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2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

5.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 15(3): 185-191, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in US males. African American men have higher incidence and mortality rates than European Americans. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with PCa. We hypothesized haplotypes inferred from these SNPs are also associated with PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped SNPs in a case-control admixture mapping study. SNP haplotypes inferred for 157 PCa cases and 150 controls were used in the regression analysis. RESULTS: We found an association between "GTCCC", "ATTCT", and "ACCCC" haplotypes and PCa after ancestry adjustment (OR=3.62, 95%CI=1.42-9.21, p=0.0070; OR=7.89, 95%CI=2.36-26.31, p=0.0008; OR=4.34, 95%CI=1.75-10.78, p=0.0016). The rs615382 variant disrupts the recombination signal binding protein with immunoglobulin kappa J binding site in Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1). CONCLUSION: Disruption of notch 1 mediated-repression of RACGAP1 may contribute to PCa in African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
6.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(7): 5526-5536, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965318

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys cognitive skills and the ability to perform the simplest tasks. More than 5 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer's; a disorder which ranks third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. With no real cure and in spite of enormous efforts worldwide, the disease remains a mystery in terms of treatment. Importantly, African-Americans are two times as likely as Whites to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease and less likely to receive timely diagnosis and treatment. Dopamine function is linked to normal cognition and memory and carriers of the DRD2 Taq1A A1 allele have significant loss of D2 receptor density in the brain. Recent research has shown that A1 carriers have worse memory performance during long-term memory (LTM) updating, compared to non-carriers or A2-carriers. A1carriers also show less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the left caudate nucleus which is important for LTM updating. This latter effect was only seen in older adults, suggesting magnification of genetic effects on brain functioning in the elderly. Moreover, the frequency of the A1 allele is 0.40 in African-Americans, with an approximate prevalence of the DRD2 A1 allele in 50% of an African-American subset of individuals. This is higher than what is found in a non-screened American population (≤ 28%) for reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behaviors. Based on DRD2 known genetic polymorphisms, we hypothesize that the DRD2 Taq1A A1 allele magnifies the risk of Alzheimer's in aging African-Americans. Research linking this high risk for Alzheimer's in the African-American population, with DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism and neurocognitive deficits related to LTM, could pave the way for novel, targeted pro-dopamine homeostatic treatment.

