefore, detailed assessment of these predictors can be clinically important.

8.
Am J Med ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure compared with population controls, and whether differences exist by type of heart failure or age, have not been well documented. METHODS: The prevalence of 17 chronic conditions were obtained in 2643 patients with incident heart failure from 2000 to 2013 and controls matched 1:1 on sex and age from Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression determined associations of each condition with heart failure. RESULTS: Among 2643 matched pairs (mean age 76.2 years, 45.6% men), the comorbidities with the largest attributable risk of heart failure were arrhythmia (48.7%), hypertension (28.4%), and coronary artery disease (33.9%); together these explained 73.0% of heart failure. Similar associations were observed for patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction, with the exception of hypertension. The risk of heart failure attributable to hypertension was 2-fold higher in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (38.7%) than in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (17.8%). Hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and diabetes were more strongly associated with heart failure in younger (≤75 years) compared to older (>75 years) persons. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with heart failure have a higher prevalence of many chronic conditions than controls. Similar associations were observed in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction, with the exception of hypertension, which was more strongly associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Finally, some cardiometabolic risk factors were more strongly associated with heart failure in younger persons, highlighting the importance of optimizing prevention and treatment of risk factors and, in particular, cardiometabolic risk factors.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566106

RESUMO

Background The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association periodically revise clinical practice guidelines. We evaluated changes in the evidence underlying guidelines published over a 10-year period. Methods and Results Thirty-five American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were divided into 2 time periods: 2008 to 2012 and 2013 to 2017. Guidelines were categorized into the following topic areas: arrhythmias, prevention, acute and stable ischemia, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and vascular medicine. Changes in recommendations were assessed for each topic area. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association designated class of recommendation as level I, II, or III (I represented "strongly recommended") and levels of evidence (LOE) as A, C, or C (A represented "highest quality"). The median number of recommendations per each topic area was 281 (198-536, interquartile range) in 2008 to 2012 versus 247 (190-451.3, interquartile range) in 2013 to 2017. The median proportion of class of recommendation I was 49.3% and 44.4% in the 2 time periods, 38.0% and 44.5% for class of recommendation II, and 12.5% and 11.2% for class of recommendation III. Median proportions for LOE A were 15.7% and 14.1%, 41.0% and 52.8% for LOE B, and 46.9% and 32.5% for LOE C. The decrease in the proportion of LOE C was highest in heart failure (24.8%), valvular heart disease (22.3%), and arrhythmia (19.2%). An increase in the proportion of LOE B was observed for these same areas: 31.8%, 23.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. Conclusions There has been a decrease in American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommendations, driven by removal of recommendations based on lower quality of evidence, although there was no corresponding increase in the highest quality of evidence.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). This study sought to evaluate 15-year national prevalence, temporal trends and outcomes of AKI with no need for hemodialysis (AKI-ND) and requiring hemodialysis (AKI-D) following AMI-CS. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000-2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (20% stratified sample of all community hospitals in the United States). Adult patients (>18 years) admitted with a primary diagnosis of AMI and secondary diagnosis of CS were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in cohorts with no AKI, AKI-ND, and AKI-D. Secondary outcomes included predictors, resource utilization and disposition. RESULTS: During this 15-year period, 440,257 admissions for AMI-CS were included, with AKI in 155,610 (35.3%) and hemodialysis use in 14,950 (3.4%). Older age, black race, non-private insurance, higher comorbidity, organ failure, and use of cardiac and non-cardiac organ support were associated with the AKI development and hemodialysis use. There was a 2.6-fold higher adjusted risk of developing AKI in 2014 compared to 2000. Presence of AKI-ND and AKI-D was associated with a 1.3 and 1.7-fold higher adjusted risk of mortality. Compared to the cohort without AKI, AKI-ND and AKI-D were associated with longer length of stay (9±10, 12±13, and 18±19 days respectively; p<0.001) and higher hospitalization costs ($101,859±116,204, $159,804±190,766, and $265,875 ± 254,919 respectively; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI-ND and AKI-D are associated with higher in-hospital mortality and resource utilization in AMI-CS.

12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 96, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited epidemiological data on acute respiratory failure (ARF) in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS). This study sought to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of ARF in AMI-CS. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of AMI-CS admissions during 2000-2014 from the National Inpatient Sample. Administrative codes for ARF and mechanical ventilation (MV) were used to define the cohorts of no ARF, ARF without MV and ARF with MV. Admissions with a secondary diagnosis of AMI and with chronic MV were excluded. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, temporal trends of ARF prevalence and resource utilization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During 2000-2014, 439,436 admissions for AMI-CS met the inclusion criteria. ARF and MV were noted in 57% and 43%, respectively. Admissions with non-ST-elevation AMI-CS, of non-White race and with non-private insurance received MV more frequently. Noninvasive ventilation and invasive MV increased from 0.4% and 39.2% (2000) to 3.6% and 46.4% (2014), respectively (p < 0.001). Coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention were used less frequently in admissions receiving ARF with MV. Compared to admissions with no ARF, ARF without MV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-1.59]; p < 0.001) and ARF with MV (aOR 2.50 [95% CI 2.47-2.54]; p < 0.001) were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Admissions with ARF without MV had greater resource utilization and lesser discharges to home as compared to no ARF. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary AMI-CS cohort, the presence of ARF and MV use was noted in 57% and 43%, respectively, and was associated with higher in-hospital mortality.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268467

