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1.
Nanotechnology ; 25(48): 485706, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25397777

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry were applied to study the lithium vapor doping of C70@SWCNTs (peapods). A strong degree of doping was proved by the vanishing of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT's) radial breathing mode (RBM) and by the attenuation of the tangential (TG) band intensity. In contrast to potassium vapor doping, the strong downshift of the frequency of the TG band has not been observed for Li-doping. The Li vapor treated peapods remained partly doped even if they were exposed to humid air. This has been reflected by a reduced intensity of the nanotube and the fullerene modes and by the change of the shape of the RBM band as compared to that of the undoped sample. The modes of the intratubular fullerene were almost unresolved after the contact of the Li-doped sample with water. A lithium insertion into the interior of a peapod and its strong interaction with the intratubular fullerene is suggested to be responsible for the air-insensitive residual doping. This residual doping was studied by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The TG band of the Li doped peapods is partly upshifted during the anodic doping, which points to the different state of C70@SWCNTs and C60@SWCNTs studied previously.

2.
Chemistry ; 20(42): 13536-40, 2014 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164532

RESUMO

The low-temperature magnetic properties of the endohedral metallofullerene HoSc2 N@C80 have been studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements reveal that this molecule exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization in a small applied field with timescales in the order of milliseconds. The equilibrium magnetic properties of HoSc2 N@C80 indicate strong magnetic anisotropy. The large differences in magnetization relaxation times between the present compound and the previously investigated DySc2 N@C80 are discussed.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(10): 2623-7, 2014 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24500795

RESUMO

The typical design of chiral electroactive materials involves attaching chiral pendants to an electroactive polyconjugated backbone and generally results in modest chirality manifestations. Discussed herein are electroactive chiral poly-heterocycles, where chirality is not external to the electroactive backbone but inherent to it, and results from a torsion generated by the periodic presence of atropisomeric, conjugatively active biheteroaromatic scaffolds, (3,3'-bithianaphthene). As the stereogenic element coincides with the electroactive one, films of impressive chiroptical activity and outstanding enantiodiscrimination properties are obtained. Moreover, chirality manifestations can be finely and reversibly tuned by the electric potential, as progressive injection of holes forces the two thianaphthene rings to co-planarize to favor delocalization. Such deformations, revealed by CD spectroelectrochemistry, are elastic and reversible, thus suggesting a breathing system.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Polímeros/química , Elétrons , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
4.
J Fluoresc ; 24(1): 153-60, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918598

RESUMO

A series of various thienyl derivatives of pyrene were synthesized by Stille cross-coupling procedure. Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analysis. The spectroscopic characteristics were investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. Based on quantum chemical calculations, the energy levels of investigated molecules with respect to the pyrene molecule were also discussed.


Assuntos
Pirenos/química , Pirenos/síntese química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Teoria Quântica
5.
Nanoscale ; 6(2): 1038-48, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24292599

RESUMO

Redox behavior of endohedral metallofullerenes, in particular their oxidation process, can be classified as a fullerene-based or endohedral species-based process according to the mechanism of the electron transfer. Here we report on the phenomenon of the strain-driven electrochemical behavior achieved by encapsulating the cerium-containing clusters into a series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88. The Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes CexM3-xN@C2n (x = 1, 2; M = Sc or Y; 2n = 78-88) were synthesized and characterized. The magnitude of the inherent strain caused by the limited inner space of the carbon cage for the relatively large nitride clusters can be varied by choosing different scaffold metals (Sc, Lu, or Y) to tailor the size of the encaged CexM3-xN cluster and by matching the nitride cluster with different fullerene cages in the size range from C78 to C88. The redox properties of CexM3-xN@C2n were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes, in particular whether the fullerene-based oxidation or the Ce(III) → Ce(IV) process is observed, is found to be dependent on the scaffold metal and the size of the fullerene cage. The endohedral oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) was observed for a number of compounds as revealed by the negative shift of their oxidation potentials with respect to the values measured for the non-Ce analogues. Experimental studies are supported by DFT calculations. We conclude that the prerequisites for the Ce-based endohedral oxidation process are suitable inherent cluster-cage strain and sufficiently high oxidation potential of the fullerene cage.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(30): 6702-11, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23819804