7.
J Asthma ; 54(1): 1-8, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transferability of significantly associated loci or GWAS "hits" adds credibility to genotype-disease associations and provides evidence for generalizability across different ancestral populations. We sought evidence of association of known asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an African American population. METHODS: Subjects comprised 661 participants (261 asthma cases and 400 controls) from the Howard University Family Study. Forty-eight SNPs previously reported to be associated with asthma by GWAS were selected for testing. We adopted a combined strategy by first adopting an "exact" approach where we looked-up only the reported index SNP. For those index SNPs missing form our dataset, we used a "local" approach that examined all the regional SNPs in LD with the index SNP. RESULTS: Out of the 48 SNPs, our cohort had genotype data available for 27, which were examined for exact replication. Of these, two SNPs were found positively associated with asthma. These included: rs10508372 (OR = 1.567 [95%CI, 1.133-2.167], P = 0.0066) and rs2378383 (OR = 2.147 [95%CI, 1.149-4.013], P = 0.0166), located on chromosomal bands 10p14 and 9q21.31, respectively. Local replication of the remaining 21 loci showed association at two chromosomal loci (9p24.1-rs2381413 and 6p21.32-rs3132947; Bonferroni-corrected P values: 0.0033 and 0.0197, respectively). Of note, multiple SNPs in LD with rs2381413 located upstream of IL33 were significantly associated with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: This study has successfully transferred four reported asthma-associated loci in an independent African American population. Identification of several asthma-associated SNPs in the upstream of the IL33, a gene previously implicated in allergic inflammation of asthmatic airway, supports the generalizability of this finding.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
9.
Anticancer Res ; 35(7): 3811-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26124326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several studies reported that patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) experienced a 10% increased incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) after the first 5 years of diagnosis. We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal Type 1 (SPINK1) and the increased risk of BPH and PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped three SNPs in a cases-control study, including BPH and PCa cases. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to analyze clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between SNP rs10035432 and BPH under the log-additive (p=0.007) model. No association was found between these SNPs and PCa risk. However, we observed a possible association between rs1432982 and lower-grade PCa (p=0.05) under the recessive model. CONCLUSION: SPINK1 promoter variants are likely to be associated with the risk of BPH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Risco , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal
10.
Anticancer Res ; 35(5): 2565-70, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25964531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer (PCa) shows disproportionately higher incidence and disease-associated mortality in African Americans. The human crystallin beta B2 (CRYBB2) gene has been reported as one tumor signature gene differentially expressed between African American and European American cancer patients. We investigated the role of CRYBB2 genetic variants in PCa in African Americans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects comprised of 233 PCa cases and 294 controls. Nine haplotype-tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around the CRYBB2 gene were genotyped by pyrosequencing. Association analyses were performed for PCa with adjustment for age and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), under an additive genetic model. RESULTS: Out of the nine SNPs examined, rs9608380 was found to be nominally associated with PCa (odds ratio (OR)=2.619 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.156-5.935), p=0.021). rs9306412 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9608380 that showed an association p-value of 0.077. Using ENCODE data, we found rs9608380 mapped to a region annotated with regulatory motifs, such as DNase hypersensitive sites and histone modifications. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to analyze the association between genetic variations in the CRYBB2 gene with PCa. rs9608380, associated with PCa, is a potentially functional variant.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Cadeia B de beta-Cristalina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Anticancer Res ; 35(3): 1549-58, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25750310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several studies have revealed an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in European and Asian populations. To investigate whether VDR SNPs are associated with PCa risk in African-American (AA) men, nine VDR SNPs were analyzed in a case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs731236 and rs7975232 were significantly associated with PCa risk (p<0.05). In the analysis of clinical phenotypes, rs731236, rs1544410 and rs3782905 were strongly associated with high PSA level (p<0.05), whereas rs1544410 and rs2239185 showed a statistically significant association with high Gleason score (p<0.05). Haplotype analysis revealed several VDR haplotypes associated with PCa risk. Additionally, a trend existed, where as the number of risk alleles increased in the haplotype, the greater was the association with risk (p-trend=0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the VDR SNPs may be associated with PCa risk and other clinical phenotypes of PCa in AA men.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Risco
12.
Nat Sci (Irvine) ; 6(15): 1228-1231, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705560

RESUMO

The human genome is a complex, dynamic information system that encodes principles of life and living systems. These principles are incorporated in the structure of human genome sequence variation and are foundational for the continuity of life and human survival. Using first principles of thermodynamics and statistical physics, we have developed analogous "genodynamic tools" for population genomic studies. Characterizing genomic information through the lens of physics has allowed us to develop energy measures for modeling genome-environment interactions. In developing biophysical parameters for genome-environment homeostasis, we found that stable genomic free energy trades off low genomic energy (genomic conservation and increased order) and high genomic entropy (genomic variation) with an environmental potential that drives the variation. In our approach, we assert that common variants are dynamic sites in the genome of a population and that the stability of whole genome adaptation is reflected in the frequencies of maintained diversity in common variants for the population in its environment. In this paper, we address the relativity of whole genome adaptation towards homeostasis. By this we mean that adaptive forces are directly reflected in the frequency distribution of alleles and/or haplotypes of the population relative to its environment, with adaptive forces driving the genome towards homeostasis. The use of genomic energy units as a biophysical metric in DNA sequence variation analyses provides new insights into the foundations of population biology and diversity. Using our biophysical tools, population differences directly reflect the adaptive influences of the environment on populations.