RESUMO

Importance: The number of patients living with end-stage heart failure is steadily growing, and ambulatory intravenous inotropic support is increasingly offered as a palliative therapy. However, the optimal ways to initiate, manage, and discuss the risks and benefits of palliative inotropes in the current era of heart failure care are unclear. Observations: The initiation of palliative inotropes requires an understanding of clinical, psychosocial, and economic factors, as well as the changing risk-to-benefit calculus. While earlier studies suggested that outpatient inotrope therapy provided symptomatic benefit at the expense of reduced survival, recent data suggest that the survival of patients receiving chronic inotropes may be improving over time, perhaps owing to the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, concurrent guideline-directed medical therapy, or lower doses of inotropes. The use of heart failure therapies, such as ß-blockade, among patients receiving palliative inotropes is controversial but may be appropriate in select situations. Conclusions and Relevance: The role of palliative inotropes is changing in tandem with advances in chronic heart failure care. However, there remains a profound lack of data and guidance on the effect of palliative inotropes on quality of life and mortality and little consensus on how this therapy can be optimally used in contemporary practice. This review provides a framework for the prescription and management of palliative inotropes, including a discussion of potential risks and benefits and a roadmap for how to initiate, maintain, and wean them.

14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 874-877, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271517

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate sex-specific disparities in acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (20% sample of all hospitals in the United States). Patients >18 years admitted with a primary diagnosis of AMI and concomitant CS that developed AKI were included. The endpoints of interest were the prevalence, trends, and outcomes of men and women with AKI in AMI-CS. Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression was used to control for confounding, and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. During this 15 year period, 440 257 admissions with AMI-CS met the inclusion criteria, with AKI noted in 155 610 (35.3%). Women constituted 36.3% of the cohort and were older, of non-White race, and with higher co-morbidity compared with men. Women with AKI less often received coronary angiography (59% vs. 66%), percutaneous coronary intervention (39% vs. 43%), mechanical circulatory support (39% vs. 48%), mechanical ventilation (49% vs. 54%), and haemodialysis (9% vs. 10%) compared with men (all P < 0.001). Adjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in women-odds ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.14-1.19); P < 0.001-compared with men. Women had shorter lengths of stay (12 ± 14 vs. 13 ± 14 days), lower hospital costs ($150 071 ± 180 796 vs. $181 260 ± 209 674), and were less often discharged to home (19% vs. 31%) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women with AKI in AMI-CS received fewer cardiac and non-cardiac interventions, had higher in-hospital mortality, and were less often discharged to home compared with men.

15.
ASAIO J ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335363

RESUMO

There are contrasting data on concomitant Impella device in cardiogenic shock patients treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) (ECPELLA). This study sought to compare early mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with ECPELLA in comparison to VA ECMO alone. We reviewed the published literature from 2000 to 2018 for randomized, cohort, case-control, and case series studies evaluating adult patients requiring VA ECMO for cardiogenic shock. Five retrospective observational studies, representing 425 patients, were included. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with concomitant Impella strategy was used in 27% of the patients. Median age across studies varied between 51 and 63 years with 59-88% patients being male. Use of ECPELLA was associated with higher weaning from VA ECMO and bridging to permanent ventricular assist device or cardiac transplant in three and four studies, respectively. The studies showed moderate heterogeneity with possible publication bias. The two studies that accounted for differences in baseline characteristics between treatment groups reported lower 30 day mortality with ECPELLA versus VA ECMO. The remaining three studies did not adjust for potential confounding and were at high risk for selection bias. In conclusion, ECPELLA is being increasingly used as a strategy in patients with cardiogenic shock. Additional large, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate clinical outcomes with ECPELLA.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e011954, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315497

RESUMO

Background This study sought to evaluate the 15-year national utilization, trends, predictors, disparities, and outcomes of palliative care services (PCS) use in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2014 was analyzed using the National Inpatient Sample database. Administrative codes for acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock and PCS were used to identify eligible admissions. The primary outcomes were the frequency, utilization trends, and predictors of PCS. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and resources utilization. Multivariable regression and propensity-matching analyses were used to control for confounding. In this 15-year period, there were 444 253 acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock admissions, of which 4.5% received PCS. The cohort receiving PCS was older, of white race, female sex, and with higher comorbidity and acute organ failure. The PCS cohort received fewer cardiac procedures, but more noncardiac organ support therapies. Older age, female sex, white race, higher comorbidity, higher socioeconomic status, admission to a larger hospital, and admission after 2008 were independent predictors of PCS use. Use of PCS was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 6.59 [95% CI 6.37-6.83]; P<0.001). The cohort with PCS use had >2-fold higher in-hospital mortality, 12-fold higher use of do-not-resuscitate status, lesser in-hospital resource utilization, and fewer discharges to home. Similar findings were observed in the propensity-matched cohort. Conclusions PCS use in patients with acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock is low, though there is a trend towards increased adoption. There are significant patient and hospital-specific disparities in the utilization of PCS.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 491-498, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221462