RESUMO

The in situ spectroelectrochemical and electron spin resonance (ESR) behavior of the recently prepared N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl)-thiophene-2,5-diamine 11 is presented. The results are compared to the ones of the parent 2,5-bis-diphenylamino-thiophene 41 as well as to the corresponding high-molar third dendrimer generation 8 containing the same thiophene-2,5-diamine core. The dendritic compound 11 can be reversibly oxidized in three separated steps to yield the corresponding stable monocation 11(•+), dication 11(2+), and tetracation 11(4+). A well resolved ESR spectrum of the corresponding cation radical 11(•+) with dominating splittings from two nitrogen atoms and two hydrogen atoms was observed at the first oxidation peak similar to 41(•+). The shape of the SOMOs orbitals very well correlates with the proposed distribution of the unpaired electron mainly on the thiophene center and neighboring nitrogen atoms. The spin delocalization on the central thiophene moiety in the monocations for all three model compounds 41(•+), 11(•+), and 8(•+) was confirmed. The computed single occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) for trication 11(•3+) is completely different compared to the SOMO of the corresponding monocation 11(•+), and it confirms a largely delocalized unpaired spin density. Dominating diamagnetic product was determined at the third oxidation peak, confirming the formation of a tetracation by a two electron oxidation of ESR silent dication. The positive charge is fully delocalized over the lateral parts of the molecule leading to the high stability of tetracation 11(4+). The estimated theoretical limit energy of the lowest optical transition S0 → S1 is 2.90 eV, and it can be achieved for the 3D dendrimer generation.

7.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 8(1): 265, 2013 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23742117

RESUMO

All-carbon single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were successfully synthesized, nucleated using a fullerene derivative. A systematic investigation into the initial preparation of C60 fullerenes as growth nucleators for the SWCNTs was conducted. Enhancement in the yield of the produced SWCNT has been achieved with exploring different dispersing media for the fullerenes, the period, and environment of the initial thermal treatment of the fullerenes in addition to the use of different fullerene-based structures. The systematic studies significantly advance our understanding of the growth of the all-carbon catalyst-free single-walled carbon nanotubes. Field-effect transistors were fabricated using the catalyst-free SWCNT and then electrically characterized, showing current capacity as high as the well-studied catalyst-assisted nanotubes.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 52(13): 7524-40, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23758222

RESUMO

Reactions of 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-3-methylsulfanylbenzaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone and 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylbenzaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone with pentane-2,4-dione (Hacac) and triethyl orthoformate in the presence of M(acac)2 as template source at 107 °C afforded metal complexes of the type M(II)L(1) and M(II)L(2), where M = Ni and Cu, with a new Schiff base ligand with thiomethyl (H2L(1)) and/or thiophenyl (H2L(2)) group in the ortho position of the phenolic moiety. Demetalation of NiL(1) in CHCl3 with HCl(g) afforded H2L(1). The latter reacts with Zn(OAc)2·2H2O with formation of ZnL(1). The effect of -SR groups and metal ion identity on stabilization of phenoxyl radicals generated electrochemically was studied in detail. A marked stabilization of phenoxyl radical was observed in one-electron-oxidized complexes [ML(2)](+) (M = Ni, Cu) at room temperature, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, EPR spectroscopy, and UV-vis-NIR measurements. In solution, the oxidized CuL(2) and NiL(2) display intense low-energy NIR transitions consistent with their classification as metal-delocalized phenoxyl radical species. While the CuL(2) complex shows reversible reduction, reduction of NiL(2), CuL(1), and NiL(1) is irreversible. EPR measurements in conjunction with density functional theory calculations provided insights into the extent of electron delocalization as well as spin density in different redox states. The experimental room temperature spectroelectrochemical data can be reliably interpreted with the (3)[CuL(2)](+) and (2)[NiL(2)](+) oxidation ground states. The catalytic activity of synthesized complexes in the selective oxidations of alcohols has been studied as well. The remarkable efficiency is evident from the high yields of carbonyl products when employing both the CuL(2)/air/TEMPO and the CuL(2)/TBHP/MW(microwave-assisted) oxidation systems.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Galactose Oxidase/química , Oxigênio/química , Fenóis/química , Catálise , Cobre/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Níquel/química , Oxirredução , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Zinco/química
9.
Chem Rev ; 113(8): 5989-6113, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23635015
10.
Inorg Chem ; 52(6): 3368-80, 2013 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23469831

RESUMO

The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 52(3): 1515-24, 2013 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23317083

RESUMO

The 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrin complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) have been crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry as well as cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray structure of the earlier described Cu(II) complex is also reported. All complex structures possess a five-coordinate, approximately square-pyramidal geometry with a slight deviation of the heteroaromatic moieties from planarity. The packing structures are characterized by parallel strands of complex molecules interacting by weak hydrogen bonds. In the case of Zn(II) an octahedral complex has also been isolated using a side-chain hydroxy functionalized oxaporphyrin ligand; the structure was verified by NMR and EXAFS spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the reduction of the complex bound Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) ions is a ligand-centered process whereas the first oxidation step depends on the metal ion present.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Manganês/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Zinco/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(48): 19607-18, 2012 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22924339