13.
Adv Biosci Biotechnol ; 5(7): 623-626, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25635233

RESUMO

Nested in the environment of the nucleus of the cell, the 23 sets of chromosomes that comprise the human genome function as one integrated whole system, orchestrating the expression of thousands of genes underlying the biological characteristics of the cell, individual and the species. The extraction of meaningful information from this complex data set depends crucially upon the lens through which the data are examined. We present a biophysical perspective on genomic information encoded in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and introduce metrics for modeling information encoded in the genome. Information, like energy, is considered to be a conserved physical property of the universe. The information structured in SNPs describes the adaptation of a human population to a given environment. The maintained order measured by the information content is associated with entropies, energies, and other state variables for a dynamic system in homeostasis. "Genodynamics" characterizes the state variables for genomic populations that are stable under stochastic environmental stresses. The determination of allelic energies allows the parameterization of specific environmental influences upon individual alleles across populations. The environment drives population-based genome variation. From this vantage point, the genome is modeled as a complex, dynamic information system defined by patterns of SNP alleles and SNP haplotypes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25642351

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent an important type of dynamic sites within the human genome. These common variants often locally correlate within more complex multi-SNP haploblocks that are maintained throughout generations in a stable population. Information encoded in the structure of SNPs and SNP haploblock variation can be characterized through a normalized information content metric. Genodynamics is being developed as the analogous "thermodynamics" characterizing the state variables for genomic populations that are stable under stochastic environmental stresses. Since living systems have not been found to develop in the absence of environmental influences, this paper describes the analogous genomic free energy metrics in a given environment. SNP haploblocks were constructed by Haploview v4.2 for five chromosomes from phase III HapMap data, and the genomic state variables for each chromosome were calculated. An in silico analysis was performed on SNP haploblocks with the lowest genomic energy measures. Highly favorable genomic energy measures were found to correlate with highly conserved SNP haploblocks. Moreover, the most conserved haploblocks were associated with an evolutionarily conserved regulatory element and domain.

15.
Bol Asoc Med P R ; 105(1): 18-23, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23767380

RESUMO

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease where genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The onset of symptoms occurs in individuals from twenty to fifty years of age, producing a progressive impairment of motor, sensory and cognitive functions. MS is more frequent in females than in males with a ratio of 4:1. The prevalence of the MS varies among ethnics groups such as Europeans, Africans and Caucasians. The estimated prevalence of MS in Puerto Rico is 42 for each 100,000 habitants, which is more than the prevalence reported for Central America and the Caribbean. In spite of this prevalence, the genetic component of MS has not been explored in order to know the alleles' expression of Puerto Rican MS patients and compare it with the allele expression in other ethnic groups. Thirty-five patients and 31 control subjects were genotyped. The allele frequencies expressed in this sample were similar to those expressed for Puerto Ricans in the National Marrow Donor Program Registry (n = 3,149). The most prevalent alleles for MS patients were HLA-DRB1*01 and *03. HLA-DQB1*04 was the most frequent in the control group and HLA-A*30, in MS patients. These findings are in agreement with published data. HLA-DQB1*04 was a marginal protector in this sample and this role has not been described before. The accuracy of the results is limited due to the sample size. After performing a statistical power analysis it showed that by increasing the sample the values would be significant.


Assuntos
Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico
16.
Mol Biol Cell ; 23(21): 4154-6, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23112225

RESUMO

The complete sequencing of the human genome introduced a new knowledge base for decoding information structured in DNA sequence variation. My research is predicated on the supposition that the genome is the most sophisticated knowledge system known, as evidenced by the exquisite information it encodes on biochemical pathways and molecular processes underlying the biology of health and disease. Also, as a living legacy of human origins, migrations, adaptations, and identity, the genome communicates through the complexity of sequence variation expressed in population diversity. As a biomedical research scientist and academician, a question I am often asked is: "How is it that a black woman like you went to the University of Michigan for a PhD in Human Genetics?" As the ASCB 2012 E. E. Just Lecturer, I am honored and privileged to respond to this question in this essay on the science of the human genome and my career perspectives.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Genética Médica/história , Genoma Humano/genética , Ciência , Animais , Columbidae , História do Século XX , Projeto Genoma Humano , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Estados Unidos
17.
J Comput Biol Bioinform Res ; 4(2): 15-22, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24478921