RESUMO

There are limited data on hospital-level disparities in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS). A retrospective cohort of adult admissions from the National Inpatient Sample database during 2000 to 2014, with primary diagnosis of AMI and concomitant CS were identified. Interhospital transfers were excluded. Hospitals were classified into rural, urban nonteaching and urban teaching (location and teaching status) and small, medium and large (bedsize). The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and secondary endpoints included use of early coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Multivariable regression was used to adjust for potential confounding. During 2000 to 2014, 362,065 AMI-CS admissions met the inclusion criteria, of which 92% and 69% respectively were admitted to urban and large hospitals. Admissions to urban and large hospitals were more frequently male, younger, with lower co-morbidity, and higher illness severity. There was a steady increase in early coronary angiography, PCI and MCS across the various hospital categories. Admission to an urban nonteaching hospital (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.84], p <0.001) and urban teaching hospital (aOR 0.87 [95% CI 0.84 to 0.91, p <0.001) were associated with lower mortality compared with rural hospitals. In comparison to a small hospital, admission to a large hospital (aOR 0.94 [95% CI 0.91 to 0.98); p = 0.002) was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. Large and urban hospitals had greater use of early coronary angiography, PCI, MCS. In conclusion, there are hospital-level disparities in the management and outcomes of AMI-CS which are not fully accounted for differences in patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Idoso , Circulação Assistida , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Circulation ; 140(7): e294-e324, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167558

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for incident heart failure and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with established disease. Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure forecast a growing burden of disease and underscore the need for effective therapeutic strategies. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the shared pathophysiology between diabetes mellitus and heart failure, the synergistic effect of managing both conditions, and the potential for diabetes mellitus therapies to modulate the risk of heart failure outcomes. This scientific statement on diabetes mellitus and heart failure summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and impact of diabetes mellitus and its control on outcomes in heart failure; reviews the approach to pharmacological therapy and lifestyle modification in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure; highlights the value of multidisciplinary interventions to improve clinical outcomes in this population; and outlines priorities for future research.

19.
J Card Fail ; 25(8): 584-619, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174952

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for incident heart failure and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with established disease. Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure forecast a growing burden of disease and underscore the need for effective therapeutic strategies. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the shared pathophysiology between diabetes mellitus and heart failure, the synergistic effect of managing both conditions, and the potential for diabetes mellitus therapies to modulate the risk of heart failure outcomes. This scientific statement on diabetes mellitus and heart failure summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and impact of diabetes mellitus and its control on outcomes in heart failure; reviews the approach to pharmacological therapy and lifestyle modification in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure; highlights the value of multidisciplinary interventions to improve clinical outcomes in this population; and outlines priorities for future research.

20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(6): 1003-1014, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and outcomes of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) early after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined use of in-hospital RRT and outcomes in consecutive adults who underwent continuous-flow LVAD implantation from February 15, 2007, through August 8, 2017. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of RRT. The associations of RRT with outcomes were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Of 354 patients who underwent LVAD implantation, 54 (15%) required in-hospital RRT. Patients receiving RRT had higher preoperative Charlson Comorbidity Index values (median, 5 vs 4; P=.03), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores (mean, 19.0 vs 14.5; P<.001), right atrial pressure (mean, 19.1 vs 13.4 mm Hg; P<.001), and estimated 24-hour urine protein levels (median, 357 vs 174 mg; P<.001) and lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (median, 43 vs 57 mL/min; P<.001) and measured GFR using 125I-iothalamate clearance (median, 33 vs 51 mL/min; P=.001) than those who did not require RRT. Approximately 40% of patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 24-hour urine protein level greater than 400 mg required RRT vs 6% with eGFR greater than45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without significant proteinuria. Lower preoperative eGFR, higher estimated 24-hour urine protein level, higher right atrial pressure, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time were independent predictors of RRT after LVAD implantation. Of patients requiring in-hospital RRT, 18 (33%) had renal recovery, 18 (33%) required outpatient hemodialysis, and 18 (33%) died before hospital discharge. After median (Q1, Q3) follow-up of 24.3 (8.9, 49.6) months, RRT was associated with increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% CI, 1.90-4.33; P<.001) and gastrointestinal bleeding (adjusted HR, 4.47; 95% CI, 2.57-7.75; P<.001). CONCLUSION: In-hospital RRT is associated with poor prognosis after LVAD. A detailed preoperative assessment of renal function before LVAD may be helpful in risk stratification and patient selection.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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