RESUMO

The clusterfullerene Sc(4)O(2)@C(80) with a mixed redox state of scandium was found to be an exciting molecule for endohedral electrochemistry as demonstrated by means of an in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroelectrochemical study of the spin density distribution in its electrochemically generated cation and anion radicals. The compound exhibits two reversible reduction and oxidation steps with a relatively small electrochemical gap of 1.10 V. The ESR spectra of the ion radicals have a rich hyperfine structure caused by two pairs of equivalent Sc atoms. The Sc-based hyperfine structure with large hyperfine coupling constants shows that both oxidation and reduction of Sc(4)O(2)@C(80) are in cavea redox processes, which is the subject of endohedral electrochemistry. The assignment of the experimentally determined a((45)Sc) values to the two types of Sc atoms in the Sc(4)O(2) cluster was accomplished by extended density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. Sc atoms adopting a divalent state in the neutral Sc(4)O(2)@C(80) exhibited an especially large coupling constant of 150.4 G in the cation radical, which is the record high a((45)Sc) value for Sc-based endohedral metallofullerenes. Such a high value is explained by the nature of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) localized on the six-atom Sc(4)O(2) cluster. This HOMO is a Sc-Sc bonding MO and hence has large contributions from the 4s atomic orbitals of Sc(II). We claim that ESR spectroelectrochemistry is an invaluable experimental tool in the studies of metal-metal bonding in endohedral metallofullerenes and in endohedral electrochemistry.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 48(65): 8031-50, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22774003

RESUMO

Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are able to encapsulate up to four metal atoms. In EMFs, metal atoms are positively charged because of the electron transfer from the endohedral metal atoms to the carbon cage. It results in the strong Coulomb repulsion between the positively charged ions trapped in the confined inner space of the fullerene. At the same time, in many EMFs, such as Lu(2)@C(76), Y(2)@C(79)N, M(2)@C(82) (M = Sc, Y, Lu, etc.), Y(3)@C(80), or Sc(4)O(2)@C(80), metals do not adopt their highest oxidation states, thus yielding a possibility of the covalent metal-metal bonding. In some other EMFs (e.g., La(2)@C(80)), metal-metal bonding evolves as the result of the electrochemical or chemical reduction, which leads to the population of the metal-based LUMO with pronounced metal-metal bonding character. This article highlights different aspects of the metal-metal bonding in EMFs. It is concluded that the valence state of the metal atoms in dimetallofullerenes is not dependent on their third ionization potential, but is determined by their ns(2)(n- 1)d(1)→ns(1)(n- 1)d(2) excitation energies. Peculiarities of the metal-metal bonding in EMFs are described in terms of molecular orbital analysis as well as topological approaches such as Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and Electron Localization Function. Interplay of Coulomb repulsion and covalent bonding is analyzed in the framework of the Interacting Quantum Atom approach.

14.
Chemistry ; 18(31): 9691-8, 2012 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22745152

RESUMO

The synthesis, isolation and spectroscopic characterization of holmium-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho(x) Sc(3-x) N@C(80) (x=1, 2) are reported. Two isomers of Ho(x) Sc(3-x) N@C(80) (x=1, 2) were synthesized by the reactive gas atmosphere method and isolated by multistep recycling HPLC. The isomeric structures of Ho(x) Sc(3-x) N@C(80) (x=1, 2) were characterized by laser-desorption time-of-flight (LD-TOF) mass spectrometry and UV/Vis/NIR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. A comparative study of M(x) Sc(3-x) N@C(80) (M=Gd, Dy, Lu, Ho) demonstrates the dependence of their electronic and vibrational properties on the encaged metal. Despite the distinct perturbation induced by 4f(10) electrons, we report the first paramagnetic (13) C NMR study on Ho(x) Sc(3-x) N@C(80) (I; x=1, 2) and confirm I(h) -symmetric cage structure. A (45) Sc NMR study on HoSc(2) N@C(80) (I, II) revealed a temperature-dependent chemical shift in the temperature range of 268-308 K.

15.
Chemphyschem ; 13(9): 2322-30, 2012 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22581681

RESUMO

Model structures of 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes with a substituted benzene core linked to thienyl or 3,4-ethylenedioxythienyl (EDOT) terminal groups are studied by electrochemical and in situ ESR/UV/Vis/NIR spectroelectrochemical techniques. Oxidative polymerization of the monomers results in C-C coupling of the thiophene moieties in the 5-position, forming dimeric structures with bithiophene linkers as the first step. Both the doubly charged protonated dimer and the new dimer formed after proton release are studied in detail for 2,4,6-tris[2-(3,4-ethylenedioxythienyl)]-1-methoxybenzene. Quite high stability of the doubly charged σ dimer formed on oxidation with unusual redox behavior at the electrode is observed. Density functional calculations of the molecular structure as well as spectroscopic and electronic properties of charged states in 1,3,5-triarylbenzene derivatives in the monomeric, dimeric, and oligomeric form are presented. The complex spectroelectrochemical response of a thin solid film formed on the electrode surface upon potentiodynamic polymerization indicates the existence of different charge states of oligomeric structures within the solid matrix.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Modelos Químicos , Carbono/química , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Polímeros/química , Tiofenos/química
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(24): 9840-3, 2012 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22582902