RESUMO

The 21st century emergence of genomic medicine is shifting the paradigm in biomedical science from the population phenotype to the individual genotype. In characterizing the biology of disease and health disparities in population genetics, human populations are often defined by the most common alleles in the group. This definition poses difficulties when categorizing individuals in the population who do not have the most common allele(s). Various epidemiological studies have shown an association between common genomic variation, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and common diseases. We hypothesize that information encoded in the structure of SNP haploblock variation in the human leukocyte antigen-disease related (HLA-DR) region of the genome illumines molecular pathways and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of host adaptation to the environment. In this paper we describe the development and application of the normalized information content (NIC) as a novel metric based on SNP haploblock variation. The NIC facilitates translation of biochemical DNA sequence variation into a biophysical quantity derived from Boltzmann's canonical ensemble in statistical physics and used widely in information theory. Our normalization of this information metric allows for comparisons of unlike, or even unrelated, regions of the genome. We report here NIC values calculated for HLA-DR SNP haploblocks constructed by Haploview, a product of the International Haplotype Map Project. These haploblocks were scanned for potential regulatory elements using ConSite and miRBase, publicly available bioinformatics tools. We found that all of the haploblocks with statistically low NIC values contained putative transcription factor binding sites and microRNA motifs, suggesting correlation with genomic regulation. Thus, we were able to relate a mathematical measure of information content in HLA-DR SNP haploblocks to biologically relevant functional knowledge embedded in the structure of DNA sequence variation. We submit that NIC may be useful in analyzing the regulation of molecular pathways involved in host adaptation to environmental pathogens and in decoding the functional significance of common variation in the human genome.

18.
J Hypertens ; 29(10): 1906-12, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21881522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although an increasing number of hypertension-associated genetic variants is being reported, replication of these findings in independent studies has been challenging. Several genes in a human chromosome 1q linkage region have been reported to be associated with hypertension. We examined polymorphisms in three of these genes (ATP1B1, RGS5 and SELE) in relation to hypertension and blood pressure in a cohort of African-Americans. METHODS: We genotyped 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ATP1B1, RGS5 and SELE genes in a well characterized cohort of 968 African-Americans and performed a case-control study to identify susceptibility alleles for hypertension and blood pressure regulation. Single SNP and haplotype association testing was done under an additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI and ancestry-by-genotype (principal components). RESULTS: A total of 12 SNPs showed nominal association with hypertension and/or blood pressure. The strongest signal for hypertension was for rs2815272 in the RGS5 gene (P = 9.3 × 10). For SBP, rs3917420 in the SELE gene (P = 9.0 × 10) and rs4657251 in the RGS5 gene (P = 9.7 × 10) were the top hits. Effect size for each of these variants was approximately 2-3 mmHg. A five-SNP haplotype in the SELE gene also showed significant association with SBP after correction for multiple testing (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These findings provide additional support for the genetic role of ATP1B1, RGS5 and SELE in hypertension and blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Selectina E/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Proteínas RGS/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Nat Genet ; 43(9): 887-92, 2011 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21804549

RESUMO

Asthma is a common disease with a complex risk architecture including both genetic and environmental factors. We performed a meta-analysis of North American genome-wide association studies of asthma in 5,416 individuals with asthma (cases) including individuals of European American, African American or African Caribbean, and Latino ancestry, with replication in an additional 12,649 individuals from the same ethnic groups. We identified five susceptibility loci. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, near IL1RL1, TSLP and IL33, but we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ethnic groups. In addition, we identified a new asthma susceptibility locus at PYHIN1, with the association being specific to individuals of African descent (P = 3.9 × 10(-9)). These results suggest that some asthma susceptibility loci are robust to differences in ancestry when sufficiently large samples sizes are investigated, and that ancestry-specific associations also contribute to the complex genetic architecture of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/etnologia , Asma/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , América do Norte/etnologia , Risco
20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 34(6): 561-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20717976

RESUMO

Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Algoritmos , Barbados/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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