RESUMO

The magnetism of DySc(2)N@C(80) endofullerene was studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and a magnetometer with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) down to temperatures of 2 K and in fields up to 7 T. XMCD shows hysteresis of the 4f spin and orbital moment in Dy(III) ions. SQUID magnetometry indicates hysteresis below 6 K, while thermal and nonthermal relaxation is observed. Dilution of DySc(2)N@C(80) samples with C(60) increases the zero-field 4f electron relaxation time at 2 K to several hours.

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 116(14): 4377-85, 2012 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22409155

RESUMO

The electrochemical doping of emeraldine salt and emeraldine bases with different weight average molecular weights was studied by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroelectrochemistry using attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. The formation and stabilization of charge carriers in polyaniline during p-doping was followed in dependence of the chain branching. The potential dependence of the IR bands during the oxidation of the polymer clearly demonstrates the formation of the different charged polymer structures (π-dimers, polarons, and bipolarons). It is shown that IR bands usually attributed to a semiquinoid polaron lattice correspond in fact to doubly charged species, π-dimers, which are face-to-face complexes of two polarons. Bands corresponding exclusively to polarons have been identified at 1266, 1033, and 1010 cm(-1), suggesting that polarons are predominantly stabilized on the linear segments near the polymer branches by phenazine.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 51(5): 3039-45, 2012 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22324808

RESUMO

Titanium/yttrium mixed metal nitride clusterfullerene (MMNCF) TiY(2)N@C(80) has been successfully synthesized, representing the first Ti-containing non-scandium MMNCF. TiY(2)N@C(80) has been isolated by multistep HPLC and characterized by various spectroscopies in combination with DFT computations. The electronic absorption property of TiY(2)N@C(80) was characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, indicating the resemblance to that of TiSc(2)N@C(80) with broad shoulder absorptions. The optical band gap of TiY(2)N@C(80) (1.39 eV) is very close to that of TiSc(2)N@C(80) (1.43 eV) but much smaller than that of Y(3)N@C(80)(I(h), 1.58 eV). Such a resemblance of the overall absorption feature of TiY(2)N@C(80) to TiSc(2)N@C(80) suggests that TiY(2)N@C(80) has a similar electronic configuration to that of TiSc(2)N@C(80), that is, (TiY(2)N)(6+)@C(80)(6-). FTIR spectroscopic study and DFT calculations accomplish the assignment of the C(80):I(h) isomer to the cage structure of TiY(2)N@C(80), with the C(1) conformer being the lowest energy structure, which is different from the C(s) conformer assigned to TiSc(2)N@C(80). The electrochemical properties of TiY(2)N@C(80) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, revealing the reversible first oxidation and first reduction step with E(1/2) at 0.00 and -1.13 V, respectively, both of which are more negative than those of TiSc(2)N@C(80), while the electrochemical energy gap of TiY(2)N@C(80) (1.11 V) is almost the same as that of TiSc(2)N@C(80) (1.10 V). Contrary to the reversible first reduction step, the second and third reduction steps of TiY(2)N@C(80) are irreversible, and this redox behavior is dramatically different from that of TiSc(2)N@C(80), which shows three reversible reduction steps, indicating the strong influence of the encaged group-III metal (Y or Sc) on the electronic properties of TiM(2)N@C(80) (M = Y, Sc).

20.
ACS Nano ; 5(12): 9939-49, 2011 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22040265

RESUMO

Graphene|metal|ligand systems open a new realm in surface magnetochemistry. We show that by trapping metal atoms in the two-dimensional potential lattice of a graphene-ligand interface it is possible to build a chemical analogue of an optical lattice, a key setup in quantum information and strongly correlated systems. Employing sophisticated first-principles calculations, we studied electronic and dynamic properties of graphene|metal|ligand assemblies and showed that there is a general principle--spin-charge separation in π-d systems--that underlies the possibility of synthesizing and controlling such systems. We find that ligands can work as a local gate to control the properties of trapped metal atoms and can impose bosonic or fermionic character on such atomic nets, depending on the ligand's nature. Remarkably, the magnetization energy in such systems reaches record-high values of ca. 400 meV, which makes the respective magnetic phenomena utilizable at room temperature. Accompanied by spin polarization of the graphene π-conjugated system it leads to spin-valve materials and brings the realization of quantum computing one step closer.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Metais/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Simulação por Computador , Magnetismo , Marcadores de Spin
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